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Ap english essay prompt

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Tips for success on the AP Language Exam s synthesis essay prompt.

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Ap english essay prompt

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Peter Bardens Write My Name In The Dust (1971) Peter Bardens (19 June 1944 – 22 January 2002) was a keyboardist and essay prompt, a founding member of the British progressive rock group Camel. He played keyboards, and wrote songs with Andrew Latimer. College Essay Metaphors? During his career, Bardens worked alongside Rod Stewart, Mick Fleetwood and Van Morrison, and recorded solo albums. Being managed by John Schatt of The Filmpow Group. Bardens was born in Westminster, London to Dennis Bardens, a novelist and biographer, and grew up in Notting Hill. He studied fine art at Byam Shaw School of ap english essay prompt, Art, and learned the piano, before switching to the Hammond organ after listening to write a 6 page Jimmy Smith. In 1965, he spent a brief spell as the keyboard player with Them after leaving The Cheynes. He moved on and formed Peter B#8217;s Looners which eventually morphed into Shotgun Express, a band that played soul music and featured Rod Stewart, Peter Green and Mick Fleetwood.

Fleetwood later said Barden#8217;s recruitment into the band kick-started his musical career. In 1970, he formed The Village and recorded The Answer, an album featuring Peter Green and Andy Gee. Bardens recorded an eponymous album in 1971 which was released in the United States as Write My Name in ap english, the Dust before forming Camel in 1972 #8230; (by wikipedia) Write My Name in the Dust was the American release of Pete Bardens#8217; second album, which was simply titled Peter Bardens in the U.K., though the contents were identical. It was a curious low-key, slightly downbeat affair whose unspectacular mixture of hard rock, blues, some female soul-gospel backup vocal arrangements, and more meditative jazz-classical-influenced progressive music was very much of its time. Bardens#8217; first album (1970#8217;s The Answer) had suffered from drawn-out song construction, a trait that remained present to essay a large degree here, though without guitarist Peter Green on hand to help lift the proceedings. There was a lethargic hangover feel to tracks like #8220;Feeling High,#8221; and prompt, attempts at a 6 page, pure blues and ap english prompt, lighthearted music hall on briefer tracks were inconsequential distractions. University Essay? The more serious and stately passages demonstrated Bardens#8217; formidable genre-blending skills as a keyboardist, particularly on organ. But the material wasn#8217;t up to the standard of his playing, though the prompt lighter, more focused moodiness of essay, #8220;Sweet Honey Wine#8221; resulted in the record#8217;s best track. Prompt? (by Richie Unterberger) And the titeltrack is one of the best songs, Peter Bardens ever wrote ! UK front+back cover.

Peter Bardens (keyboards, vocals) Victor Brox (violin, cornet, jew?s harp, vocals) Reg Isadore (drums, percussion) Vic Linton (guitar) Andy Gee (guitar on 08. + 09.) (2) (tracks: B4, B5) Anita Pollinger Judy Powell Linda Lewis Liza Strike Maxine Iffla. 01. How To A 6? North End Road (Bardens) 1.25. 02. Write My Name In The Dust (Bardens) 6:34. 03. Down So Long (Bardens/Isadore/Linton/Owen) 7.00. 04. Sweet Honey Wine (Bardens) 4.26.

05. Tear Down The Wall (Bardens) 7.21. Ap English Essay Prompt? 06. Simple Song (Bardens) 2.20. Ford Dissertation? 07. My House (Bardens) 6.17. 08. Feeling High (Bardens) 5.08. Ap English Essay? 09. Blueser (Bardens) 2.15. Pete Bardens Seen One Earth (1987)

There are two incredible things about Peter Bardens#8217; career: (1) how very diverse his output is and (2) how bad (at least comparatively so) almost everything he did outside Camel was! His first two, pre-Camel solo albums were plodding Blues rockers very much of their time and with little or no indication of what was to be in play essay, Camel. Then Bardens co-founded Camel which is one of my all time favourite bands and he personally contributed enormously to the early output of ap english essay, this fantastic Symphonic Prog band, writing or co-writing some of their most well-known songs. What happened can be read in the Camel biographies, but the short version is that there was a tension between Bardens and guitarist Andy Latimer which led to Bardens leaving the band around the time of the good Breathless album (while Latimer has carried on the flame till the ap english essay prompt present day, though with some gaps). Bardens#8217; first post-Camel solo release was the college awful Heart To Heart. For that album he radically changed his style once again and created something that was very different from both Camel and his pre-Camel solo material.

There were Funk Rock and lounge Jazz tendencies on that one, but basically it was a Pop album. The most shocking aspect of essay prompt, it was not the research paper related to psychology change of style but the ap english essay prompt low quality of the song writing. How To Write Page Research Paper? How was it possible for the man who wrote such extraordinarily great songs for Camel to produce such weak tunes on his own? Some eight years later, Bardens released Seen One Earth for which he once again radically changed his musical style. The closest comparison I can think of here is Vangelis! This is electronic/New-Age-type music. While not in any way remarkable, I actually think this is the best album Bardens ever did outside Camel. Ap English Prompt? Three stars is a generous rating for this, but it does stand out play and pedagogy, from the ap english rest of Bardens overall weak solo discography. Application Service To Start? The opening song is a weak almost lounge Jazz tune that gave me a bad first impression. However, with the ap english essay prompt second and to psychology, especially with the third track, faith was restored.

There are some nice electronic keyboard noodling and ap english, towards the end of Man Alive some rhythmic piano that reminds of Vangelis#8217; work. The title track, which is the university essay writing highlight of this album for me, has a similar spacy feeling as the famous Camel song Lunar Sea. Indeed, the structure of the song is somewhat similar even if this is prompt a very different kind of write page paper, music overall. Ap English Prompt? I#8217;m sure this will appeal to to start at least some Prog fans, especially those with a special taste for Progressive Electronic. Almost everything here is electronic and prompt, instrumental, but there are some occasional non-electronic instruments on ford dissertation, some of the tracks.

Home Thoughts is a mellow piano instrumental with some sparse guitar lines and In Dreams features some lead vocals. (by SouthSideoftheSky) Overall, a quite pleasant electronic affair that stands out among a large number of weak solo releases by the former Camel man.

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paramiko sftp resume duplicity [full|incremental] [options] source_directory target_url. duplicity verify [options] [--compare-data] [--file-to-restore relpath] [--time time] source_url. duplicity collection-status [options] [--file-changed relpath] duplicity list-current-files [options] [--time time] target_url. duplicity [restore] [options] [--file-to-restore relpath] [--time time] source_url. duplicity remove-older-than time [options] [--force] target_url. duplicity remove-all-but-n-full count [options] [--force] target_url. duplicity remove-all-inc-of-but-n-full count [options] [--force] target_url. duplicity cleanup [options] [--force] [--extra-clean] target_url. If you are backing up the root directory /, remember to --exclude /proc, or else duplicity will probably crash on the weird stuff in there. duplicity /home/me sftp://uid@other.host/some_dir. If the above is run repeatedly, the first will be a full backup, and subsequent ones will be incremental.

To force a full backup, use the full action: duplicity full /home/me sftp://uid@other.host/some_dir. or enforcing a full every other time via --full-if-older-than time , e.g. Ap English Prompt. a full every month: duplicity --full-if-older-than 1M /home/me sftp://uid@other.host/some_dir. Now suppose we accidentally delete /home/me and want to restore it the way it was at the time of last backup: duplicity sftp://uid@other.host/some_dir /home/me. Duplicity enters restore mode because the URL comes before the local directory. If we wanted to play restore just the file Mail/article in /home/me as it was three days ago into /home/me/restored_file: duplicity -t 3D --file-to-restore Mail/article sftp://uid@other.host/some_dir /home/me/restored_file.

The following command compares the latest backup with the current files: duplicity verify sftp://uid@other.host/some_dir /home/me. Finally, duplicity recognizes several include/exclude options. For instance, the following will backup the root directory, but exclude /mnt, /tmp, and /proc: duplicity --exclude /mnt --exclude /tmp --exclude /proc / file:///usr/local/backup. Note that in this case the destination is the local directory /usr/local/backup. The following will backup only the /home and ap english essay prompt, /etc directories under root: duplicity --include /home --include /etc --exclude ’**’ / file:///usr/local/backup. Duplicity can also access a repository via ftp.

If a user name is given, the environment variable FTP_PASSWORD is ford dissertation, read to determine the ap english prompt password: FTP_PASSWORD=mypassword duplicity /local/dir ftp://user@other.host/some_dir. The actions for backup (full,incr) and restoration (restore) can as well be left out as duplicity detects in what mode it should switch to research topics to psychology by the order of ap english essay, target URL and local folder. If the target URL comes before the local folder a restore is in write a 6 page, order, is the local folder before target URL then this folder is about to be backed up to the target URL. If a backup is in order and old signatures can be found duplicity automatically performs an prompt, incremental backup. Note: The following explanations explain some but not all options that can be used in connection with that action command. Consult the OPTIONS section for research paper topics to psychology, more detailed informations. full folder url Perform a full backup. A new backup chain is started even if signatures are available for an incremental backup.

incr folder url If this is requested an incremental backup will be performed. Duplicity will abort if no old signatures can be found. verify [--compare-data] [--time time] [--file-to-restore rel_path] url local_path Restore backup contents temporarily file by file and compare against the local path’s contents. duplicity will exit with a non-zero error level if any files are different. On verbosity level info (4) or higher, a message for each file that has changed will be logged. The --file-to-restore option restricts verify to that file or folder. The --time option allows to select a backup to ap english essay prompt verify against. The --compare-data option enables data comparison (see below). collection-status [--file-changed relpath] url Summarize the status of the paper related to psychology backup repository by printing the chains and sets found, and the number of essay, volumes in each. list-current-files [--time time] url Lists the writing files contained in the most current backup or backup at time. The information will be extracted from the signature files, not the archive data itself.

Thus the essay whole archive does not have to be downloaded, but on the other hand if the archive has been deleted or corrupted, this command will not detect it. restore [--file-to-restore relpath] [--time time] url target_folder You can restore the full monty or selected folders/files from a specific time. Use the relative path as it is printed by list-current-files . Dissertation. Usually not needed as duplicity enters restore mode when it detects that the URL comes before the essay prompt local folder. remove-older-than time [--force] url Delete all backup sets older than the play essay given time. Old backup sets will not be deleted if backup sets newer than time depend on them. See the TIME FORMATS section for more information. Note, this action cannot be combined with backup or other actions, such as cleanup.

Note also that --force will be needed to delete the files instead of just listing them. remove-all-but-n-full count [--force] url Delete all backups sets that are older than the count:th last full backup (in other words, keep the prompt last count full backups and associated incremental sets). count must be larger than zero. A value of 1 means that only the single most recent backup chain will be kept. Note that --force will be needed to delete the files instead of just listing them. remove-all-inc-of-but-n-full count [--force] url Delete incremental sets of all backups sets that are older than the count:th last full backup (in other words, keep only old full backups and not their increments). count must be larger than zero. A value of good college, 1 means that only the single most recent backup chain will be kept intact. Note that --force will be needed to delete the files instead of just listing them.

cleanup [--force] [--extra-clean] url Delete the extraneous duplicity files on prompt, the given backend. Non-duplicity files, or files in complete data sets will not be deleted. This should only be necessary after a duplicity session fails or is aborted prematurely. Good Essay. Note that --force will be needed to delete the files instead of just listing them. --allow-source-mismatch Do not abort on attempts to use the same archive dir or remote backend to back up different directories. duplicity will tell you if you need this switch. --archive-dir path The archive directory.

NOTE: This option changed in 0.6.0. The archive directory is now necessary in order to essay manage persistence for current and future enhancements. As such, this option is now used only to change the how to write a 6 page paper location of the archive directory. Prompt. The archive directory should not be deleted, or duplicity will have to paper recreate it from the remote repository (which may require decrypting the backup contents). When backing up or restoring, this option specifies that the local archive directory is to be created in path . If the archive directory is not specified, the ap english default will be to create the archive directory in. The archive directory can be shared between backups to multiple targets, because a subdirectory of the archive dir is used for individual backups (see --name ). The combination of archive directory and backup name must be unique in dissertation, order to separate the data of different backups.

The interaction between the --archive-dir and ap english essay prompt, the --name options allows for four possible combinations for the location of the writing uk archive dir: 1. neither specified (default) hash-of-url 2. Essay. --archive-dir=/arch, no --name /arch/ hash-of-url 3. Application Essay Service To Start. no --archive-dir, --name=foo. 4. --archive-dir=/arch, --name=foo /arch/foo. --asynchronous-upload (EXPERIMENTAL) Perform file uploads asynchronously in the background, with respect to volume creation. This means that duplicity can upload a volume while, at the same time, preparing the next volume for upload. Ap English Essay Prompt. The intended end-result is a faster backup, because the research local CPU and your bandwidth can be more consistently utilized. Use of this option implies additional need for disk space in ap english, the temporary storage location; rather than needing to store only one volume at a time, enough storage space is required to research topics related store two volumes.

--backend-retry-delay number Specifies the ap english essay prompt number of seconds that duplicity waits after an research related to psychology, error has occured before attempting to repeat the operation. --cf-backend backend Allows the explicit selection of a cloudfiles backend. Defaults to essay prompt pyrax . Good Essay. Alternatively you might choose cloudfiles . --compare-data Enable data comparison of regular files on action verify. This is disabled by default for performance reasons. --copy-links Resolve symlinks during backup. Enabling this will resolve back up the symlink’s file/folder data instead of the prompt symlink itself, potentially increasing the size of the research topics backup. --dry-run Calculate what would be done, but do not.

perform any backend actions. --encrypt-key key-id When backing up, encrypt to the given public key, instead of essay, using symmetric (traditional) encryption. Can be specified multiple times. The key-id can be given in research to psychology, any of the formats supported by GnuPG; see gpg (1) , section HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID for details. --encrypt-secret-keyring filename This option can only prompt be used with --encrypt-key , and changes the path to the secret keyring for college service, the encrypt key to filename This keyring is not used when creating a backup. Ap English Essay Prompt. If not specified, the default secret keyring is used which is usually located. --encrypt-sign-key key-id Convenience parameter. Same as --encrypt-key key-id --sign-key key-id . --exclude shell_pattern Exclude the file or files matched by shell_pattern . If a directory is matched, then files under that directory will also be matched. See the essay FILE SELECTION section for more information.

--exclude-device-files Exclude all device files. This can be useful for security/permissions reasons or if rdiff-backup is not handling device files correctly. --exclude-filelist filename Excludes the files listed in ap english essay, filename, with each line of the filelist interpreted according to the same rules as --include and --exclude. See the FILE SELECTION section for more information. --exclude-if-present filename Exclude directories if filename is present. Allows the user to specify folders that they do not wish to backup by adding a specified file (e.g. .nobackup) instead of maintaining a comprehensive exclude/include list. This option needs to come before any other include or exclude options. --exclude-older-than time Exclude any files whose modification date is earlier than the specified time . This can be used to produce a partial backup that contains only recently changed files. See the TIME FORMATS section for more information.

--exclude-other-filesystems Exclude files on file systems (identified by device number) other than the good college essay metaphors file system the root of the ap english essay prompt source directory is on. --exclude-regexp regexp Exclude files matching the and pedagogy essay given regexp. Ap English Prompt. Unlike the university writing --exclude option, this option does not match files in ap english, a directory it matches. See the FILE SELECTION section for more information. --extra-clean When cleaning up, be more aggressive about saving space. For example, this may delete signature files for old backup chains. Caution: Without signature files those old backup chains are unrestorable.

Do not use --extra-clean unless you know what you’re doing. See the university essay cleanup argument for more information. --file-changed path This option may be given in essay prompt, collection-status mode, causing only university essay writing uk path status to be collect instead of the entire contents of the backup archive. path should be given relative to the root of the directory backed up. --file-prefix, --file-prefix-manifest, --file-prefix-archive, --file-prefix-signature Adds a prefix to all files, manifest files, archive files, and/or signature files. The same set of prompt, prefixes must be passed in on essay metaphors, backup and restore. If both global and essay, type-specific prefixes are set, global prefix will go before type-specific prefixes.

also A NOTE ON FILENAME PREFIXES. --file-to-restore path This option may be given in restore mode, causing only path to be restored instead of the research related to psychology entire contents of the backup archive. path should be given relative to the root of the directory backed up. --full-if-older-than time Perform a full backup if an incremental backup is requested, but the latest full backup in the collection is ap english essay, older than the given time . See the TIME FORMATS section for more information. --force Proceed even if data loss might result. Duplicity will let the user know when this option is required. --ftp-passive Use passive (PASV) data connections. The default is to use passive, but to fallback to regular if the passive connection fails or times out. --ftp-regular Use regular (PORT) data connections. --gio Use the GIO backend and interpret any URLs as GIO would. --hidden-encrypt-key key-id Same as --encrypt-key , but it hides user’s key id from how to a 6 page encrypted file.

It uses the gpg’s --hidden-recipient command to obfuscate the owner of the backup. On restore, gpg will automatically try all available secret keys in order to decrypt the backup. See gpg(1) for more details. --ignore-errors Try to ignore certain errors if they happen. This option is ap english prompt, only intended to allow the play and pedagogy restoration of a backup in the face of ap english essay prompt, certain problems that would otherwise cause the backup to fail. It is college essay metaphors, not ever recommended to essay use this option unless you have a situation where you are trying to research related to psychology restore from backup and it is failing because of an issue which you want duplicity to ignore. Even then, depending on the issue, this option may not have an effect. Please note that while ignored errors will be logged, there will be no summary at essay, the end of the operation to tell you what was ignored, if anything. If this is used for emergency restoration of data, it is recommended that you run the backup in such a way that you can revisit the college essay service backup log (look for lines containing the string IGNORED_ERROR).

If you ever have to use this option for reasons that are not understood or understood but not your own responsibility, please contact duplicity maintainers. The need to essay use this option under production circumstances would normally be considered a bug. --imap-full-address email_address The full email address of the user name when logging into an imap server. If not supplied just the write research user name part of the prompt email address is used. --imap-mailbox option Allows you to specify a different mailbox. The default is INBOX.

Other languages may require a different mailbox than the paper default. --gpg-binary file_path Allows you to ap english essay force duplicity to use file_path as gpg command line binary. Essay. Can be an absolute or relative file path or a file name. Default value is ’gpg’. The binary will be localized via the ap english prompt PATH environment variable. --gpg-options options Allows you to pass options to essay writing uk gpg encryption. The options list should be of the ap english essay prompt form --opt1 --opt2=parm where the string is quoted and the only spaces allowed are between options. --include shell_pattern Similar to --exclude but include matched files instead. Unlike --exclude , this option will also match parent directories of matched files (although not necessarily their contents).

See the FILE SELECTION section for more information. --include-filelist filename Like --exclude-filelist , but include the listed files instead. See the write a 6 page research FILE SELECTION section for more information. --include-regexp regexp Include files matching the regular expression regexp . Only files explicitly matched by regexp will be included by this option. See the essay FILE SELECTION section for college essay, more information. --log-fd number Write specially-formatted versions of output messages to the specified file descriptor. The format used is designed to be easily consumable by other programs. --log-file filename Write specially-formatted versions of output messages to the specified file. Essay Prompt. The format used is designed to be easily consumable by research paper, other programs. --max-blocksize number determines the number of the blocks examined for changes during the diff process. For files 1MB the blocksize is a constant of 512.

For files over 1MB the size is given by: file_blocksize = int((file_len / (2000 * 512)) * 512) return min(file_blocksize, globals.max_blocksize) where globals.max_blocksize defaults to 2048. If you specify a larger max_blocksize, your difftar files will be larger, but your sigtar files will be smaller. If you specify a smaller max_blocksize, the reverse occurs. Essay. The --max-blocksize option should be in multiples of 512. --name symbolicname Set the symbolic name of the how to write a 6 page research backup being operated on.

The intent is to use a separate name for each logically distinct backup. For example, someone may use home_daily_s3 for ap english essay prompt, the daily backup of a home directory to university writing uk Amazon S3. The structure of the name is up to the user, it is only important that the names be distinct. Prompt. The symbolic name is currently only essay writing used to affect the expansion of --archive-dir , but may be used for additional features in the future. Users running more than one distinct backup are encouraged to use this option. If not specified, the default value is a hash of the backend URL. --no-compression Do not use GZip to compress files on remote system. --no-encryption Do not use GnuPG to encrypt files on essay prompt, remote system. --no-print-statistics By default duplicity will print statistics about the college application current session after a successful backup. This switch disables that behavior.

--null-separator Use nulls (0) instead of newlines (n) as line separators, which may help when dealing with filenames containing newlines. This affects the expected format of the ap english essay files specified by the -- -filelist switches as well as the format of the college essay service to start directory statistics file. --numeric-owner On restore always use the numeric uid/gid from the archive and not the archived user/group names, which is the default behaviour. Essay Prompt. Recommended for restoring from live cds which might have the college users with identical names but different uids/gids. --num-retries number Number of retries to make on errors before giving up. --old-filenames Use the old filename format (incompatible with Windows/Samba) rather than the new filename format. --par2-options options Verbatim options to pass to ap english essay par2.

--par2-redundancy percent Adjust the and pedagogy level of redundancy in essay prompt, percent for Par2 recovery files (default 10%). --progress When selected, duplicity will output the current upload progress and estimated upload time. To annotate changes, it will perform a first dry-run before a full or incremental, and research related to psychology, then runs the real operation estimating the real upload progress. --progress-rate number Sets the update rate at which duplicity will output the upload progress messages (requires --progress option). Ap English Prompt. Default is to good college essay metaphors prompt the ap english essay prompt status each 3 seconds. --rename original path new path Treats the path orig in the backup as if it were the dissertation path new. Essay. Can be passed multiple times. An example: restore --rename Documents/metal Music/metal sftp://uid@other.host/some_dir. --rsync-options options Allows you to pass options to the rsync backend.

The options list should be of the college essay metaphors form opt1=parm1 opt2=parm2 where the option string is quoted and the only spaces allowed are between options. The option string will be passed verbatim to rsync, after any internally generated option designating the ap english essay prompt remote port to use. Here is and pedagogy, a possibly useful example: duplicity --rsync-options=--partial-dir=.rsync-partial /home/me. --s3-european-buckets When using the ap english Amazon S3 backend, create buckets in Europe instead of the default (requires --s3-use-new-style ). Essay Writing. Also see the EUROPEAN S3 BUCKETS section. --s3-unencrypted-connection Don’t use SSL for connections to S3. This may be much faster, at some cost to confidentiality. With this option, anyone who can observe traffic between your computer and ap english essay, S3 will be able to college essay tell: that you are using Duplicity, the name of the bucket, your AWS Access Key ID, the ap english essay increment dates and the amount of essay, data in each increment.

This option affects only the connection, not the GPG encryption of the ap english essay prompt backup increment files. Unless that is essay metaphors, disabled, an observer will not be able to see the file names or contents. --s3-use-new-style When operating on Amazon S3 buckets, use new-style subdomain bucket addressing. This is now the preferred method to access Amazon S3, but is not backwards compatible if your bucket name contains upper-case characters or other characters that are not valid in a hostname. --s3-use-rrs Store volumes using Reduced Redundancy Storage when uploading to Amazon S3. This will lower the cost of storage but also lower the durability of stored volumes to 99.99% instead the 99.999999999% durability offered by prompt, Standard Storage on S3. --s3-use-ia Store volumes using Standard - Infrequent Access when uploading to Amazon S3. How To A 6. This storage class has a lower storage cost but a higher per-request cost, and the storage cost is calculated against a 30-day storage minimum.

According to Amazon, this storage is ap english essay, ideal for long-term file storage, backups, and disaster recovery. --s3-use-multiprocessing Allow multipart volumne uploads to S3 through multiprocessing. This option requires Python 2.6 and can be used to make uploads to research related to psychology S3 more efficient. If enabled, files duplicity uploads to S3 will be split into ap english, chunks and university essay writing, uploaded in parallel. Useful if you want to prompt saturate your bandwidth or if large files are failing during upload. --s3-use-server-side-encryption Allow use of server side encryption in to start, S3. --s3-multipart-chunk-size Chunk size (in MB) used for S3 multipart uploads.

Make this smaller than --volsize to essay prompt maximize the use of your bandwidth. For example, a chunk size of 10MB with a volsize of play, 30MB will result in 3 chunks per volume upload. --s3-multipart-max-procs Specify the maximum number of processes to spawn when performing a multipart upload to S3. By default, this will choose the number of processors detected on your system (e.g. 4 for essay, a 4-core system). How To Write Paper. You can adjust this number as required to ensure you don’t overload your system while maximizing the use of essay prompt, your bandwidth.

--s3-multipart-max-timeout You can control the maximum time (in seconds) a multipart upload can spend on uploading a single chunk to college essay S3. This may be useful if you find your system hanging on multipart uploads or if you’d like to control the time variance when uploading to S3 to ensure you kill connections to slow S3 endpoints. --scp-command command (only ssh pexpect backend with --use-scp enabled) The command will be used instead of scp to ap english send or receive files. To list and delete existing files, the sftp command is used. See also A NOTE ON SSH BACKENDS section SSH pexpect backend . --sftp-command command (only ssh pexpect backend) The command will be used instead of sftp. See also A NOTE ON SSH BACKENDS section SSH pexpect backend . --short-filenames If this option is specified, the names of the files duplicity writes will be shorter (about 30 chars) but less understandable. This may be useful when backing up to MacOS or another OS or FS that doesn’t support long filenames. --sign-key key-id This option can be used when backing up, restoring or verifying. When backing up, all backup files will be signed with keyid key . When restoring, duplicity will signal an error if any remote file is paper, not signed with the essay prompt given key-id.

The key-id can be given in any of the formats supported by GnuPG; see gpg (1) , section HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID for details. Should be specified only once because currently only one signing key is supported. Last entry overrides all other entries. See also A NOTE ON SYMMETRIC ENCRYPTION AND SIGNING. --ssh-askpass Tells the ssh backend to prompt the user for the remote system password, if it was not defined in university writing, target url and no FTP_PASSWORD env var is set. This password is also used for passphrase-protected ssh keys.

--ssh-options options Allows you to pass options to the ssh backend. Essay Prompt. Can be specified multiple times or as a space separated options list. The options list should be of the form -oOpt1=’parm1’ -oOpt2=’parm2’ where the option string is quoted and the only spaces allowed are between options. Play And Pedagogy. The option string will be passed verbatim to both scp and sftp, whose command line syntax differs slightly hence the options should therefore be given in the long option format described in ssh_config(5) . example of ap english essay prompt, a list: duplicity --ssh-options=-oProtocol=2 -oIdentityFile=’/my/backup/id’ /home/me scp://user@host/some_dir. example with multiple parameters: duplicity --ssh-options=-oProtocol=2 --ssh-options=-oIdentityFile=’/my/backup/id’ NOTE: The ssh paramiko backend currently supports only the -i or -oIdentityFile setting. If needed provide more host specific options via ssh_config file. --ssl-cacert-file file (only webdav lftp backend) Provide a cacert file for ssl certificate verification. See also A NOTE ON SSL CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION . --ssl-cacert-path path/to/certs/ (only webdav backend and python 2.7.9+ OR lftp+webdavs and a recent lftp) Provide a path to a folder containing cacert files for ssl certificate verification.

See also A NOTE ON SSL CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION . --ssl-no-check-certificate (only webdav lftp backend) Disable ssl certificate verification. See also A NOTE ON SSL CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION . --tempdir directory Use this existing directory for play and pedagogy essay, duplicity temporary files instead of the system default, which is usually the /tmp directory. Ap English. This option supersedes any environment variable. See also ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES . -t time , --time time , --restore-time time Specify the time from and pedagogy which to restore or list files. --time-separator char Use char as the essay prompt time separator in filenames instead of college metaphors, colon (:). --timeout seconds Use seconds as the ap english essay socket timeout value if duplicity begins to timeout during network operations. The default is 30 seconds. --use-agent If this option is specified, then --use-agent is dissertation, passed to essay prompt the GnuPG encryption process and dissertation, it will try to connect to essay prompt gpg-agent before it asks for a passphrase for --encrypt-key or --sign-key if needed. Note: Contrary to dissertation previous versions of duplicity, this option will also be honored by GnuPG 2 and newer versions.

If GnuPG 2 is in use, duplicity passes the option --pinentry-mode=loopback to the the gpg process unless --use-agent is specified on ap english prompt, the duplicity command line. This has the effect that GnuPG 2 uses the agent only if --use-agent is given, just like GnuPG 1. --verbosity level , -v level Specify output verbosity level (log level). Named levels and ford, corresponding values are 0 Error, 2 Warning, 4 Notice (default), 8 Info, 9 Debug (noisiest). level may also be. a character: e, w, n, i, d. a word: error, warning, notice, info, debug. The options -v4, -vn and -vnotice are functionally equivalent, as are the mixed/upper-case versions -vN, -vNotice and -vNOTICE. --version Print duplicity’s version and ap english prompt, quit.

--volsize number Change the volume size to application number MB. Default is 200MB. TMPDIR, TEMP, TMP In decreasing order of ap english essay, importance, specifies the directory to use for temporary files (inherited from Python’s tempfile module). Eventually the option --tempdir supercedes any of these. FTP_PASSWORD Supported by most backends which are password capable. More secure than setting it in play and pedagogy, the backend url (which might be readable in ap english essay, the operating systems process listing to other users on the same machine). PASSPHRASE This passphrase is passed to GnuPG. Essay. If this is ap english essay, not set, the user will be prompted for the passphrase. SIGN_PASSPHRASE The passphrase to university essay writing be used for --sign-key . Essay Prompt. If ommitted and sign key is also one of the keys to page research paper encrypt against PASSPHRASE will be reused instead. Otherwise, if passphrase is needed but not set the user will be prompted for it. It is not recommended to expose the essay password on the command line since it could be revealed to anyone with permissions to do process listings, it is permitted however.

Consider setting the environment variable FTP_PASSWORD instead, which is used by most, if not all backends, regardless of it’s name. In protocols that support it, the path may be preceded by a single slash, ’/path’, to represent a relative path to the target home directory, or preceded by a double slash, ’//path’, to dissertation represent an absolute filesystem path. Note: Scheme (protocol) access may be provided by ap english essay prompt, more than one backend. In case the default backend is buggy or simply not working in a specific case it might be worth trying an alternative implementation. Dissertation. Alternative backends can be selected by prefixing the ap english essay prompt scheme with the name of the alternative backend e.g. ncftp+ftp:// and good college essay metaphors, are mentioned below the scheme’s syntax summary. Formats of prompt, each of the URL schemes follow: See also A NOTE ON AZURE ACCESS. Cloud Files (Rackspace) See also A NOTE ON CLOUD FILES ACCESS. Copy cloud storage.

Make sure to read A NOTE ON DROPBOX ACCESS first! FISH (Files transferred over Shell protocol) over ssh. NOTE: use lftp+, ncftp+ prefixes to enforce a specific backend, default is lftp+ftp://. NOTE: use pydrive+, gdata+ prefixes to enforce a specific backend, default is pydrive+gdocs://. Google Cloud Storage. See also A NOTE ON HUBIC. IMAP email storage.

See also A NOTE ON IMAP. Mega cloud storage. Par2 Wrapper Backend. See also A NOTE ON PAR2 WRAPPER BACKEND. Rsync via daemon. Rsync over ssh (only key auth) S3 storage (Amazon) See also A NOTE ON EUROPEAN S3 BUCKETS. defaults are paramiko+scp:// and application essay, paramiko+sftp:// alternatively try pexpect+scp://, pexpect+sftp://, lftp+sftp:// See also --ssh-askpass , --ssh-options and A NOTE ON SSH BACKENDS . See also A NOTE ON SWIFT (OPENSTACK OBJECT STORAGE) ACCESS.

alternatively try lftp+webdav[s]:// pydrive://service account’ email address@developer.gserviceaccount.com/some_dir. See also A NOTE ON PYDRIVE BACKEND below. See also A NOTE ON MULTI BACKEND below. See also A NOTE ON MEDIAFIRE BACKEND below. Secondly, the -t , --time , and --restore-time options take a time string, which can be given in any of several formats: 1. the string now (refers to the current time) 2. a sequences of digits, like 123456890 (indicating the ap english time in seconds after the epoch) 3. A string like 2002-01-25T07:00:00+02:00 in datetime format 4. An interval, which is a number followed by one of the characters s, m, h, D, W, M, or Y (indicating seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years respectively), or a series of such pairs.

In this case the string refers to the time that preceded the current time by the length of the essay uk interval. Prompt. For instance, 1h78m indicates the time that was one hour and research paper topics related, 78 minutes ago. Essay Prompt. The calendar here is unsophisticated: a month is always 30 days, a year is always 365 days, and a day is always 86400 seconds. 5. A date format of the research form YYYY/MM/DD, YYYY-MM-DD, MM/DD/YYYY, or MM-DD-YYYY, which indicates midnight on essay prompt, the day in question, relative to the current time zone settings. For instance, 2002/3/5, 03-05-2002, and 2002-3-05 all mean March 5th, 2002. --include-regexp Each file selection condition either matches or doesn’t match a given file. A given file is excluded by write a 6 page research, the file selection system exactly when the first matching file selection condition specifies that the ap english file be excluded; otherwise the file is included. duplicity --include /usr --exclude /usr /usr scp://user@host/backup. is exactly the same as. duplicity /usr scp://user@host/backup.

because the include and exclude directives match exactly the same files, and play essay, the --include comes first, giving it precedence. Prompt. Similarly, duplicity --include /usr/local/bin --exclude /usr/local /usr scp://user@host/backup. would backup the /usr/local/bin directory (and its contents), but not /usr/local/doc. The include , exclude , include-filelist , and university, exclude-filelist options accept some extended shell globbing patterns . These patterns can contain * , ** , ? , and ap english prompt, [. Ford Dissertation. ] (character ranges). As in a normal shell, * can be expanded to any string of essay prompt, characters not containing /, ? expands to any character except /, and [. Dissertation. ] expands to a single character of those characters specified (ranges are acceptable). The new special pattern, ** , expands to any string of characters whether or not it contains /. Furthermore, if the pattern starts with ignorecase: (case insensitive), then this prefix will be removed and any character in the string can be replaced with an ap english, upper- or lowercase version of itself. Remember that you may need to quote these characters when typing them into and pedagogy essay, a shell, so the ap english essay prompt shell does not interpret the globbing patterns before duplicity sees them.

The --exclude pattern option matches a file if: 1. pattern can be expanded into the file’s filename, or. 2. the good college metaphors file is inside a directory matched by the option. Conversely, the --include pattern matches a file if: 1. pattern can be expanded into essay, the file’s filename, or. 2. the file is college essay service, inside a directory matched by the option, or. 3. the file is a directory which contains a file matched by the option. matches e.g. /usr/local, /usr/local/lib, and /usr/local/lib/netscape. It is the same as --exclude /usr/local --exclude ’/usr/local/**’. On the other hand.

specifies that /usr, /usr/local, /usr/local/lib, and ap english prompt, /usr/local/lib/netscape (but not /usr/doc) all be backed up. Thus you don’t have to worry about including parent directories to make sure that included subdirectories have somewhere to go. would match a file like /usR/5fOO/hello/there/world.py. If it did match anything, it would also match /usr. If there is no existing file that the given pattern can be expanded into, the option will not match /usr alone. The --include-filelist , and --exclude-filelist , options also introduce file selection conditions. Research To Psychology. They direct duplicity to ap english essay prompt read in a file, each line of which is a file specification, and to include or exclude the matching files. Lines are separated by ford, newlines or nulls, depending on whether the --null-separator switch was given. Each line in the filelist will be interpreted as a globbing pattern the way --include and ap english prompt, --exclude options are interpreted, except that lines starting with + are interpreted as include directives, even if found in a filelist referenced by --exclude-filelist . Similarly, lines starting with - exclude files even if they are found within an include filelist. For example, if file list.txt contains the ford lines: then --include-filelist list.txt would include /usr, /usr/local, and /usr/local/bin.

It would exclude /usr/local/doc, /usr/local/doc/python, etc. Essay Prompt. It would also include /usr/local/man, as this is included within /user/local. Finally, it is undefined what happens with /var. Write Research Paper. A single file list should not contain conflicting file specifications. Each line in ap english prompt, the filelist will also be interpreted as a globbing pattern the way --include and --exclude options are interpreted. For instance, if the file list.txt contains the lines: Then --include-filelist list.txt would be exactly the same as specifying --include dir/foo --include dir/bar --exclude ** on the command line. Finally, the page paper --include-regexp and --exclude-regexp options allow files to essay prompt be included and excluded if their filenames match a python regular expression. Regular expression syntax is too complicated to explain here, but is covered in Python’s library reference. Unlike the --include and --exclude options, the regular expression options don’t match files containing or contained in matched files.

So for instance. matches any files whose full pathnames contain 7 consecutive digits which aren’t followed by ’foo’. However, it wouldn’t match /home even if /home/ben/1234567 existed. It uses two environment variables for authentification: AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME (required), AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY (required) A container name must be a valid DNS name, conforming to the following naming rules: 1. Essay. Container names must start with a letter or number, and can contain only letters, numbers, and the dash (-) character. 2. Every dash (-) character must be immediately preceded and followed by a letter or number; consecutive dashes are not permitted in container names.

3. All letters in a container name must be lowercase. Ap English Essay Prompt. 4. Container names must be from play 3 through 63 characters long. Cloudfiles is ap english prompt, Rackspace’s now deprecated implementation of dissertation, OpenStack Object Storage protocol. Users wishing to ap english prompt use Duplicity with Rackspace Cloud Files should migrate to the new Pyrax plugin to play and pedagogy essay ensure support. The backend requires python-cloudfiles to be installed on the system.

See REQUIREMENTS above. It uses three environment variables for authentification: CLOUDFILES_USERNAME (required), CLOUDFILES_APIKEY (required), CLOUDFILES_AUTHURL (optional) If CLOUDFILES_AUTHURL is prompt, unspecified it will default to essay the value provided by python-cloudfiles, which points to rackspace, hence this value must be set in order to prompt use other cloud files providers. Then visit app settings and just use ’Generated access token’ under OAuth2 section. Alternatively you can let duplicity generate access token itself.

In such case temporary export DPBX_APP_KEY , DPBX_APP_SECRET using values from app settings page and run duplicity interactively. It will print the writing URL that you need to open in the browser to obtain OAuth2 token for the application. Just follow on-screen instructions and ap english prompt, then put generated token to DPBX_ACCESS_TOKEN variable. Once done, feel free to unset DPBX_APP_KEY and DPBX_APP_SECRET. 2. And Pedagogy. some_dir must already exist in the Dropbox folder. Depending on ap english essay prompt, access token kind it may be: Full Dropbox: path is absolute and starts from ’Dropbox’ root folder. App Folder: path is related to good college metaphors application folder. Ap English Essay. Dropbox client will show it in.

3. When using Dropbox for storage, be aware that all files, including the ones in the Apps folder, will be synced to all connected computers. Ford Dissertation. You may prefer to essay prompt use a separate Dropbox account specially for the backups, and not connect any computers to that account. Alternatively you can configure selective sync on all computers to avoid. syncing of backup files. duplicity will create a new bucket the first time a bucket access is attempted. At this point, the play and pedagogy bucket will be created in prompt, Europe if --s3-european-buckets was given. For reasons having to do with how the Amazon S3 service works, this also requires the use of the --s3-use-new-style option. This option turns on subdomain based bucket addressing in S3.

The details are beyond the scope of this man page, but it is application, important to know that your bucket must not contain upper case letters or any other characters that are not valid parts of a hostname. Consequently, for reasons of ap english prompt, backwards compatibility, use of subdomain based bucket addressing is not enabled by a 6 page paper, default. Note that you will need to use --s3-use-new-style for all operations on European buckets; not just upon initial creation. You only need to use --s3-european-buckets upon initial creation, but you may may use it at all times for consistency. Further note that when creating a new European bucket, it can take a while before the bucket is fully accessible. At the time of this writing it is ap english prompt, unclear to ford what extent this is an expected feature of ap english prompt, Amazon S3, but in practice you may experience timeouts, socket errors or HTTP errors when trying to essay upload files to your newly created bucket. Give it a few minutes and essay prompt, the bucket should function normally. Filename prefixes can be used in conjunction with S3 lifecycle rules to transition archive files to Glacier, while keeping metadata (signature and good metaphors, manifest files) on S3. Duplicity does not require access to archive files except when restoring from backup. /.boto configuration file. /.hubic_credentials, following this pattern:

The from_address_prefix may be specified (and probably should be). The text will be used as the From address in the IMAP server. Then on a restore (or list) command the from_address_prefix will distinguish between different backups. Order does not matter, however unrecognized parameters are considered an error. mode= stripe This mode (the default) performs round-robin access to essay prompt the list of backends. In this mode, all backends must be reliable as a loss of one means a loss of one of the archive files. mode= mirror This mode accesses backends as a RAID1-store, storing every file in every backend and reading files from the first-successful backend. A loss of any backend should result in no failure. Note that backends added later will only get new files and essay metaphors, may require a manual sync with one of the other operating ones. onfail= continue This setting (the default) continues all write operations in as best-effort. Any failure results in the next backend tried. Failure is reported only when all backends fail a given operation with the error result from the last failure. onfail= abort This setting considers any backend write failure as a terminating condition and reports the essay prompt error. Data reading and listing operations are independent of this and will try with the next backend on failure. Before restoring, archives will be verified.

Corrupt archives will be repaired on the fly if there are enough recovery blocks available. Use --par2-redundancy percent to adjust the size (and redundancy) of ford dissertation, recovery files in percent. There are two ways to use PyDrive: with a regular account or with a service account. With a service account, a separate account is created, that is only accessible with Google APIs and not a web login. With a regular account, you can store backups in your normal Google Drive. To use a service account, go to the Google developers console at https://console.developers.google.com. Create a project, and make sure Drive API is enabled for the project.

Under APIs and auth, click Create New Client ID, then select Service Account with P12 key. Download the prompt .p12 key file of the essay account and ap english, convert it to the .pem format: openssl pkcs12 -in XXX.p12 -nodes -nocerts pydriveprivatekey.pem. The content of .pem file should be passed to GOOGLE_DRIVE_ACCOUNT_KEY environment variable for authentification. The email address of the college essay metaphors account will be used as part of URL. See URL FORMAT above. The alternative is to use a regular account. To do this, start as above, but when creating a new Client ID, select Installed application of type Other. Create a file with the following content, and pass its filename in the GOOGLE_DRIVE_SETTINGS environment variable: In this scenario, the username and host parts of the URL play no role; only the essay prompt path matters. During the first run, you will be prompted to visit an paper related to psychology, URL in ap english essay, your browser to essay uk grant access to your drive. Once granted, you will receive a verification code to paste back into Duplicity.

The credentials are then cached in the file references above for future use. paramiko pexpect support --use-scp , --ssh-askpass and --ssh-options . Essay Prompt. Only the university essay writing pexpect backend allows to define --scp-command and --sftp-command . SSH paramiko backend (default) is a complete reimplementation of ssh protocols natively in python. Ap English Essay Prompt. Advantages are speed and maintainability. Minor disadvantage is that extra packages are needed as listed in REQUIREMENTS above. In sftp (default) mode all operations are done via the according sftp commands.

In scp mode ( --use-scp ) though scp access is how to page research paper, used for put/get operations but listing is done via ssh remote shell. SSH pexpect backend is the legacy ssh backend using the command line ssh binaries via pexpect. Prompt. Older versions used scp for research topics related, get and essay, put operations and sftp for list and how to page research paper, delete operations. The current version uses sftp for all four supported operations, unless the --use-scp option is used to revert to old behavior. SSH lftp backend is simply there because lftp can interact with the ssh cmd line binaries. Essay. It is meant as a last resort in to start, case the above options fail for some reason. Why use sftp instead of scp? The change to sftp was made in order to allow the remote system to chroot the backup, thus providing better security and ap english essay prompt, because it does not suffer from shell quoting issues like scp. Play. Scp also does not support any kind of file listing, so sftp or ssh access will always be needed in addition for this backend mode to work properly. Sftp does not have these limitations but needs an ap english, sftp service running on the backend server, which is sometimes not an option.

a Note on Ssl Certificate Verification. Newer python 2.7.9+ and recent lftp versions however support the system default certificates (usually in /etc/ssl/certs) and also giving an paper topics related, alternative ca cert folder via --ssl-cacert-path . The cacert file has to be a PEM formatted text file as currently provided by essay, the CURL project. See. After creating/retrieving a valid cacert file you should copy it to either. Duplicity searches it there in the same order and and pedagogy, will fail if it can’t find it. You can however specify the option --ssl-cacert-file file to ap english prompt point duplicity to a copy in a different location. Finally there is the --ssl-no-check-certificate option to play and pedagogy disable certificate verification alltogether, in case some ssl library is ap english, missing or verification is not wanted. Use it with care, as even with self signed servers manually providing the private ca certificate is definitely the safer option. a Note on Swift (openstack Object Storage) Access. The backend requires python-switclient to be installed on the system. python-keystoneclient is also needed to paper topics related to psychology use OpenStack’s Keystone Identity service.

See REQUIREMENTS above. It uses following environment variables for authentification: SWIFT_USERNAME (required), SWIFT_PASSWORD (required), SWIFT_AUTHURL (required), SWIFT_USERID (required, only for ap english essay, IBM Bluemix ObjectStorage), SWIFT_TENANTID (required, only for IBM Bluemix ObjectStorage), SWIFT_REGIONNAME (required, only for IBM Bluemix ObjectStorage), SWIFT_TENANTNAME (optional, the tenant can be included in the username) If the user was previously authenticated, the paper following environment variables can be used instead: SWIFT_PREAUTHURL (required), SWIFT_PREAUTHTOKEN (required) If SWIFT_AUTHVERSION is prompt, unspecified, it will default to version 1. Use URL escaping for how to write a 6 page paper, username (and password, if provided via command line): The destination folder will be created for you if it does not exist. a Note on Symmetric Encryption and Signing. 1. Setup gpg-agent properly. Use the option --use-agent and enter both passphrases (symmetric and sign key) in essay, the gpg-agent’s dialog. 2. Use a PASSPHRASE for essay, symmetric encryption of ap english prompt, your choice but the ford dissertation signing key has an empty passphrase. 3. The used PASSPHRASE for prompt, symmetric encryption and the passphrase of the metaphors signing key are identical.

Bad signatures will be treated as empty instead of logging appropriate error message. The files used by ap english essay, duplicity to store backup data are tarfiles in GNU tar format. They can be produced independently by rdiffdir (1) . For incremental backups, new files are saved normally in the tarfile. But when a file changes, instead of storing a complete copy of the file, only essay a diff is stored, as generated by rdiff (1) . If a file is deleted, a 0 length file is stored in the tar. It is ap english, possible to restore a duplicity archive manually by essay, using tar and then cp , rdiff , and ap english, rm as necessary. Paper Related To Psychology. These duplicity archives have the extension difftar . Both full and incremental backup sets have the same format. In effect, a full backup set is an incremental one generated from an empty signature (see below).

The files in essay prompt, full backup sets will start with duplicity-full while the incremental sets start with duplicity-inc . When restoring, duplicity applies patches in order, so deleting, for how to write research paper, instance, a full backup set may make related incremental backup sets unusable. In order to determine which files have been deleted, and to calculate diffs for changed files, duplicity needs to process information about prompt, previous sessions. Essay. It stores this information in the form of tarfiles where each entry’s data contains the signature (as produced by rdiff ) of the file instead of the file’s contents. These signature sets have the essay extension sigtar . Signature files are not required to restore a backup set, but without an up-to-date signature, duplicity cannot append an incremental backup to dissertation an existing archive. To save bandwidth, duplicity generates full signature sets and prompt, incremental signature sets. Essay. A full signature set is prompt, generated for each full backup, and an incremental one for each incremental backup. How To Write A 6 Page Paper. These start with duplicity-full-signatures and duplicity-new-signatures respectively. These signatures will be stored both locally and remotely.

The remote signatures will be encrypted if encryption is enabled. The local signatures will not be encrypted and stored in ap english essay prompt, the archive dir (see --archive-dir ). Some backends also require additional components (probably available as packages for play essay, your specific platform): azure backend (Azure Blob Storage Service) Microsoft Azure Storage SDK for ap english essay, Python - https://pypi.python.org/pypi/azure-storage/ boto backend (S3 Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud Storage) boto version 2.0+ - http://github.com/boto/boto cfpyrax backend (Rackspace Cloud) and hubic backend (hubic.com) Rackspace CloudFiles Pyrax API - http://docs.rackspace.com/sdks/guide/content/python.html dpbx backend (Dropbox) Dropbox Python SDK - https://www.dropbox.com/developers/reference/sdk copy backend (Copy.com) python-urllib3 - https://github.com/shazow/urllib3 gdocs gdata backend (legacy Google Docs backend) Google Data APIs Python Client Library - http://code.google.com/p/gdata-python-client/ gdocs pydrive backend (default) see pydrive backend gio backend (Gnome VFS API) PyGObject - http://live.gnome.org/PyGObject. D-Bus (dbus)- http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/dbus lftp backend (needed for ftp, ftps, fish [over ssh] - also supports sftp, webdav[s]) LFTP Client - http://lftp.yar.ru/ mega backend (mega.co.nz) megatools client - https://github.com/megous/megatools multi backend Multi -- store to more than one backend. (also see A NOTE ON MULTI BACKEND ) below. ncftp backend (ftp, select via ncftp+ftp://) NcFTP - http://www.ncftp.com/ OneDrive backend (Microsoft OneDrive) python-requests - http://python-requests.org.

(also see A NOTE ON PYDRIVE BACKEND ) below. rsync backend rsync client binary - http://rsync.samba.org/ ssh paramiko backend (default) paramiko (SSH2 for python) - http://pypi.python.org/pypi/paramiko (downloads); http://github.com/paramiko/paramiko (project page) Python keystoneclient module - https://github.com/openstack/python-keystoneclient/ webdav backend certificate authority database file for ssl certificate verification of HTTPS connections - http://curl.haxx.se/docs/caextract.html. (also see A NOTE ON SSL CERTIFICATE VERIFICATION ). Most backends were contributed individually. Dissertation. Information about essay prompt, their authorship may be found in the according file’s header. Also we’d like to thank everybody posting issues to the mailing list or on and pedagogy essay, launchpad, sending in patches or contributing otherwise.

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Should you buy a firearm? The Pros #038; Cons of Gun Ownership. There are over prompt 310 million privately-owned firearms in America; a number that works out to roughly 1 gun for paper topics related every man women and child in this country. Ap English Essay! While the ford dissertation, anti-gun crowd would like you to believe that guns are evil and that there’s a so-called epidemic of mass shootings in this country, the truth is, as gun sales have skyrocketed in recent years, gun crimes have actually dropped. Anecdotal evidence seems to suggest that more guns in the hands of law-abiding citizens actually stop the ap english essay prompt, bad guys from writing, committing these heinous crimes.

So what’s the truth about prompt, guns? Should everyone own one? Well, before we jump into the reasons why owning a firearm is a smart idea, let’s look at university essay uk, some of the downsides to gun ownership. Yes, the downsides. While I’m about as Pro-Second Amendment as it gets, I do feel like it is essay our responsibility as responsible, law-abiding gun owners to tell the truth about firearms; and dissertation, the truth is ap english essay prompt some people probably shouldn’t own them. While I 100% believe that a gun in the hands of a responsible, trained gun owner is a good thing, one in the hands of some guy who has never bothered to take a firearms safety course, or learn how to dissertation use that firearm in a self-defense situation is downright dangerous.

There are far too many people who put their lives at risk, and essay, their family’s lives in danger, by not taking gun safety and training seriously. Before you ever buy your first gun, you need to write a 6 paper learn: Having a gun DOES NOT Guarantee your safety. Again, this really comes down to proper training. Far too many gun owners have the mentality that because they have or carry a firearm they are somehow protected from prompt, bad guys and university essay writing uk, violence. While having a firearm levels the prompt, playing field, having one without taking the proper training courses is going to and pedagogy essay get you killed. When I’m at ap english essay prompt, the range, I often hear some loudmouth say something like, “no one will ever get the drop on college essay me,” or “I’d like to see that guy break into prompt, my house.” That’s usually when I take a break because it’s usually the same guy who the range officer singles out how to write page paper because he’s doing something that is essay prompt a danger to himself and everyone on the range. Keep this in play and pedagogy, mind : While you’re at work trying to pay the bills, the essay prompt, bad guys are out perfecting their criminal lifestyle. The one or two times you hit the range every year is nothing compared to the training these criminals receive on application essay service to start a daily basis. When that bad guy breaks into your house, there’s a pretty good chance he’s broken into at ap english, least a dozen before yours, and he has probably been in writing, hundreds of hand-to-hand street fights. Ap English! Still think you’re ready?

In order to stop a bad guy, you need to train in realistic self-defense situations — including knowing how to defend yourself without your gun. Yes, without your gun. Carrying a firearm without self-defense training is a recipe for disaster. The reality of college application to start a real-world attack is no matter how fast and accurate you are with your firearm, there are going to be certain situations where you’re firearm will not prevent the attack. Think about it; if firearms were the ap english essay, end-all and be-all, why would our military forces train in hand-to-hand combat? In close quarters combat, the chances of being able to unholster your firearm and return fire on an attacker is actually pretty slim. To be truly prepared, you need to be able to play and pedagogy take out an attacker without your gun – or at ap english, least slow him down so you can draw your weapon.

Why everyone should have a firearm: The Pros of gun ownership. Now that we discussed the important stuff – because when it comes down to it preparedness is all about training and having the and pedagogy essay, right knowledge – let’s look at some of the many reasons a person has for buying a firearm. Firearms in the hands of a law-abiding citizen can save lives, and the numbers show it. Every year, somewhere around 205,000 women use a firearm to protect themselves from sexual abuse; in 89.6% of essay violent crimes directed against women, the dissertation, offender does not have a gun. Every year, law-abiding citizens draw their guns over 2.5 million times in essay, personal defense, saving a countless number of lives and serving as a serious deterrent to criminals.

Often times, the mere presence of a firearm is enough to stop a criminal dead in his tracks, without ever having to fire a single round. But comes on, aren’t those NRA number? Well, for those of you that don’t trust the NRA, how about numbers from Bill Clinton? Even the notoriously Anti-Gun Clinton administration had to admit that while he was President, guns were used at least 1.5 million times a year for self-defense. The numbers came directly from the Clinton Justice Department, who hired anti-gun criminologists Philip Cook and Jens Ludwig to conduct the study. Because Gun Control Laws will NEVER Stop a Criminal from committing Gun Crimes.

While the government and the media would like you to essay metaphors believe that banning guns will somehow solve the ap english, world’s problems, the play essay, truth is, criminals by their very nature don’t follow the law. Ap English Essay Prompt! Anti-gun laws do very little good when you’re staring down the barrel of some psychopath’s gun. But what about all those mass shootings, couldn’t they have been prevented by passing more gun control bills? Since 1950, all but two of this country’s mass shootings have taken place in a designated gun-free zone. Yes, the and pedagogy, criminals had guns; the good guys didn’t! The law and all those fancy gun-free zone signs did nothing to stop the bad guys from killing people. The only thing that could have made a difference in these cases would have been a law-abiding citizen allowed to lawfully carry his gun in these areas. Because Cops and Marines are really heavy!

It always amazes me how some people can be so caviler with their family’s lives. In my opinion, if you have a family you should have and know how to ap english prompt use a gun. We often hear the college service to start, anti-gun crowd say things like, “people don’t need firearms, that’s why we have cops.” Well, those guys can get kind of prompt heavy to carry around. But in all seriousness, when seconds count, you simply can’t count on 911 to keep you safe. College Service To Start! Law enforcement does not have a legal obligation to protect you from criminals. In 2005, The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that police officers do not have a constitutional duty to protect a person from ap english prompt, harm. The ruling backed up an earlier court case, Warren v. District of Columbia, where the Court ruled that official police personnel and the government employing them owes no duty to victims of play and pedagogy criminal acts and thus are not liable for ap english essay prompt a failure to provide adequate police protection. Protecting yourself and your family from Home Invasions. According to FBI crime numbers, over 1.5 million homes are burglarized each and uk, every year. Ap English! The criminals who commit these crimes are often armed; and when people are home, these home invasions can quickly turn violent.

When it comes to preparedness related threats, a home invasion is one of the most likely threats you will face. When it comes to protecting yourself from that threat, you are the only person who can do something to stop the crime and put down the threat. You cannot count on law enforcement to respond in time to protect you from the chaos. According to play and pedagogy the Department of Justice, police response times range from 4 minutes for the best in essay, the country to the worst clocking in at how to write a 6 research paper, over an hour. The national average response time for law enforcement responding to a high-priority call is 11 minutes. Now here is the part that should concern you. The average interaction time between a criminal and essay, a victim is 90 seconds. That means even if you somehow had the opportunity to dial 911, the chances of university uk anyone being able to respond in ap english essay, time to college metaphors save you is pretty slim. Because I have Insurance and a Fire Extinguisher. Like most things, I look at firearms from a preparedness point of view.

And from essay prompt, that lens, owning a firearm is paper topics related no different than buying fire insurance or a fire extinguisher. Ap English Essay Prompt! While I hope I never need to use either one of them, when the time comes not having those items could be catastrophic. For many first-time firearm buyers, buying a gun can be an overwhelming experience – one that can often cause people to play essay make the wrong decision. If you’re ready to ap english essay prompt buy one and a 6 research paper, understand that safety is gong to be one of your primary concerns, check out our tips on what to look for when buying your first gun. Well written article! It’s about time we started seeing articles of essay this caliber(no pun intended) for mass distribution. Intelligent, just plain well done. Page Paper! Thank you. Con. Some states do not recognize out-of- state permits when traveling with a handgun. You don’t necessarily need to have a permit to carry, if you want to legally carry then yes you do, but if you are just looking to protect your home/property then the firearm along with training will do.

Not saying that you shouldn’t carry when you are out and prompt, about, and so obtain your permit. But, everyday carry isn’t for everyone in this regard either. very well put, The purchasing of a gun is a decision that could impact the rest of college metaphors your life as a gun owner I handlle, carrying ,shooting with that in mind as responsible gun-owners we all need to remember this and make sure we educate those who do not understand or just take the word of the essay prompt, government or media of the college essay to start, rights of responsible gun owner and ap english essay, the thugs that don’t care what they do with a stolen gun,knife,car etc! Good article. One small quibble is about training. I love training. I train at least a couple times a year for about 2-3 days at a time and shoot at the rage a couple times a month. Application! However, grandmother is not going to do that.

Many others are not going to do that and yet they can achieve safe gun handling rather quickly. I think it’s important to ap english essay prompt acknowledge that not everyone can or will be a ninja. One good thing about firearms though is that they can equal the fight which is why so many people use them to that effect. Very well written article. We urgently need to promulgate this as widely as possible.

People have a tendancy to believe politicians and dissertation, program anchors (I left out News intentionally, these people report opinion, not news). Criminals ignore laws and “gun free zones,” making these zones easy pickings. low intelligence anti-gunners should listen to Admiral Yamamoto, who advised not attacking America because behind every bush would be a citizen with a gun! So guns don’t prevent attacks huh? You bet your bippy buy a gun, maybe several so they are within reach if you have a home invasion, but get plenty of ammo and ap english prompt, most of service to start all, make arrangements with someone to teach you the safe handling and ap english, use and PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE. be confident in your gun, so should the how to a 6 page research paper, occasion arise, you won’t have to worry about how it works, or if you can use it…. imho.

“Should you buy a firearm?” How many screw drivers are there in America? It all comes down to ap english essay a person deciding on a course of topics to psychology action, understanding this choice and doing what needs to be done. Americans need to read and understand why the 2 nd admendment came into being. GUN OWNERSHIP IS THE ONLY WAY TO PROTECT THE NATION FROM A WEALTHY BANKER-FUNDED TAKEOVER FEMA CAMPS. What do you know about the ap english, FEMA camps? I’ve been looking online for credible information about them. Good article. And Pedagogy! Fairly well balanced. Just be sure if you decide to carry a gun that you remain sober, both literally and figuratively! yes if it is necessary at prompt, all.

One out of essay every four Americans is on ap english heavy “Psychotropics”. Good College Essay Metaphors! How many millions is that? How many of them own guns? That’s pretty scary sheet and something the rest of the prompt, 75% of law abiding citizens need to be aware of. And, over 90% of dissertation mass school shooters were under the influence of these mind altering substances. These people should not have guns, period. You are right,I live in Ireland where handguns are banned and you can not use a gun to defend your self or family ,the reason for this is the government is afraid of insurrection “we have a history of it in fairness”,that being said the amount of people getting assaulted and murdered living in prompt, the countryside beggers believe, gang are coming from the big cities and write research, raiding the countryside , the cops can’t be everywhere and essay, If they did catch them in how to write a 6 page, the act of killing a person the way our legal system is over essay prompt here they would be out in research paper topics related, 3 to ap english 5 years formgood behavior, and because the government control’s the media over here its hard to get the facts you really have to look.So the upshot to all this ass far as I’m concerned is and pedagogy hang on to you firearms.stay safe all. I have no problem with my husband purchasing a gun; the problem I have is ap english his life style; he drinks 6-7 cocktails a day; has been for years; will he not have a drink, cold turkey, they day he wants to carry his gun. We live in a secure Senior Complex….so house break-in would not be my worry. It’s gun and metaphors, liquor that is ap english my worry. He wouldn’t be able to bring our his gun if he had been drinking….and we’re in a situation that would warrant him to pull it.

How many people are carrying guns and drinking; do they really understand the law around guns and liquor? Have they done their research. These are the people that I worry about being around…will they use good judgement under the influence. I took his gun as I was advised from a cop friend that with my husband’s life style; drinking heavily for research paper 40+ years; should not carry. He has high tolerance for liquor…doesn’t even walk around looking like he’s drunk…can talk fine…but that doesn’t mean he should be carrying a gun. Essay! Signed….a concerned wife! I like that you point out that guns are not for everyone. I think that this is really important to good college essay metaphors keep in mind. While we all have the right to ap english essay prompt own a gun, it doesn’t mean we need to have one.

I think, like you said, those who own a gun need to have the proper training. I came at firearms and how I relate to ford dissertation them backwards. I bought my first rifle, got in physical shape, learned hand to ap english essay hand tactics. Then began familiarizing myself with my by then weapons plural. Play And Pedagogy Essay! My reasoning was simple.

I didn’t want to be caught without one even if I was not well versed. I by now am extremely effective both armed and unarmed. However I heavily recommend you purchase first like I did. The likely hood of getting one later looks less and less good. Essay! Something is far better than nothing. Over the last 20+ years, the USA has raised bumper crops of dummies.

Now, we have lots and lots of dummies. Dummies are DUMB, as in gullible and easily scared! Fear comes from ignorance. Hate comes from fear. We also have the damned greedy gun industry and the NRA that want to put a gun in each hand.

They’ve spent billions to scare and misinform these millions of dummies and it sure has paid off. Let’s not forget the hidden cost – “Far more people kill themselves with a firearm each year than are murdered with one. In 2010 in the U.S., 19,392 people committed suicide with guns, compared with 11,078 who were killed by others.” https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/magazine/magazine_article/guns-suicide/ honestly, suicide is a good thing in many cases. many aholes kill themselves…because they are aholes…not all…but many. Owning a personal firearm is like a right of passage in my family, and I am curious to know if there are actual benefits to owning one. I love how you just simply stated that having one saves lives, and that there are numbers that can help show it. University Writing! It’s nice to know that having a firearm will actually protect me in times of self defense, does make it more desirable to go to a concealed weapons class. Emergency Power: The Top Portable Solar Panel Chargers for Disasters. From natural disasters to hacking attacks and essay, terrorism, we face more threats to our power grid than ever before. These small portable solar chargers will ensure you have emergency power when the grid goes down. […] SOG Knives: SOG Seal Pup Elite Knife Review.

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28 Citations De » L’alchimiste » De Paulo Coelho. Prompt. Lors de mes recherches pour l’ecriture d’un precedent article « 10 Livres Indispensables Sur Le Developpement Personnel », j’ai ete etonne de decouvrir que ce court roman apparaissait frequemment comme une reference parmi les livres a lire en rapport a l’epanouissement. Research Related. Je restai plus que perplexe ; Qu’est ce qu’un roman pouvait bien apporter de tellement fort au point de figurer parmi les 10 ou 20 livres les plus important aux cotes de Napoleon Hill et Tony Robbins? Je decidai donc de me procurer une copie de « L’alchimiste » de Paulo Coelho. Ap English Essay. Je fus completement transporte. J’ai devore ce livre l’alchimiste en deux nuits et en suis ressorti plus motive que jamais. University Writing. Le livre parle de voyages, de magie, de la poursuite de vos reves et de comment trouver l’amour dans des endroits inattendus. Paulo Coelho partage une histoire incroyable, rempli de puissants conseils que n’importe qui peut appliquer afin d’ameliorer la qualite de son existence. Ap English Essay Prompt. Je ne veux pas vous gacher votre experience. C’est donc tout ce que j’en dirais hormis ces 28 citations provenant du livre qui ne pourront que vous donner l’envie de courir vous en procurer un exemplaire.

28 Citations de » L’alchimiste » de Paulo Coelho. College Application To Start. 2. Ap English Prompt. « Rien ne l#8217;empechait, sinon lui-meme. » 3. University Essay. « Dans la vie, tout est signe. Ap English Essay. » Paulo Coelho. Play And Pedagogy. 4. « Lorsqu’une chose evolue, tout ce qui est autour evolue de meme. » 5. « Le desert est une femme capricieuse, qui parfois rend les hommes fous. Essay Prompt. » 6. « Quand on veut une chose, tout l’Univers conspire a nous permettre de realiser notre reve. Dissertation. » 7. Ap English Essay. « On ne peut se fier a un homme si l’on ne connait pas la maison qu’il habite. College. » 8. « Les hommes revent du retour plus que du depart. Ap English Essay Prompt. » Paulo Coelho. Good College Metaphors. 9. « Une quete commence toujours par la chance du debutant. Et s’acheve toujours par l’epreuve du conquerant. Ap English Essay Prompt. » 10. College Application Essay. « Personne ne peut fuir son coeur. Essay Prompt. C’est pourquoi il vaut mieux ecouter ce qu’il dit. Application Service To Start. » Paulo Coelho. 11. Ap English Essay Prompt. « L’heure la plus sombre est celle qui vient juste avant le lever du soleil. » 12. Ford. « Peut-etre Dieu a-t-il cree le desert pour que l’homme puisse se rejouir a la vue des palmiers. Ap English Essay Prompt. » 13. Writing. « Il n’y a qu’une chose qui puisse rendre un reve impossible, c’est la peur d’echouer. » 14. « Si tu t’en vas en promettant ce que tu ne possedes pas encore, tu perdras l’envie de l’obtenir. » 15. « Quand nous avons de grands tresors sous les yeux, nous ne nous en apercevons jamais. Ap English. Et sais-tu pourquoi ? Parce que les hommes ne croient pas aux tresors. Research Paper Topics. » 16. Essay Prompt. « C’est justement la possibilite de realiser un reve qui rend la vie interessante. » Paulo Coelho. How To Write Page Paper. 17. Ap English Essay. « Quand quelqu’un prend une decision, il se plonge en fait dans un courant impetueux qui l#8217;emporte vers une destination qu’il n’a jamais entrevue, meme en reve. » 18. « A un moment donne de notre existence, nous perdons la maitrise de notre vie, qui se trouve des lors gouvernee par le destin. Ford Dissertation. C’est la qu’est la plus grande imposture du monde. Ap English Prompt. » 19. « En general, la mort fait que l’on devient plus attentif a la vie. Ford. » Paulo Coelho. 20. Prompt. « Ecoute ton coeur.

Il connait toute chose, parce qu’il vient de l’Ame du Monde, et qu’un jour il y retournera. » 21. Ford. « On ne s’apercoit pas toujours que l’on parcourt chaque jour un nouveau chemin. » 22. Ap English Essay Prompt. « C’est justement la possibilite de realiser un reve qui rend la vie interessante. Essay To Start. » 23. Ap English. « Ne t’abandonne pas au desespoir #8230; Cela t#8217;empeche de pouvoir converser avec ton coeur. Application Service. » Paulo Coelho. Ap English Prompt. 24. And Pedagogy Essay. « Ils ont peur de realiser leurs plus grands reves, parce qu’ils croient ne pas meriter d’y arriver, ou ne pas pouvoir y parvenir. Ap English Essay Prompt. » 25. « Alors, pourquoi dois-je ecouter mon coeur? Parce que tu n’arriveras jamais a le faire taire Et meme si tu feins de ne pas entendre ce qu’il te dit, il sera la, dans ta poitrine, et ne cessera de repeter ce qu’il pense de la vie et du monde. Essay. » Paulo Coelho. 26. « Si tu ameliores le present, ce qui viendra ensuite sera egalement meilleur. Ap English Essay Prompt. » 27. « Quand on good essay metaphors, ne peut revenir en arriere, on prompt, ne doit se preoccuper que de la meilleure maniere d’aller de l’avant. Good Essay Metaphors. » 28. Prompt. « Il eut soudain le sentiment qu’il pouvait regarder le monde soit comme la malheureuse victime d’un voleur, soit comme un aventurier en quete d’un tresor. University Essay Writing. » Paulo Coelho. Ap English Essay Prompt. Avez-vous lu » L’alchimiste « ? Qu’en avez-vous pense?

Les derniers articles par Olivier Charles (tout voir) Problemes De Sommeil ? Voici Ce Que La Science Nous Conseille - 17 septembre 2017 6 Films Sur Le Developpement Personnel Et Bien-etre a Voir Absolument - 27 juillet 2017 Comment Detecter Le Mensonge : Le Visage Decrypte - 4 juillet 2017. Application Essay Service. 37 Citations de Dwayne Johnson « The Rock » Pour Rester Motive. 22 Des Meilleures Citations De Mark Twain Sur Le Developpement Personnel. 27 Citations Inspirantes Du Livre Reflechissez Et Devenez Riche Napoleon Hill. Ap English Prompt. Tres belle citation du livre qui est passionnant et tellement motivant ! Ce livre devrait etre etudie a l’ecole. C’est le genre de bouquin qui fait aimer la lecture et nous pousse a vivre pleinement notre vie. Un livre particulierement fantastique. Application Essay Service. Je l’ai lu plusieurs fois sans me lasser. Ap English Essay. Une vraie lecon de vie. Good Essay Metaphors. Ma citation preferee C est le numero 6 « quand on ap english, veut une chose, tout l’univers conspire a nous permettre de realiser notre reve » Merci et meilleur a vous.

Bonjour Olivier et merci pour ces magnifiques citations. Cela me donne envie de relire le livre. Good Essay. Tout y est ! L’etat d’esprit du guerrier de lumiere qui se connecte a ce pour quoi il vit et se donne corps et ame a cette mission. Essay. L’art de vivre pleinement avec enthousiasme et lacher-prise#8230; vous avez entierement raison moi aussi j ai lu l alchimiste l’ete passe et ce qui m’a plus c ‘etait la tenacite et le courage de Santiago , un homme optimiste,cherchant toujours a savourer et tirer profit du moment present.

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Looking back – motivating .NET Core. First let’s look back to understand how the .NET platform was packaged in prompt, the past. University Uk? This helps to motivate some of the decisions and ideas that resulted in the creation of .NET Core. When we originally shipped the .NET Framework in 2002 there was only prompt, a single framework. Shortly after, we released the .NET Compact Framework which was a subset of the good college essay metaphors .NET Framework that fit within the footprint of smaller devices, specifically Windows Mobile. The compact framework was a separate code base from the .NET Framework. It included the entire vertical: a runtime, a framework, and ap english essay, an application model on top.

Since then, we’ve repeated this subsetting exercise many times: Silverlight, Windows Phone and most recently for Windows Store. This yields to fragmentation because the .NET Platform isn’t a single entity but a set of platforms, owned by different teams, and maintained independently. Of course, there is nothing wrong with offering specialized features in order to cater to a particular need. But it becomes a problem if there is no systematic approach and and pedagogy, specialization happens at ap english prompt, every layer with little to no regards for corresponding layers in other verticals. The outcome is a set of write a 6 research platforms that only ap english essay, share APIs by research paper topics, the fact that they started off from essay, a common code base. Essay Metaphors? Over time this causes more divergence unless explicit (and expensive) measures are taken to converge APIs. What is the problem with fragmentation?

If you only target a single vertical then there really isn’t any problem. You’re provided with an API set that is optimized for your vertical. The problem arises as soon as you want to target the horizontal, that is multiple verticals. Now you have to reason about the availability of prompt APIs and college application essay to start, come up with a way to produce assets that work across the verticals you want to target. Today it’s extremely common to prompt, have applications that span devices: there is ford dissertation virtually always a back end that runs on the web server, there is often an administrative front end that uses the Windows desktop, and a set of mobile applications that are exposed to the consumer, available for multiple devices. Thus, it’s critical to support developers in building components that can span all the .NET verticals.

Birth of portable class libraries. Originally, there was no concept of code sharing across verticals. No portable class libraries, no shared projects. Prompt? You were essentially stuck with creating multiple projects, linked files, and #if . This made targeting multiple verticals a daunting task. In the Windows 8 timeframe we came up with a plan to deal with this problem.

When we designed the Windows Store profile we introduced a new concept to model the subsetting in a better way: contracts. Originally, the .NET Framework was designed around the assumption that it’s always deployed as a single unit, so factoring was not a concern. Essay Writing? The very core assembly that everything else depends on is mscorlib. The mscorlib provided by the .NET Framework contains many features that that can’t be supported everywhere (for example, remoting and AppDomains). Prompt? This forces each vertical to ford dissertation, subset even the very core of the platform. Ap English? This made it very complicated to tool a class library experience that lets you target multiple verticals. The idea of contracts is to provide a well factored API surface area.

Contracts are simply assemblies that you compile against. In contrast to college essay service to start, regular assemblies contract assemblies are designed around proper factoring. Ap English Essay? We deeply care about the dependencies between contracts and write a 6 page paper, that they only have a single responsibility instead of essay being a grab bag of APIs. Contracts version independently and follow proper versioning rules, such as adding APIs results in a newer version of the assembly. We’re using contracts to model API sets across all verticals. College Application Essay Service? The verticals can then simply pick and choose which contracts they want to essay, support.

The important aspect is that verticals must support a contract either wholesale or not at all. In other words, they can’t subset the contents of a contract. This allows reasoning about the API differences between verticals at the assembly level, as opposed to the individual API level that we had before. This aspect enabled us to provide a class library experience that can target multiple verticals, also known as portable class libraries. Unifying API shape versus unifying implementation. You can think of portable class libraries as an experience that unifies the different .NET verticals based on play and pedagogy their API shape. This addressed the most pressing need, which is the ability to create libraries that run on different .NET verticals. Essay? It also served as a design tool to drive convergence between verticals, for page research instance, between Windows 8.1 and ap english prompt, Windows Phone 8.1. However, we still have different implementations – or forks – of the how to page .NET platform.

Those implementations are owned by different teams, version independently, and have different shipping vehicles. Essay Prompt? This makes unifying API shape an ford ongoing challenge: APIs are only essay, portable when the implementation is moved forward across all the verticals but since the and pedagogy code bases are different that’s fairly expensive and thus always subject to ap english essay, (re-)prioritization. And even if we could do a perfect job with converging the APIs: the fact that all verticals have different shipping vehicles means that some part of the ecosystem will always lag behind. A much better approach is college unifying the essay prompt implementations: instead of only providing a well factored view, we should provide a well factored implementation. This would allow verticals to simply share the same implementation. How To Write Page Research Paper? Convergence would no longer be something extra; it’s achieved by construction. Ap English? Of course, there are still cases where we may need multiple implementations. A good example is file I/O which requires using different technologies, based on the environment. However, it’s a lot simpler to ask each team owning a specific component to think about how their APIs work across all verticals than trying to retroactively providing a consistent API stack on top. That’s because portability isn’t a something you can provide later.

For example, our file APIs include support for Windows Access Control Lists (ACL) which can’t be supported in topics related to psychology, all environments. The design of the APIs must take this into consideration, and, for instance, provide this functionality in a separate assembly that can be omitted on platforms that don’t support ACLs. Machine-wide frameworks versus application-local frameworks. Another interesting challenge has to do with how the essay .NET Framework is deployed. The .NET Framework is a machine-wide framework. Any changes made to it affect all applications taking a dependency on it. Having a machine-wide framework was a deliberate decision because it solves those issues:

It allows centralized servicing It reduces the disk space Allows sharing native images between applications. But it also comes at dissertation, a cost. For one, it’s complicated for application developers to take a dependency on a recently released framework. You either have to take a dependency on the latest OS or provide an application installer that is able to install the .NET Framework when the application is installed. If you’re a web developer you might not even have this option as the IT department tells you which version you’re allowed to use. And if you’re a mobile developer you really don’t have choice but the ap english OS you target. But even if you’re willing to go through the essay trouble of providing an installer in order to ap english essay prompt, chain in the .NET Framework setup you may find that upgrading the .NET Framework can break other applications. Hold on – aren’t we saying that our upgrades are highly compatible? We are.

And we take compatibility extremely seriously. We have rigorous reviews for college application essay to start any changes made to the .NET Framework. And for anything that could be a breaking change we have dedicated reviews to investigate the impact. We run a compat lab where we test many popular .NET applications to ap english, ensure that we don’t regress them. We also have the ability to tell which .NET Framework the application was compiled against. This allows us to maintain compatibility with existing applications while providing a better behavior for applications that opted-into targeting a later version of the .NET Framework.

Unfortunately, we’ve also learned that even compatible changes can break applications. Let me provide a few examples: Adding an write interface to an existing type can break applications because it might interfere with how the type is ap english prompt being serialized. Adding an research paper topics overload to a method that previously didn’t had any overloads can break reflection consumers that never handled finding more than one method. Renaming an internal type can break applications if the type name was surfaced via a ToString() method. Those are all rare cases but when you have a customer base of 1.8 billion machines being 99.9% compatible can still mean that 1.8 million machines are affected. Interestingly enough, in many cases fixing impacted applications is fairly trivial.

But the problem is that the application developer isn’t necessarily involved when the break occurs. Let’s look at a concrete example. You tested your application on .NET Framework 4 and ap english prompt, that’s what you installed with your app. Paper Topics To Psychology? But some day one of your customers installed another application that upgraded the ap english essay machine to .NET Framework 4.5. You don’t know your application is broken until that customer calls your support. To Psychology? At this point addressing the ap english essay prompt compat issue in college application, your application is fairly expensive as you have to essay, get the corresponding sources, setup a repro machine, debug the application, make the necessary changes, integrate them into the release branch, produce a new version of your software, test it, and finally release an essay metaphors update to your customers. Contrast this with the case where you decide you want to take advantage of a feature released in a later version of the .NET Framework. At this point in the development process, you’re already prepared to make changes to your application. If there is a minor compat glitch, you can easily handle it as part of the feature work. Due to these issues, it takes us a while to ap english essay, release a new version of the .NET Framework.

And the more drastic the change, the dissertation more time we need to bake it. This results in the paradoxical situation where our betas are already fairly locked down and we’re pretty much unable to take design change requests. Two years ago, we’ve started to ship libraries on NuGet. Since we didn’t add those libraries to the .NET Framework we refer to them as “out-of-band”. Essay Prompt? Out-of- band libraries don’t suffer from the problem we just discussed because they are application-local. In other words, the libraries are deployed as if they were part of your application. This pretty much solves all the problems that prevent you from good college metaphors, upgrading to a later version. Your ability to prompt, take a newer version is only limited by essay, your ability to release a newer version of your application.

It also means you’re in ap english essay prompt, control which version of the library is being used by a specific application. Upgrades are done in the context of a single application without impacting any other application running on the same machine. This enables us to release updates in a much more agile fashion. NuGet also provides the college essay notion of preview versions which allow us to release bits without yet committing on a specific API or behavior. This supports a workflow where we can provide you with our latest design and – if you don’t like it – simply change it. A good example of this is essay prompt immutable collections. Essay Writing Uk? It had a beta period of about nine months. Ap English Essay? We spend a lot of time trying to get the good metaphors design right before we shipped the very first version. Needless to say that the final design – thanks to the extensive feedback you provided – is way better than the initial version.

All these aspects caused us to essay, rethink and change the approach of modelling the good college essay .NET platform moving forward. This resulted in ap english prompt, the creation of .NET Core: .NET Core is a modular implementation that can be used in a wide variety of verticals, scaling from the data center to touch based devices, is available as open source, and how to write page research paper, is supported by Microsoft on Windows, Linux and Mac OSX. Let me go into a bit more detail of how .NET Core looks like and how it addresses the issues I discussed earlier. Unified implementation for .NET Native and ASP.NET. When we designed .NET Native it was clear that we can’t use the .NET Framework as the foundation for ap english the framework class libraries.

That’s because .NET Native essentially merges the framework with the topics related to psychology application, and then removes the pieces that aren’t needed by the application before it generates the essay native code (I’m grossly simplifying this process here. For more details, take a look at this deep dive). As I explained earlier, the .NET Framework implementation isn’t factored which makes it quite challenging for a linker to reduce how much of the framework gets compiled into writing uk the application – the dependency closure is just too large. ASP.NET 5 faced similar challenges. Although it doesn’t use .NET Native one of the ap english essay prompt goals of the essay metaphors new ASP.NET 5 web stack was to provide an XCOPY deployable stack so that web developers don’t have coordinate with their IT department in order to take dependencies on later versions. In that scenario it’s also important to minimize the essay size of the framework as it needs to be deployed alongside the application.

.NET Core is essay service to start essentially a fork of the NET Framework whose implementation is also optimized around factoring concerns. Even though the scenarios of .NET Native (touch based devices) and ASP.NET 5 (server side web development) are quite different, we were able to provide a unified Base Class Library (BCL). The API surface area for ap english essay the .NET Core BCL is identical for both .NET Native as well ASP.NET 5. At the essay uk bottom of the BCL we have a very thin layer that is ap english essay prompt specific to the .NET runtime. We’ve currently two implementations: one is specific to the .NET Native runtime and one that is how to paper specific to ap english essay, CoreCLR, which is used by ASP.NET 5. However, that layer doesn’t change very often. It contains types like String and Int32. The majority of the ford BCL are pure MSIL assemblies that can be shared as-is. In other words, the APIs don’t just look the same – they share the same implementation. For example, there is no reason to have different implementations for collections. On top of the BCL, there are app-model specific APIs.

For instance, the .NET Native side provides APIs that are specific to prompt, Windows client development, such as WinRT interop. ASP.NET 5 adds APIs such as MVC that are specific to server- side web development. We think of how to write a 6 page research .NET Core as not being specific to either .NET Native nor ASP.NET 5 – the BCL and the runtimes are general purpose and designed to ap english essay prompt, be modular. And Pedagogy Essay? As such, it forms the foundation for all future .NET verticals. NuGet as a first class delivery vehicle. In contrast to the .NET Framework, the .NET Core platform will be delivered as a set of NuGet packages. Prompt? We’ve settled on NuGet because that’s where the majority of the library ecosystem already is. In order to continue our effort of being modular and well factored we don’t just provide the write a 6 page research paper entire .NET Core platform as a single NuGet package. Instead, it’s a set of fine grained NuGet packages:

For the BCL layer, we’ll have a 1-to-1 relationship between assemblies and NuGet packages. Moving forward, the NuGet package will have the same name as the assembly. Ap English Essay? For example, immutable collections will no longer be delivered in a NuGet package called Microsoft.Bcl.Immutable but instead be in a package called System.Collections.Immutable. In addition, we’ve decided to use semantic versioning for our assembly versioning. How To Page Research? The version number of the essay prompt NuGet package will align with the assembly version. The alignment of naming and university essay writing, versioning between assemblies and packages help tremendously with discovery. There is no longer a mystery which NuGet packages contains System.Foo, Version=1.2.3.0 – it’s provided by essay prompt, the System.Foo package in version 1.2.3. NuGet allows us to deliver .NET Core in an agile fashion.

So if we provide an ford dissertation upgrade to essay prompt, any of the NuGet packages, you can simply upgrade the corresponding NuGet reference. Delivering the framework itself on paper topics related NuGet also removes the difference between expressing 1st party .NET dependencies and 3rd party dependencies – they are all NuGet dependencies. Ap English Essay Prompt? This enables a 3rd party package to express, for application service to start instance, that they need a higher version of the System.Collections library. Installing this 3rd party package can now prompt you to upgrade your reference to System.Collections. Essay? You don’t have to understand the dissertation dependency graph – you only need to consent making changes to ap english essay, it. The NuGet based delivery also turns the university essay writing uk .NET Core platform into an app-local framework. The modular design of .NET Core ensures that each application only ap english essay, needs to deploy what it needs. Research Paper Topics? We’re also working on enabling smart sharing if multiple applications use the essay same framework bits.

However, the essay goal is to ensure that each application is logically having its own framework so that upgrading doesn’t interfere with other applications running on the same machine. Our decision to use NuGet as a delivery mechanism doesn’t change our commitment to essay, compatibility. We continue to writing, take compatibility extremely seriously and will not perform API or behavioral breaking changes once a package is marked as stable. However, the app-local deployment ensures that the rare case where a change that is ap english essay considered additive breaks an application is isolated to development time only. In other words, for .NET Core these breaks can only college essay service to start, occur after you upgraded a package reference. In that very moment, you have two options: addressing the compat glitch in your application or rolling back to the previous version of the NuGet package. But in contrast to the .NET Framework those breaks will not occur after you deployed the application to a customer or the production server. The NuGet deployment model enables agile releases and faster upgrades. However, we don’t want to compromise the one-stop-shop experience that the .NET Framework provides today. One of the prompt great things of the .NET Framework is that it ships as a holistic unit, which means that Microsoft tested and supports all components as a single entity.

For .NET Core we’ll provide the same experience. We’ll create the ford notion of essay a .NET Core distribution. This is essentially just a snapshot of college essay all the packages in the specific version we tested them. The idea is ap english essay that our teams generally own individual packages. Shipping a new version of the university team’s package only ap english essay, requires that the team tests their component, in the context of the components they depend on.

Since you’ll be able to research to psychology, mix- and-match NuGet packages there can obviously be cases where certain combinations of components don’t play well together. Distributions will not have that problem because all components are tested in combination. We expect distributions to ap english prompt, be shipped at a lower cadence than individual packages. We are currently thinking of up to four times a year. This allows for the time it will take us to run the college essay metaphors necessary testing, fixing and sign off. Although .NET Core is delivered as a set of NuGet packages it doesn’t mean that you have to download packages each time you need to create a project.

We’ll provide an offline installer for distributions and also include them with Visual Studio so that creating new projects will be as fast as today and not require internet connectivity in the development process. While app-local deployment is great for isolating the ap english impact of taking dependencies on newer features it’s not appropriate for all cases. Critical security fixes must be deployed quickly and holistically in order to be effective. We are fully committed to application to start, making security fixes as we always have for .NET. In order to avoid the prompt compatibility issues we have seen in a 6 research, the past with centralized updates to the .NET Framework it’s essential that these only target the security vulnerabilities.

Of course, there is still a small chance that those break existing applications. That’s why we only do this for truly critical issues where it’s acceptable to cause a very small set of apps to no longer work rather than having all apps run with the vulnerability. Foundation for open source and cross platform. In order to essay, take .NET cross platform in a sustainable way we decided to and pedagogy, open source .NET Core. From past experience we understand that the success of open source is a function of the community around it. A key aspect to this is an open and ap english, transparent development process that allows the community to participate in code reviews, read design documents, and university essay writing uk, contribute changes to the product. Open source enables us to extend the .NET unification to cross platform development. Ap English Essay? It actively hurts the college service to start ecosystem if basic components like collections need to be implemented multiple times. The goal of .NET Core is having a single code base that can be used to build and support all the ap english essay platforms, including Windows, Linux and Mac OSX. Of course, certain components, such as the file system, require different implementations.

The NuGet deployment model allows us to abstract those differences away. University Writing? We can have a single NuGet package that provides multiple implementations, one for each environment. However, the important part is ap english essay prompt that this is an implementation detail of this component. All the consumers see a unified API that happens to university essay, work across all the platforms. Another way to look at ap english, this is how to write a 6 research paper that open source is a continuation of our desire to release .NET components in an agile fashion: Open Source offers quasi real-time communication for the implementation and ap english essay prompt, overall direction Releasing packages to NuGet.org offers agility at the component level Distributions offer agility at the platform level. Having all three elements allows us to offer a broad spectrum of agility and maturity. Relationship of .NET Core with existing platforms. Although we’ve designed .NET Core so that it will become the foundation for all future stacks, we’re very much aware of the dilemma of creating the “one universal stack” that everyone can use: We believe we found a good balance between laying the foundation for college service to start the future while maintaining great interoperability with the essay existing stacks. I’ll go into more detail by university essay writing uk, looking at prompt, several of these platforms.

The .NET Framework is still the platform of choice for building rich desktop applications and .NET Core doesn’t change that. For Visual Studio 2015 our goal is to make sure that .NET Core is university writing uk a pure subset of the .NET Framework. In other words, there wouldn’t be any feature gaps. After Visual Studio 2015 is released our expectation is that .NET Core will version faster than the .NET Framework. This means that there will be points in time where a feature will only be available on ap english essay the .NET Core based platforms. We’ll continue to release updates to .NET Framework. Our current thinking is that the release cadence will roughly be the research related same as today, which is about once a year.

In these updates, we’ll bring the innovations that we made in .NET Core to the .NET Framework. Ap English Prompt? We’ll not just blindly port all the feature work, though – it will be based on a cost-benefit analysis. As I pointed out, even additive changes to the .NET Framework can cause issues for existing applications. Ford? Our goal is to minimize API and behavioral differences while not breaking compatibility with existing .NET Framework applications. There are also investments that are exclusively being made for the .NET Framework such as the work we announced in the WPF Roadmap. Many of you asked what the ap english essay .NET Core cross platform story means for Mono. The Mono project is essentially an open source re-implementation of the .NET Framework. As such, it shares the play and pedagogy essay richness of the APIs with the .NET Framework but it also shares some of its problems, specifically around the implementation factoring. Mono is ap english essay prompt alive and well with a large ecosystem on top.

That’s why, independent of research paper topics related .NET Core, we also released parts of the ap english essay .NET Framework Reference Source under an open source friendly license on university essay GitHub. This was done to ap english, allow the Mono community to close the gaps between the good .NET Framework and Mono by using the ap english essay prompt same code. However, due to the complexity of the .NET Framework we’re not setup to run it as an open source project on GitHub. In particular, we’re unable to how to write page, accept pull requests for it. Another way to look at it: The .NET Framework has essentially two forks. One fork is ap english prompt provided by Microsoft and is Windows only. The other fork is Mono which you can use on Linux and Mac.

With .NET Core we’re able to develop an entire .NET stack as a full open source project. Thus, having to maintain separate forks will no longer be necessary: together with the Mono community we’ll make .NET Core great for Windows, Linux and Mac OSX. This also enables the Mono community to innovate on top of the leaner .NET Core stack as well as taking it to environments that Microsoft isn’t interested in. Both the Windows Store 8.1 and Windows Phone 8.1 platforms are much smaller subsets of the .NET Framework. However, they are also a subset of .NET Core. This allows us to use .NET Core as the underlying implementation for both of these platforms moving forward. So if you’re developing for those platforms you are able to directly consume all innovations without having to wait for how to write a 6 page an updated framework. It also means that the number of BCL APIs available on ap english both platforms will be identical to university essay writing uk, the ones you can see in ASP.NET 5 today. For example, this includes non-generic collections. Ap English Essay? This will make it much easier for you to bring existing code that runs on top of the .NET Framework into the touch-based application experience.

Another obvious side effect is that the BCL APIs in Windows Store and Windows Phone are fully converged and will remain converged as the underlying .NET platform is now both powered by ford, .NET Core. Sharing code between .NET Core and ap english essay, other .NET platforms. Since .NET Core forms the foundation for all future .NET platforms code sharing with .NET Core based platforms has become friction free. This raises the question how code sharing works with platforms that aren’t based on .NET Core, such as the .NET Framework. The answer is: it’s the same as today, you can continue to use portable class libraries and shared projects: Portable class libraries are great when your common code is platform-independent as well as for reusable libraries where the topics related to psychology platform-specific code can be factored out. Shared projects are great when your common code has a few bits of prompt platform-specific code, since you can adapt it with #if . For more details on how choose between the dissertation two, take a look at this blog post. Moving forward, portable class libraries will also support targeting .NET Core based platforms. The only difference is essay prompt that if you only essay uk, target .NET Core based platforms you don’t get a fixed API set.

Instead, it’s based on NuGet packages that you can upgrade at ap english prompt, will. If you also target at least one platform that isn’t based on how to .NET Core, you’re constrained by the APIs that can be shared with it. Essay? In this mode, you’re still able to upgrade NuGet packages but you may get prompted to select higher platform versions or completely drop support for them. This approach allows you to co-exist in both worlds while still reaping the benefits that .NET Core brings. The .NET Core platform is a new .NET stack that is optimized for open source development and and pedagogy essay, agile delivery on NuGet. We’re working with the essay Mono community to make it great on Windows, Linux and Mac, and Microsoft will support it on all three platforms.

We’re retaining the values that the .NET Framework brings to ford, enterprise class development. We’ll offer .NET Core distributions that represent a set of NuGet packages that we tested and support together. Visual Studio remains your one- stop-shop for ap english development. Consuming NuGet packages that are part of a distribution doesn’t require an internet connection. We acknowledge our responsibility and continue to support shipping critical security fixes without requiring any work from the application developer, even if the affected component is writing exclusively distributed as NuGet package. Questions or concerns? Let us know by commenting on ap english essay prompt this post, by sending a tweet to good essay, @dotnet, or by ap english essay, starting a thread in the .NET Foundation forums.

Looking forward to hearing from you! Congratulations to everyone involved. As a web developer, I am super excited about this and the scenarios it will create! Thanks to everyone for all the work they put into it! Thanks MS. To Start? This will be a great thing when it releases. As a hard core Linux user I welcome the steps you are taking in this cross platform direction. Well done, and keep up the prompt good work.

Glad to see the multiplatform move outside the Windows (iis, desktop, mobile, phone, tablet) space. It will make .net much better. How is moving away from university essay writing, COM based objects and the win32 based C API done on a large scale? So how about open sourcing silverlight? the biggest argument I've heard against ap english essay prompt ASP.Net over the years was the cost of Windows server production licenses. With that issue out of the way, hopefully we'll see some growth for the .Net stack outside enterprises.

Like everyone else, I'm excited about .NET Core, but something bothers me… You say that one of the application service motivations for .NET Core is to solve the issue that updating the machine-wide framework can break applications that were built against an older version; but this scenario mostly affects desktop applications, and if I understand correctly, the desktop is not in the scope of .NET Core… so it doesn't solve anything for prompt desktop apps. And what about WCF? Will it be part of the .NET Core? Will we be able to write console applications using .NET core / .NET native? Oh god this is a dream come true, Microsoft. Thank you developers!

Thank you so much. Thanks for this detailed post. It clarifies a ton of good questions I had. I would cast my vote to, over time, come up with new .NET Core-based versions of existing libraries and ap english essay prompt, project types not already in scope for .NET Core. For example, MVC and Entity Framework are both releasing new versions that are not backwards compatible, but either directly evolved from or at how to a 6 page research paper, least highly inspired by essay prompt, their previous versions, but compatible with the newer, more modern .NET Core. It would be great to topics related to psychology, see similar efforts for WPF, System.Drawing, Windows Services, etc. In some cases they may still be Windows-only (probably the case for both these examples), but that's OK — in the long run it will allow Microsoft to stop maintaining two versions of prompt .NET, and dissertation, allow us to ap english prompt, share code without PCLs, and only deal with NuGet dependencies. Like with MVC and EF updates, each app could choose if/when they bite the bullet and application essay service to start, accept the major breaking change. Another innovation from MS. One of my dream comes true. So what about alternative platforms for ap english prompt distribution of .Net Core?

NuGet is Windows only. Research Topics? I think it will be essential to figure out a best practice for distribution to essay, Mac and college application essay service to start, Linux based systems not just Windows based package managers. This article gives us plenty of information about where things are going on .net framework however it does not reply to real world multiplatform challenges we are facing. Let's say that I want to create a desktop application targeting windows, mac and linux. How can this be done? Is Microsoft going to ap english essay prompt, release any tools where we can write cross platform code? How can we share UI code? How are we going to debug and compile cross platform code? I am truly excited about essay, .NET again after many years. Ap English Essay? Keep up the university writing fantastic work team and congradulations on this feat of engineering. FYI: cross-platform .Net native – probably not possible to port the Visual C++/Windows version to Linux.

However, I did see a channel 9 video about an ms intern working on an LLVM based .net precompilation tool. His work went into an open source project that is ap english essay prompt still active. That might be another route to dissertation, take for a linux/MacOS version of .Net native. This is so great! Too late MS. .NET is ap english essay already a walking corpse. Dead but not quite buried. I just started ASP.NET and .NET in essay, general and ap english essay, I am very pleased to see the advancements that will allow for web apps developed with ASP to be able to run under Linux. Continue the research related to psychology good work!

In 2012, after the ap english essay Microsoft .NET Framework version 1.0, there was the play essay Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure initiative: what are the essay main differences and improvements of making .NET Core released to play, open source if compared to ap english essay prompt, that old initiative? I find the framework-via-NuGet approach very intriguing and write paper, am dealing with a similiar situation on ap english essay top of ford .NET where I am maintaining a framework made up of several dozen libraries that should support individual release cycles. Like the ap english essay name 'distribution' very much for describing the essay metaphors works in a tested fashion release of the combined NuGet packages. Ap English Essay? Was looking for a descriptive name myself #128578; Now, another question in application service to start, this regard and I haven't yet analyzed the ap english essay dependency graph within .NET Core, but I'm assuming you will have dependencies between some of the packages? Now, will you specify the play and pedagogy essay upper boundary for your dependencies in the NuGet packages or will you leave it open until there is an essay actual breaking change that stops the next major version from working with the dependent package? David Ebbo blogged about his recommendation for good metaphors innocent-until-proven-guilty (blog.davidebbo.com/…/nuget-versioning-part-2-core-algorithm.html), but I'm not sure yet about the essay prompt impact this approach has for large scale frameworks. Best regards, Michael. So basically WPF will die together with the play and pedagogy essay old .NET Framework that will eventually be superseded by .NET Core?

Like other commenter here, I'm still very confused about how (or even if) .net Core will ever impact the desktop? You talk about ap english essay, cross-platform development a lot, but you can't deploy a windows store app to linux or OSX (Or even Windows Vista/7) so what's the plan for these platforms? That's something I've never seen an and pedagogy essay answer for. This… is awesome. Well done all! Why that article so long? Just to explain Core is not what you'll use in real Windows.NET? Yiannis Berkos This article… it does not reply to real world multiplatform challenges we are facing. That's because MS has nothing to offer! A whole article of blah-blah/open source/core/kernel/portable buzzwords, but nothing helpful to WPF/WinForms developers. As I guess all this open source hype is just hey, free horses, fix our sh*t and we port it to our Windows.NET.

I'd like to know a lot more about how the System.Windows and System.Windows.Forms .NET libraries will migrate to become cross-platform to run also on ap english prompt Linux and essay service, MacOS. Will these libraries be renamed to e.g. System.NET.Forms to remove the previous tie-in to the Windows OS? Who will develop and support the underlying presentation layer - OS bindings for Linux and MacOS? If we are talking about Linux, then which OS GUI(s) will be supported? Will X.Window manager, KDE, XFCE, E17, LXDE be supported for example? It seems to ap english essay, me that with over 20 different GUI/ Window managers for different Linux variants, it could be a difficult job for MS to essay uk, support them all with a mapping to System.Windows.Forms or whatever its successor will be called. You guys are getting this all wrong, I don't see why you think MS is responsible to create platform everything, if they do great, but that's a giant ask kiddys, is essay prompt it supposed to write, be better or at least as good as native on every platform, if it's not gonna be better like WPF then whats the point, the world is flush in essay prompt, second rate frameworks already, the key thing here is solid framework to base you app on then interop with whatever the targets best in breed native UI View, that is ford if you want to be world class right now, if you just want max reach for your CRUD or forms app switch to HTML5, this is meant for something way better then that, IMHO. Many great things, good to have a portable lean stack.

Sounds great but you created one of ap english main the problem yourself (starting 4.5) by not allowing .NET Framework to be installed side-by-side so applications could choose between 4.0, 4.5, 4.5.1, 4.5.2 in a shared environmement and by ford dissertation, doing things like keeping the 4.0 as the displayed version number even if 4.5 is far from it and having a different CLR but same version and ap english, silent upgrading of the uk CLR on your dev machine just by ap english essay, installing VS 2012+ but can still target 4.0 but not really 4.0. Disk space does not seem like an issue anymore with this new approach so was it the reasoning behind the no side-by-side anymore? Another concern is with third party libraries that will bundle their own versions of assemblies and your own application that may have different versions numbers. Will that lead to something like having two System.Collections.dll files in your deployment folder? Little return of DLL hell? Sounds like a good approach, but several questions: How long does nugget save back level versions of libraries? If I have to dissertation, do maintenance on a year or two old project, will I still be able to get the essay prompt libs, or must I save them as part of my source repository? For those of us with no current interest in ford, cross platform: You don't mention the WinRT stack. Essay Prompt? When will GDI and Win32 go away as a foundational layer for the .Net framework?

Where do we go to find out info on the future path of WinRT and the full desktop? The obvious questions about the and pedagogy essay Road Map for essay the .Net Framework side of the house and topics related, the desktop are still out there. The info provided in The Roadmap for WPF is ap english prompt not much more than a list of bug fixes. This article at write a 6 page research paper, least outlines the essay plan for the .net core. A 6 Paper? We need the same for the .net framework please. Congratulations. You can really feel the maturity of Microsoft in the way decisions have been made to build this new .NET Core stack. I'm glad to see the essay prompt direction you guys are going with more agile deliverables and application essay service, per-app library deployments. However, I agree with the sentiment expressed by others that the desktop needs to be supported in .NET Core.

At minimum this means console applications. I'd like to see MS develop a new, cross-platform UI technology that is ap english essay prompt not WPF and does not use XAML (which is a horrible, overly verbose language). There's a reason WinForms and WPF coexist after so many years- writing WPF applications is extremely powerful but overly complex. I also don't think WinStore/Metro apps fill this niche, as the sandbox these live in is not really appropriate for many enterprise apps and college to start, they're obviously not cross-platform ready. Perhaps HTML + Razor syntax (with C#) would work for a desktop technology as well as it's worked for ASP.NET MVC? I also have to say that MS really needs to lying about its support for ap english non-favored platforms. It's clear that you guys are phasing out development of the university essay uk .NET Framework proper, so you should be HONEST about ap english prompt, that rather than giving empty pledges of ongoing support. Your developers have seen you do this over and over and over again- Silverlight, EF6, VB6 (just look at how many people are still angry at you after all these years!)

You're not sparing anyone's feelings by telling these white-lies- it makes it hard for managers to college application essay service, make decisions about ap english essay prompt, what dev platforms to related, use and essay, it hurts developers careers by giving them false hope that their skill set will remain relevant without having to learn newer technologies. Tell people what support will really be like going forward for to start the .NET Framework- security fixes and ap english prompt, critical bugs, with few if any new features. Now when you decided about .NET Core, why not to open source Silverlight (which you anyway not going to promote)? – The community can port its code to run on top of essay service to start .NET Core and ap english essay prompt, everyone will be happy. @Ron : How is university writing uk moving away from COM based objects and the win32 based C API done on a large scale? The same as in small scale — very carefully #128578; Seriously though, there is ap english nothing wrong with using COM and Win32; in many cases they are simply the operating system APIs that we have to how to, use to implement our libraries, such as System.IO.FileSystem. The key design goal is to keep the exposed APIs independent of the OS so that it's possible to support the same APIs on essay prompt different operating system. For libraries that don't need OS support (such as collections or regex) that's obviously trivial. Good College Metaphors? For OS related services that means we need to think about how we factor the functionality to deal with optional features that can't be supported every.

The post provides the ap english prompt example of ACLs. @Thomas Levesque : You say that one of the motivations for .NET Core is to solve the issue that updating the college essay to start machine-wide framework can break applications that were built against an older version; but this scenario mostly affects desktop applications, and ap english essay, if I understand correctly, the desktop is not in the scope of .NET Core… so it doesn't solve anything for play and pedagogy desktop apps. That's a fair point and I'm quite sympathetic to essay, that view point. However, performing fundamental changes to a complex product like .NET is dissertation always a journey. Whenever we try to make too many drastic changes everybody loses because the chance of us getting it right is slim. That's why it's best to make the innovations in area that (1) immediately adds value and (2) is ap english essay somewhat safe so that we can adjust if things turn out to be problematic. As explained in the post, the .NET Framework is research paper related a complex system but we're fully committed to essay prompt, move it forward.

We understand that the current story isn't the addressing all the needs but we think of .NET Core as a stepping stone in the right direction. @Jeremiah Gowdy : Will we be able to write console applications using .NET core / .NET native? That's something we're working on. We'll absolutely have the Console APIs available in .NET Core. In fact, I believe this one is coming online on GitHub in essay, a couple of weeks. The other part that you'll need for running console apps is an prompt application model that allows you to start run your code. Currently, the only runner we have is ASP.NET's console application template which is mostly geared for web workers. As far as .NET Native goes: it's on the list but we're currently focused on scenarios that are relevant for touch based clients.

@James S : WPF, System.Drawing, Windows Services on .NET Core. For .NET Core we're currently focusing our resources to complete the support for touch based devices and ASP.NET related scenarios. We believe that we're currently serving our desktop customers best by investing in the existing, .NET Framework stack as this ensures that our investments are immediately consumable from writing, existing code. For brand new code, such as immutable collections, we also make sure that it will work on essay prompt top of the .NET Framework. @cjibo : So what about research, alternative platforms for distribution of essay prompt .Net Core? NuGet is Windows Only.

We're fully committed on using NuGet. Whenever there are limitations we believe it's better to improve NuGet than to build or leverage an alternative package manager. The reason being that dependencies across different package managers would be incredibly complicated to reason about. @Yiannis Berkos : Let's say that I want to research topics to psychology, create a desktop application targeting windows, mac and linux. How can this be done? I'm not aware of ap english essay prompt any plans to provide a cross-platform UI framework, if that's what you're asking for. In general, I don't think we believe in using the exact same bits on ford dissertation all platforms. Ap English Essay Prompt? From personal experience I'd say the goal of any successful cross-platform strategy is maximizing sharing while not compromising the experience due towards the lowest common denominator. So I'd say: think of your app as a burger, representing the layering. The bottom bun will require OS specific implementations, but we'll probably provide a good chunk of it.

The top layer (UI) is also very likely to require leveraging OS/experience specific functionality. Write Page Research Paper? The beefy part in ap english prompt, the middle represents your business logic and you should make sure you can share most of it across all platforms. How To Write Research Paper? OS specific concepts should be either pushed down or up (via inversion of control). Tooling wise, you can use PCLs (binary sharing) or shared projects (source sharing). There also additional tools which you can use to maximize sharing in the top layer.

For example, Xamarin.Forms is ap english prompt a thin abstraction over the OS UI stack that allows you to share code that can be the same. It also allows to special case certain OSs. @Craig .NET is already a walking corpse. I take this as a compliment as The Walking Dead is a pretty successful show #128578; @Luigi Bruno : In 2012, after the Microsoft .NET Framework version 1.0, there was the Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure initiative: what are the main differences and improvements of making .NET Core released to open source if compared to that old initiative? I assume you meant 2002, not 2012.

The Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure Implementation (SSCLI), also known as Rotor wasn't open source, it was shared source. Technically, open source means that the license is an OSI approved license. The .NET Core stack uses the MIT License which is a well established, OSI approved open source license. Practically speaking, SSCLI was also never run as an open source project, which means there was no live access to our version control, no open and transparent development process and we didn't take pull requests. On top of that, the play and pedagogy license disallowed using the code to build a different product. @Michael : Now, another question in this regard and ap english prompt, I haven't yet analyzed the dependency graph within .NET Core, but I'm assuming you will have dependencies between some of the a 6 research packages? Will you specify the upper boundary for your dependencies in the NuGet packages or will you leave it open until there is an ap english actual breaking change that stops the next major version from application essay service to start, working with the ap english essay dependent package? Generally speaking, we always ship preview releases which don't commit on a final shape and dissertation, will generally perform breaking changes between releases. By the essay prompt time we ship a stable package we're fairly confident that there are no breaking changes. So we'll leave it open as we don't do breaking changes.

If there are breaks, then we consider this a bug and college metaphors, rather fix the bug than to ap english prompt, ship updated packages that limit the play and pedagogy version range. Ap English Essay Prompt? The latter results in a game that the ecosystem can't win. @Dev : So basically WPF will die together with the old .NET Framework that will eventually be superseded by .NET Core? No. The .NET Framework doesn't die — it simply versions slower. You can think of .NET Core as the application essay service to start faster moving younger brother.

@Stephen : You talk about ap english prompt, cross-platform development a lot, but you can't deploy a windows store app to linux or OSX. A cross platform stack doesn't mean that everything is available everywhere. That's simply not feasible without a massive cost and/or compromising the experience in a fundamental way. Instead, cross platform means that you componentize the college stack and for prompt each component make it as broadly available as possible. Some components (such as the runtime) truly need to go everywhere in service, order to have a story in essay prompt, the first place. Some components are probably going mostly everywhere (such as file system support). Some components might only go to a few platforms (such as ACLs).

And some components might only dissertation, go to a single platform (such as WinRT support). On top of that, you need tooling that allows you reason about the availability of components across all the platforms. Your job as an application developer then is to ap english prompt, factor your application according to the needs of cross platform. See my previous reply to Yiannis Berkos for more details. @Rob Sherratt : I'd like to know a lot more about essay uk, how the System.Windows and System.Windows.Forms .NET libraries will migrate to ap english, become cross-platform to run also on Linux and MacOS . See my previous replies to university essay writing, Stephen and ap english, Yiannis Berkos. I'm not aware of any plans to provide a cross platform implementation for the UI technologies. Essay? I'm also doubtful that's what developers actually want.

I think it's possible to ap english prompt, provide a thing abstraction layer (such as Xamarin.Forms) but a true shared UI technology would be pointless. It would simply mean that the resulting apps looks and behaves equally foreign on all devices. @vibou : Disk space does not seem like an issue anymore with this new approach so was it the reasoning behind the dissertation no side-by-side anymore? It's tempting to think that way but that's actually (no longer) true. Many consumer devices, such as tablets or hybrid machines, have SSDs which, compared to regular disk drives, have a much more limited capacity. Secondly, the consumer experience isn't really great if they get a new machine and then for each app they have to install a several hundred megabyte framework. Also, each time we service it, NGen needs to update the native images which also binds CPU resources, depending on how many side-by-side frameworks exists. We could try to make our side-by-side story more sophisticated by ap english, allowing smart sharing between frameworks but that's actually as complicated as ensuring that the new framework is compatible.

Also note that side-by-side doesn't mean we're out of the compat business either. At some point, you'll want to update to the higher framework anyways so we still need to dissertation, invest in our compat strategy. That's why we came to the realization that at this point for the .NET Framework, in-place updates are a better story. However, we make sure that new components can be delivered in ap english essay prompt, app-local fashion, even for university writing .NET Framework applications. For example, immutable collections for .NET Framework developers are essentially side-by-side. Another concern is with third party libraries that will bundle their own versions of assemblies and your own application that may have different versions numbers. Will that lead to ap english prompt, something like having two System.Collections.dll files in your deployment folder? Little return of DLL hell? While it's true that our NuGet components version independently a given application will only use a single version (the highest version required by any component in paper topics, your application). We make sure that our components are always backwards compatible. Of course, there will always be cases where certain combinations don't blend well but that's why we also ship distributions which represent a set of components that are tested together and thus blend nicely.

This will serve as the equalizer to minimize the different combinations that developers will encounter in practice. @pmont : How long does nugget save back level versions of ap english essay prompt libraries? Indefinitely. Dissertation? In other words, all version will be available forever. In fact, NuGet doesn't even provide any features to remove components from the server. If I have to do maintenance on a year or two old project, will I still be able to get the libs, or must I save them as part of my source repository?

You don't to save the binaries in your repo. NuGet.org will still have the exact versions you used two years ago. Where do we go to find out info on the future path of WinRT and essay, the full desktop? WinRT is a Windows technology, not a .NET technology. The Windows developer blog would be a good starting point. You raise a bunch of good points.

Of course, I can't promise that we'll not make any mistakes moving forward, we'll try really hard to be more transparent, open, and research paper, honest about our decision make process. However, you make one assumption that I'd like to essay prompt, debunk: it's easy to think from an outsider's perspective that we always have the perfect master plan that we simply don't share. That's not true. As Scottt Hanselman said before, we're not nearly as organized to be half as evil as some people think we are. The reality is that engineering is very complicated and takes a lot of university time. We try to be quite transparent around what goals we have and which areas we're focusing on. So when I say I don't know or I'm not aware of any plans don't take this as the ap english magic code words for according to my master plan that's never going to happen. It simply means that I don't know and I'm not aware of any plans. Awesome work!

Its a good time to be a .NET developer. Great job! Is there yet a list of what classes/namespaces that will be part of core vs not in good, core? @Meir : Now when you decided about .NET Core, why not to open source Silverlight (which you anyway not going to prompt, promote)? As you've probably seen in the Silverlight roadmap there are currently no plans to dissertation, build a Silverlight 6. We don't believe in throwing over ap english essay prompt the fence open source. Open source isn't a way to get free labor or outsource the product team's responsibility to the community. This sounds like a good way to support portability across disparate platforms. As an iOS/Droid/MacOSX/WinPhone(WPF/XAML)/WinForms/Win32/Linux programmer, I look forward to being able to good metaphors, cross platforms more quickly, using a common codebase. Any plans for adding WinForms-like iOS/Droid/MacOSX/Linux modules to .NET Core?

I could then use my favorite UI development stack (C# WinForms) to develop apps for all platforms (my favorites being iOS and ap english essay, MacOSX), with only minor re-tooling! Would it need to be done completely in the Mono space? This article was very informative and engaging but it contains several minor grammatical errors; I suggest a through proofread/correct cycle. Daniel Randall: This article was very informative and engaging but it contains several minor grammatical errors; I suggest a through proofread/correct cycle. Did you mean to ford dissertation, demonstrate by example ere? #128578; @Immo Landswerth; As a cross-platform developer in C and C++, I'm perhaps more aware of what's available than the strictly C# Windows devlopers here are, so I'm glad to see Microsoft focusing on the core that the community needs, instead of inventing a new wheel.

Having said that, I can sympathise with them wanting to ap english prompt, be able to use what they are used to essay, for developing software on ap english prompt new plaforms, but without a heck of a lot of effort from Microsoft and the Mono/Xamarin development teams, I don't see it happening soon. Great information, what a new direction for .NET application platform! What's the relationship between .NET Core and WinRT? Are .NET Core runtime and and pedagogy essay, library built with WinRT on windows? Are we expecting cross platform client side library (UI technology) down the road? like Silverlight reborn for mobile and desktop client? First of all, thank you for ap english prompt answering our questions. I notice that .NET Native is college application service always spoken of in ap english, context to .NET Core…are there no plans to bring .NET Native to WPF/WinForms? Never ever use #if. Use separate files with platform dependent code.

Is there any plan to writing uk, continue or open source XNA? It's still a much beloved framework to this day even as it ages. It's a good starting point to get game developers to set foot into C# and the world of .NET. I think it would be beneficial to the MonoGame project to make that code available for them to use. I need my nex web application to run in windows or Linux. I am concerned about how fast aspnet will run in Linux.

Right now mono is very slow. I need something that will have a good performance.how long will we have to wait to test kestrel out in ap english, Linux? I may have to research related to psychology, just go with Java if the wait is ap english essay much longer… I think you should make some cross-platform UI, with VS designers support. It may be WPF Lite without hard-to-port features (like web browser, specific forn rendering options, etc). Without cross-platform, NET Core will be limited to console or ASP.NET 5 apps, and will not be popular. Do you plan to support android ? @Tristan: Check out Eto.Forms in to start, the Visual Studio Gallery; it will do this now for .NET and Mono. Perhaps the author will add suport for .NET Core to it later on. Your post is ap english prompt benefited to my web developer. http://goo.gl/ZQldNQ.

@Immo: Thanks for the details. It's cool that you plan on to start keeping breaking changes out of the major version increments, too. Best regards, Michael. Awesome! Read the whole thing. I'm so exited to take a look at the CLR part when its released. I have couple questions:

1) Will any of this .NET Core stuff be used in .NET Micro? 2) What kind of ap english essay memory constraints would .NET Core have? (Could it replace .NET Micro). 3) Will porting .NET Core CLR to how to write a 6, other CPU types like MIPS, PPC ect be an easy task? 3.3) Will porting to asm.js/NaCl/WebGL for IE, Firefox, Chrome, ect be doable? How much of the CLR has CPU specific instructions? 5) Can I embed .NET Core and invoke the runtime like I can with Embedded Mono? 6) Will .NET Native be open sourced as well so we could port it to other platforms and CPU types? I like to speculate, is the reason you haven't talked about app ui's because you have something up your selves? Like open source and ap english prompt, true cross platform DircertX which all ui will be based on? worries me regarding how serious you are about ford, open source.

worries me about the health and longevity of the project. worries me that you're dumping .net, why should I bother with it when there are far more mature, open and versitile platforms around. I worked at MS as a dev long time back but now am all about linux/Java/JavaScript stuff. This makes me more excited about MS again. Good timing with The Force Awakens teaser as maybe the essay evil empire will awaken once again but this time, will be much cooler.

As a developer of service applications, which we currently deploy as NT services, the equivalent (daemon processes in Linux/OSX) are just console applications. So support for Console apps gives us both the ability to write command line utilities on essay writing POSIX platforms, and the ability to write services on ap english prompt those platforms too. Good College Essay Metaphors? Heck, with a Console app we could implement FastCGI. Using something like TopShelf service apps would become completely portable. I appreciate you bringing ASP.NET but there are service applications that are not web apps that would really benefit from what you're working on. So if it's possible to essay prompt, keep the door open to making runnable console apps with the kind of performance we are hoping for, that would really let .NET explode into the POSIX world. With .NET Core, on touch device, can the app has direct access to essay, SQL server using SqlConnection? To be honest, this is way more confusing than just having a distribution release. Also any support for ap english essay prompt non-Windows platforms worries me as it indicates Microsoft is moving away from Windows OS.

@Jens Larson: Why should Microsoft reinvent the wheel, when the Open Source community has already done this work? There are numerous projects that provide the missing functionality, if you know to essay, look for ap english essay prompt them. @airtonix: There are two separate repositories; github.com/…/referencesource (the one he is talking about in the line you quote) and githup.com/…/corefx which they have fully opened to outside developers. Microsoft is not taking pull requests on the Reference Source simply because it is the past development and good essay, is being made available for essay the Mono Project to use to bring the two somewhat divergent implementations of .NET back together. .NET Core 5 is the future, and university uk, the open source development influence will make it into future releases of the .NET Framework, but in a somewhat more controlled fashion. @Alex: All this means is that Microsoft has realized that there is more to the world of computing, especially at the server level, than the essay Windows Server products that they've developed, and good college metaphors, they are accepting that reality. It doesn't mean that they will abandon developing Windows, but it may mean that eventually they do what Apple did in the late 1990's and open up portions of the Windows Source itself, or something similar; Apple, with Mac OS X, proved that it was viable to utilize the ap english essay open source community to essay metaphors, build a strong platform under the GUI and still keep some proprietary elements.

imo , your still missing the boat guys . the DX12 rewrite and TPL/opencompute should be coalesced , and ap english, dog fooded to hardware accelerate both OS internals and exposed for dev leveraging . that should have targeted/extended the WPF api and good college essay, called winRT. accelerating OS internals means graph data structures , processing , and C# language integration/extension. Ok, I'm kind of late to essay prompt, the party but I wanted to really take my time and read the whole thing, plus the comments. I have a question I did not see addressed on paper to psychology the post or the comments. What will happen with native javascript/html5 windows store and phone programming model with WinRT?

Will everything be sooner on essay the .net core? Can you share something about the plans on supporting this programming model? thanks a lot for the detailed post. Ford Dissertation? Was time to prompt, write something about your plans and what the core framework is. It is a little bit confusing to how to page, the people. Ap English Prompt? They struggle with what the essay uk new core means. It is interesting to read what you are doing and how the teams are working.

To explain the verticals and that there are several teams working on the different verticals was interesting, too. And I think, people aren't aware of the complexity and so the need for the core framework. I like to suggest some points in order to help the people understand what's going on in the .NET Framework and to prompt, keep them on ford dissertation the road with your plans and the technical possibilities as well as restrictions. Just to essay prompt, help them selecting the right things for their application developments and the help them mastering the complexity. One blog post is not enough to explain the play way .NET goes in the future. Bring it back to mind of developers regularly.

Explain it again and again. Provide some more walkthroughs, text and video tutorials, small technical blogs and so on, just to explain what the core Framework is. Essay Prompt? Do it on a regularly base. Show people how to use the core and the full framework. Explain when they should use the one and when the other. Show/explain example use cases and applications for the core and related, the full framework.

Guide them intensively and regularly. Do not only show what people can do. Show restrictions of the core and the full framework and essay, show them what they cannot do with the one and/or the other framework vertical. Do it regularly. Thanks a lot for dissertation all the great work! Looking forward what's coming especially on the other platforms!

Hope to see a lot of the staff I like on Windows on the Mac and Linux in the future! #128578; Kind regards from Berlin! Ih Net Native will not use .NET Framework, that mean that WinForm/WPF apps wont't be possible with NET Native ? Please, give us ability to create Native (Portable) Class Libraries. Thanks. As a .net developer I'm glad I'm not 'legacy' anymore! That being said, it's getting too confusing to develop for MS platform. Right now when I open NewProject window of VS just to ap english essay, create a Store App I have Universal App option, Windows Phone option, as well as Windows Phonge Silverlight option. Apparently, soon there'll be a .Net Core option, right? It's hard to believe all these frameworks for the same platform aren't created by research topics related to psychology, some competitor companies! Unfortunately what I read is this: We are unable to produce a single framework for our one platform, yet we are going to provide a single framework for all other platforms including Mac and Linux. Please don't get me wrong.

I love working with Microsoft platform and tools. Ap English Prompt? I have tried 'eclipse', and 'netbeans' and they suck! I have used Android APIs as well as many firmware OSs. All of them suck compared to Microsoft products, especially compared to .net and VS. I absolutely respect the ford fact that Microsoft doesn't treat their programmers as cr p like many other competitors(Google f.i.) by dumping on ap english essay prompt them cr ppy products and frameworks. I just wish one day the 'one' Microsoft dream becomes a reality again; to open Visual Studio and have that one yet best option for creating a Windows Phone project. .Net and C# was that option on desktop for years. Please bring us that one option for service to start mobile and solve the confusion caused by ap english essay prompt, too many incomplete choices. @Immo Landwerth – a couple of comments from the corporate WPF desktop trenches (major investment bank organisation) First and metaphors, most importantly, the essay prompt issue of in-place framework upgrades is a nightmare in write research paper, this environment.

We are still stuck using 4.0 because there are a couple of apps with 4.5.x compatibility issues and a firm-wide deployment of the “new” platform won’t happen any time soon. Our team must argue for ap english commissioning non-standard workstation OS builds if we want to writing uk, make use of 4.5/4.6 for our app, and essay, this creates enormous friction within a large corporate as you can probably imagine. Essay Uk? I understand your rationale against SxS for consumers and SMEs and completely agree that it makes sense. However, couldn’t you provide some kind of option to ap english, build and deploy a desktop app with the complete framework packaged in, with no “smart sharing”? We’d have to take the ford hit on disk space and load-time efficiency but those are trivial matters for essay prompt us, while being stuck on an old framework version certainly isn’t. Also @Jeremiah Gowdy you are spot on with your comments about console-mode services.

Our applications typically use Java on and pedagogy the middle tier for services of this type. If could use .NET Core console services instead then that would open up some great synergies that we currently miss out on. But in general, a big “way to go” to essay, MSFT for paper topics related this announcement; it’s a watershed point moment for .NET, no question. The problem with microsoft for the past lost decade has been that it has spent more time re-factoring than it has spent taking existing investment forward. This is yet again another massive re-factoring to put us where we have been stuck since WPF came out, only 10 years later.

And now, just as winRT is in bad need of maturing to ap english prompt, hopefully someday replace WPF, MS is write a 6 research paper yet doing another massive re-write and starting over ap english yet again. College Essay Metaphors? Is it not indicative of ap english all that is wrong with this approach the application service fact that we have two async patterns in winRT just because MS insists on starting from ap english essay, scratch all the good college time? However what is prompt turly worrying about play and pedagogy, this is not that you'll do it anyways leading to yet another stack that will uncessfuly try to ap english prompt, get .NET FX apps out of the dissertation established windows framework which is the one with 1.5 billion users, not your new thing. What worries me is essay that 3 years from now you'll do it again, and start over again with yet another stack because this one wasn't adopted outside of the asp.net folks and research paper to psychology, all this effort would have been better spent in the one thing every .net developer has been begging you to do: take existing .net, that is wpf, win forms, .net FX 4.5 and just let me make mobile apps with it using my existing code base. Scrap winRT forever as you did with silverlight and stop your internal cross teams wars. Ap English? We already had a technology that worked until the windows 8 team decided for no reason to college application service to start, roll back the clock API wise 10 years, it and started over with a half baked framework that today has failed in the market. In trying to solve a problem which needs fixing: ASP.NET on linux, you're fragmenting yet again windows client development. Yet you're achieving nothing: client development is going to essay, stay on iOS and and pedagogy, Android's native stacks, and on essay the .NET FX for windows stacks. Why would anybody create these .net native apps based on .net core for mobile devices which won't run on windows 7's 1.5B install base? Better yet, you can only create them on winRT, which is pathetically inmature.

All so I can share some logic between the app and asp.net's backend? who does this anyway? Specially when mobile apps aren't even written in c#, as most are java, objective C. The 1% of people who will care for this won't matter. I much rather have either a winRT API which can be used for desktop development, or a WPF version that can be used for mobile. If the price for research paper related that is ap english essay that my .dll doesn't always work on some server backend, so be it. Write A 6 Research Paper? Yet most of the time, as long as you develop for mscorlib you're fine, and prompt, if your linux variant needs #if statements via the shared project way, so be it. How about merging all the verticals into one common core that doesn't change much? No forking, no compatiblity issues, less disk space in the long haul. Maybe call it .net one. First of all let me say that I'm really excited about the play and pedagogy essay whole .net core thing and your move toward open source. Neverthless I have to disagree when you say: As you've probably seen in the Silverlight roadmap there are currently no plans to build a Silverlight 6. We don't believe in essay prompt, throwing over the fence open source.

Open source isn't a way to get free labor or outsource the product team's responsibility to the community. Well, I think you missed the essay point here. Silverlight is a killer technology for essay prompt building in-browser front-ends for line of business apps. I mean, productively. With C#, LINQ, and a predictable layout system designed for apps, not documents. Sure it has its flaws, but for the needs of play and pedagogy essay a typical LOB application it's like WPF (cool) without the need for the full-blown .net framework, easily consumable through the browser, even on ap english prompt Macs. Now, you may have different plans for the future of the UI side of the good college metaphors .net story, but why not letting other people which are still interested in Silverlight take over the project? You don't have to participate if you think it's not worth the effort. It's not like getting free labor.

It's letting the community decide wether the platform has to die or not. Essay Prompt? Maybe it still will. Good College Essay? Maybe not. Will the CoreCLR provide the same Profiling API as the .NET Framework (msdn.microsoft.com/…/bb384493(v=vs.110).aspx)? Will it be part of the open source code as well? if you think you are maintaining great interoperability without the abilty to Wrap WCF services with MEF contacts interop will be degraded greatly, given the ap english detail of the good college metaphors post and the question being ignored on every MSDN thread. I hope I'm wrong, @immo please tell me I am. Essay? I get the sick feeling I'm not. kind of and pedagogy makes the whole thing pointless if your not gonna include the ap english best pieces, I wouldn't blame you, WCF and dissertation, MEF are jewels, I don't see anyone else giving away there best stuff but it would instantly open up so many options. Ap English Prompt? : I am really happy with the new path of the .NET team. Essay Service? Is there some chance of that the .NET Native Compiler generates native codes for essay prompt non-windows platforms? It will be great to use C# as really an evolution of the C++. @hi @immo, I looks pretty difficult to do anything with .net core, so count me in !,LOL.

first trip down the play and pedagogy essay rabbit hole ended at EventDescriptor.cs need InternalSR.ValueMustBeNonNegative. looks like 15 other modules reference the InternalSR class as well, in the referencesource-masterSystem.ServiceModel.InternalsSystemRuntime. vs in ap english, the mystersoius stangers path,LOL. I am super excited about the ford direction of .net. You guys are just in the nick of time. When I look at new startups and a lot of fast growing companies, I see a lot of Ruby, Python, and a lot of other open source tech.

Consumer facing app dev seems to revolve around open source a lot more than enterprise LOB app dev. Prompt? By fully embracing an open source path, I think you'll be keeping ASP.NET (and .net in general) relevant for a very long time. It's always nice to read about the future of the ford dissertation .NET stack. I wonder though if you can add something about Unity (game engine, not patternpractice ones). I understand that it probably depends only on ap english prompt Unity Technologies decisions and one should ask them indead, but if there are any plans on MS side about it, could you mention them, please? This is a fantastically succinct and articulate overview. Play? 5 stars for content and clarity. Microsoft can immediately make it's platforms more relevant by simply supporting JRE. Today, migrating Android apps to Windows Phone is a major re-architecture. I realize Dalvick isn't a pure Java runtime, but it's closer than .NET. From my viewpoint, .NET is just Microsoft's version of a JRE.

This basically tells us, .NET Framework is in maintenance mode, use .NET core now onwards, its leaner and better, its cloudy and mobile, in it you have ASP.NET which is your cross platform solution you can stick into Windows, Mac or Linux and use everywhere there is a browser, and you have .NET native which is native to Windows, and will work great with our One Microsoft vision, that means you will have specific little .NET verticals, which will all share the same BCL, be supported on ap english essay whatever new shiny device we may spit out ranging from topics, tiny micro boards to classic desktops and ap english essay prompt, all the essay uk mobile jungle in between, and all that in ap english prompt, a great to code by Modern Async Azure enabled Universal app model. And the rest of it is play essay legacy maintenance enabled. I salute you! Now you may innovate some more. As Microsoft move away from prompt, supporting .Net and leave it to open source, why do they still refuse to open source the VB6 programming language ? How does this impact the micro framework (embedded devices)? I seem to spend way to much time, effort and money chasing Microsoft's next big idea, only to play, see it thrown out by the time I learn it and finish my first project. Then the cycle repeats. This gets old… Cuando ya creia que lo sabia todo… los dioses me cambian las reglas.

No acaba uno de asimilar las nuevas tecnologias, cuando ya aparecen otras nuevas e indudablemente mejores. Ap English Prompt? Pero para poderlas dominar se requieren tambien buena documentacion. Dada la gran variedad de dispositivos y sistemas operativos, se debe contemplar realmente que las aplicaciones escritas desde Visual Studio tengan funcionalidad en Windows, Linux, OS X, iOS, Android, eso si seria una gran novedad. Porque de otro modo esto se esta asemejando a una torre de babel donde la comunidad informatica sera confundida. Its good to see MS taking such nice and useful initiatives. technologically all fine with the latest steps by ms / .net. but pleeeeease stop this ms-wide bullshit spree by ford, using the word experience as often and essay prompt, as senseless as it gets. example here: You can think of portable class libraries as an essay experience that unifies the different .NET verticals based on their API shape. Do we still need care about CLR version ? It's late from my end but really wish to congratulate MS. Glad to hear about this release. In overall, .NET is ap english essay prompt like the rest.

It becomes a garbage. There is no clean direction. Research To Psychology? Even C# become a garbage. Microsoft need to separate the real Core, the language, and Microsoft products. Ap English Prompt? Things like integration of application Entity Framework in .NET is the best example of what I call garbage or ASP.NET MVC with Razor. Prompt? .NET Core is just a helper of good metaphors what developer don't understand on prompt programming. I suppose this is useful for someone.

But not me. Guess you have a target audience somewhere. Not here. This is awesome stuff, but I think if you really want to knock the socks off of people… Adapt WFP to essay, run on Open GL or DirectX and build it to support linux and mac… It would (imo) be the best cross platform UI system to ap english essay, ever hit the streets. open sourcing silverlight is the research paper topics related to psychology next step :=) This announcement excites me most because if it comes to be and gains some production worthy reputations, I can finally do everything the JRE guys are doing but with .Net, and ap english essay, with a better IDE (imo) than Eclipse or IntelliJ… I can't wait to go up to the senior architect and show him a website running on apache in linux and go through the conversation… So you finally moved to dissertation, Java huh

Me: No it's actual Microsoft .Net code Huh… it's a windows only platform, how can that be? Me: No, .Net Core 5 runs on essay prompt Mac, Linux, and ford, Windows, they went cross platform with the ap english prompt .Net Core 5 release. Me: It's also compiled to research paper, native machine code I'm not nearly as excited about this announcement and ap english, .Net Native's announcement as I am for ford dissertation what that will bring us in the future.

I can fully see a WPF version that sits on top of Open GL as opposed to DirectX (seeing as IE 11 already implemented WebGL), that could also bring us WPF browser support in the future should that come to be. But mostly it would make it possible to build WPF apps for Linux and Mac… I can also see .Net Native supporting Class Libraries, Windows Forms etc, and opening up a whole new can of worm's for prompt AAA game development platform choices and seeing games come out built on .Net but compiled with .Net Native. E.g. Imagine if XNA Framework got picked up, converted to work on play and pedagogy essay Open GL or DirectX, and then supporting .Net Native compilation? So to me, this news, is the basis for good things to ap english, come. What I didn't get yet is… will this .NET Core be a new version like 4, 4.5.1, 4.5.2, 4.6.0 etc, but the version here is Core 2015? Will it make the application has all its dependencies inside it, without forcing the user of that app to install .Net Framework on his machine? And it is not only about porting applications horizontally.

It's about having to learn the singularities of every vertical stack when you think that you can program in C#. Research Related? Good job. What work has been done to prompt, add better integration of application essay .NET and ap english, apache on the windows platform? One thing to notice is the effort to discover the good essay package. Say originally, if I used List, I can Alt+Shift+F10 to discover the namespace to import.

And if the prompt nugetalizing means I need to university essay uk, remember which nuget the List is in, that will become ridiculously annoying. Aaah finally my platform is cross platform.Thx Satya Nadella. …we’ll make .NET Core great for prompt Windows, Linux and Mac OSX… I've heard that before, minus the Core. How To Page Research? Thanks to you we're still struggling with silvers***e. I can't believe you will still continue to make changes to prompt, the .Net Framework. That sounds super redundant.. @MustBe: The .NET Framework is in ford, use on a lot of ap english essay prompt existing hardware, including the latest Windows 10 machines, so it makes perfect sense for them to essay, maintain it in parallel with .NET Core. Ap English Prompt? Also, .NET Core is in and pedagogy essay, nearly constant flux at this time, so having a stable system for mainstream users makes more sense than subjecting them to the potential issues that simply dropping support for .NET Framework would cause. I am not clear about Microsoft's strategy for internet of things and support for essay prompt devices like Raspberry Pi.

Is there a future for play and pedagogy .net Micro Framework? Reading this article gives me the impression that support stops at touch device which leaves out a most of the IOT space. I don't think so – Mac users mostly dont want to use anything non-conforming absolutelly to ap english prompt, their UI. And also, imagine WPF as first golive prototype of paper totally new GUI approach (against Win32), heavily bound to full NET Framework, then Silverlight as second golive prototype based on WPF features stripped down enough to essay, be useable in browser (in fact SL = CoreCLR +native agcore.dll UI renderer/eventing), then axing Silverlight (because of outside world too, though), so now opensourcing CoreCLR + part of BCL + AOT compiler + targets binding (devices, web/owin) as .NET Core … so agcore.dl part of SL was at least partially baked/rewriten as again stripped-down FINAL WinRT UI using enhanced COM-binding (reflective by any langunage, so JS too) … that's all because devices are constrained by battery power, so any heavy VM overhead si not good here (both CPU/RAM). Good Essay Metaphors? …During last few years, we was helping to test their prototypes, in fact #128521; … as portable options for ap english essay LOB, Xamarin.Forms seens to be good enough (databinding concepts similar to SL) and even more portable is MonoGame/XNA (and mono runtime used by these will by and pedagogy, continuously replaced everywhere by .NET Core with MS support, it seems) Thanks MS. I never thought this would happen someday.

Ultimately, you are back on the right track. If you are creating a native exe, i.e. windows, linux, osx etc. than how can you run in different kernal.. then how is it cross-pathform ? did you mean that you need to create different exe for ap english specific platform? And in that case, who gurantees that the all the other framework are same ? for e.g. templates/algorithms/ os thread scheduling/context switching .. and optimization due to that.. –given this, it is almost impossible to have exact same behavior even if you compile for each platform… unless you are running your code in VM, then it can not be native. All this cross platform awesomeness… Any plans to make PowerShell work cross platform against .Net Core 5? I don't think it would be to a 6 research paper, hard, people would just have to essay prompt, remember that only so many cmd-lets are available on university essay writing Core 5. I would LOVVVEEEE to be able to leverage powershell cross platform for all kinds of things, even as a video game developer console. Copy-Item -Path $filePath -Destination $destPath. Could work and do the copy on ap english prompt Linux, Mac, and Windows.

But things like the windows registry provider and various other windows specific things wouldn't be part of the Runspace and not in the Pipeline. Good plan. Bad and confusing implementation. Core has ASP.NET 4.6 and ASP.NET 5. Why two? Can the core by Core and talk about ASP.NET? Please have a look at metaphors, the following question regarding the feasibility of deploying a WF application to ap english essay, Linux: social.msdn.microsoft.com/…/workflow-fondation-on-linux. Very helpful and well written introduction – thank you. Very interesting.

Thanks. The .NET Core is so limited it is essay metaphors better to ap english essay, call it .NET Utilities. You say limited. What in particular are you missing? Good knowledge sharing…. Thanks for introduced new concept of .NET… how to download .net soft ware and how to use it. that is repeated twice in this sentence. Play And Pedagogy Essay? 'The mscorlib provided by the .NET Framework contains many features that that can’t be supported everywhere (for example, remoting and AppDomains).'

Great but we also need this? Bring Windows 10 Universal Apps to essay, Android and iOS. Create something like what Xamarin is doing in essay service, order to help developers to code once and run EVERYWHERE (Wndows 10, windows 10 mobile, android and ios). If Microsoft could not buy Xamarin, at least do what they are doing by ap english, your own. Make something that enable us to archive real NATIVE cross platform development. It could dramatically increase the numbers of developers using .net to create mobile applications as well as increasing the research paper number of apps created to ap english essay, wp too, since app could be compiled to ios, android AND WINDOWS PHONE. Hibrid apps like apache Cordova has a lot of potential but right now it is limited to essay, offer a bad user experience when compared to essay, the native apps you could build native with native objective-c on iOS, java on Android or C# (on Xamarin.Forms o WP and Windows 8). Porting .net to others platforms is good, but go further MS, create something that help us to code once and run everywhere. And by EVERYWHERE I mean, not just windows, I mean: Native apps on Android, iOS, Windows PC, Windows Mobile, Xbox, HoloLens and to ford dissertation, on.

Bring us a tool that enable us to make Visual Studio Universal Apps REALLY UNIVERSAL (running as well on android and iOS). We want a Framework that enable us to build NATIVE. By the way Xamarin Starter edition has a very limited package size so is almost impossible to create even small apps with an organised architecture (multi layers) and its licences fees is very expensive too. Hey M$ look to prompt, the opportunity a tool like Xamarin could bring to the windows ecosystem. It could help you to play, resolve the app gap Windows Phone suffers so far. With a tool that can help developers to build native applications to windows as well as to android and iOS could bring the apple and android developers interest to use it and since it will be able to ap english, compile to windows phone then they will not have why to do not do so. It will also bring mobile developers form other platforms (android and iOS) to Visual Studio and .NET. Hi, while researching these days about rendering of WPF and college essay service, SL and rewritten GDI and Direct2D and essay, everything related to MILcore and my loved AgCore part of good metaphors SL which has potential to run everywhere already, I can only point you outside to peek whats all possible – Embarcadero did thing FireMonkey and they do something native accross platforms by this; not knowing more and ap english essay, still learning to know also this part of university writing world little bit, just now you can join theirs c++ bootcamp too: (truth is their IDE is anything but fast, as was usual all the time despite the essay native code; but the new FMX thing is interesting somehow) i wonder whether or not .net core will available for plesk panels ? I just like the helpful info you supply to your articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and test once more here frequently. I’m moderately certain I’ll be informed many new stuff proper here!

Best of luck for the next! NO ONE IS AS BIG AS MS. Another innovation from MS. One of my dream comes true.

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Early Adulthood Cognitive Development. Cognition pertains to the acquisition, processing, transformation, storage, and retrieval of any information concerning the world (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998). This process affects every aspect of our personality. Essay. Cognitive processes such as perceiving, conceptualizing, reasoning, remembering, and to psychology contemplating are all necessary for us to solve everyday problems, to work and do the essay prompt, household chores properly, to arrive at a sound decision and perform other daily activities that make use of our minds (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998). Thus, the development of the cognitive attributes of every individual molds his or her future for cognition is the crucial factor in meeting the challenges of life (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998). According to Piaget, cognitive development is the product of the ford dissertation, interaction of the individual with the environmental events (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998). The cognitive attributes of every individual is fundamentally shaped by the heredity. Heredity dictates our physical appearances and essay other biological and physiological characteristics (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998). How To Write Page. In this connection, our genetic make up spontaneously manifests in our physical appearance and personality through maturation (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998). Even though we have different genes, human maturation is identical to all races.

This means that differences in our physical appearance is dictated by our genes but all humans pass through, as a result of ap english maturation, identical stages of development. Early adulthood generally included individuals within the age-range of eighteen to forty years (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). After adolescence stage, individuals have attained formal and abstract reasoning and capable of solving problems by considering all possible means (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). In his theory of development, K. Warner Schaie described the transition between adolescence to college service, adulthood stages as a cognitive change from acquisition of knowledge to knowledge application (Santrock, 2006). He proposed that cognitive changes occur in two distinct stages. Essay Prompt. In achieving stage, the individual applies intelligence in achieving long term goals like career development. The honing of how to write a 6 research cognitive skills for behavioral regulation leads to the acquisition of the sense of independence (Santrock, 2006). On the other hand, during the early to middle adulthood, the responsibility stage commences. The young adults in this stage start to establish and nurture their own career and recognize their social responsibility (Santrock, 2006).

Also, during this stage, individuals form families, focus effort and attention on the needs of children and essay spouse (Santrock, 2006). Gisela Labouvie-Vief believed that young adults undergo thought synthesis and intensive changes on service to start thinking (Santrock, 2006). The young adults tend to look for their proper place in ap english essay the society and seldom use logic in problem solving. Due to strong cognitive attributes, logical skills do not suffer a slump in the adulthood (Santrock, 2006). Meanwhile, William Perry suggested the how to write page research, differences in the process of thinking between adolescents and young adults (Santrock, 2006). The view of the adolescents on the world is described as dualistic thinking wherein every object has its opposite like right or wrong and good or bad. As maturity takes it course, multiple thinking replaces dualistic thinking (Santrock, 2006). Then, young adults tend to recognize myriad opinion and ideals of community members which leads to realization that not every problem can be resolved by the authority (Santrock, 2006). As a result, young adults start to shape their own thinking style, recognize the possible equality of opinions among the populace, and form their own opinion. This process results to essay, relative subordinate thinking where the knowledge assessment is practiced and one’s opinions are challenged by the other members of the community (Santrock, 2006).

After the systematic evaluation of knowledge, full relativism arises which leads to the realization that knowledge is constructed, context-based, and nom-absolute; thus, one realizes that truth is relative (Santrock, 2006). Furthermore, Jan Sinnot viewed that cognitive attributes of every individual develops as pressured by real-life problems (Santrock, 2006). As the individual strive to solve the problems at hand, he or she considers different perspectives resulting to and pedagogy essay, realization that knowledge is non-absolute (Santrock, 2006). Jean Piaget’s Formal Operations. The fourth stage, Formal Operations, of Jean Piaget’s cognitive development corresponds to adolescent period of humans and extends to the adulthood (Elliot, Kratochwill, Cook, and Travers, 2000). This is the stage of decentralization where the ap english prompt, individual learns to college application service to start, thinks objectively and ap english essay considers every aspect of a problem. Although every adult develops the ability for formal operations, most may not reach the summit of formal operations; they continue to have a single-minded and ego-centered judgment (Elliot, Kratochwill, Cook, and Travers, 2000). Meanwhile, a decentrated individual has the capacity to dissertation, rearrange and simplify information which in turn facilitates his or her understanding. The individual has the ability to conceive principles or scientific law applicable to observations, formulate hypotheses and design experiments for testing, and operate on operations (Elliot, Kratochwill, Cook, and ap english essay prompt Travers, 2000). In the ford dissertation, stage of formal operations, individuals learn to perform formal operations by means of logical and abstract forms of thinking (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998).

Individuals’ thoughts at this stage tend to shift form ideal to reality. In addition, adolescence at this period has developed hypothetico-deductive form of reasoning (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998). They already have the ability to gather data and investigate, formulate hypotheses, and prompt deduce generalization from the results of service investigation. Further, the satisfactory completion of formal operations leads to continuous development of knowledge’s structure and the intellect. Essay Prompt. However, in the absence of the appropriate mental stimulus, it would be an arduous task for the individual to hurdle the dissertation, stage of formal operations for the mental structures required were not attained (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). Nevertheless, even the student s of the higher educational institutions and ap english essay some professionals failed to reach the formal operations; they tend to be stagnant on the stage of concrete operations (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). For those who will successfully attain the formal thought level, further development of mental capacity and completion of process of maturation spontaneously occur (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005).

Information Processing Theory and Cognition. The information processing theory described the information processing of humans similar to computers. Perceived stimuli through our senses are encoded, transformed, and stored by our cognitive system (Louw, Van Ede, and ford Louw, 1998). Then, retrieval to ap english prompt, stored data happens as the college essay metaphors, need arises. With respect to cognitive development, the information-processing theory emphasized the changes on the perceived information during the processing (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998). For instance, the capacity to perceive stimulus varies with age while the ability to prompt, apply the process of encoding also changes with age (Louw, Van Ede, and Louw, 1998). Research and Cognition. In 1975, Riegel postulated that our experiences serve as cognitive challenge which leads us to the discovery of opposite of dialectical forces in our immediate environment (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005).

He suggested that by dealing with every dialectic force in application service our life, intellectual ability is enhanced. Based on research concerning postformal thought, development continuously progresses beyond Piaget’s formal operational stage (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). Ap English Essay Prompt. In a study, participants were given complex tasks like political problems, personal relationship, and problems on the economy (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). University Essay Writing Uk. Then, they were asked to give their own views and its rationale. It was revealed that adults exhibited different levels of reasoning (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). Similarly, according to Kramer, postformal individuals pass through absolutist, relativist, and dialectical cognitive levels (Hewston, Fincham, and ap english prompt Foster, 2005).

Most young adults are absolutists; they are able to face problems and often believe that every problem has its own solution (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). Relativists recognize variation on college perspectives for a single issue and the rightful solution for the problem is always context-dependent (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). Essay Prompt. In the dialectic phase, individuals tend to integrate and research paper synthesize all possible views concerning the problem. According to Basseches, this level of prompt reasoning can be observed among university students and professors in the higher educational institutions (Hewston, Fincham, and essay Foster, 2005). In line with this, the postformal operation stage comes into the scene when the individual has a thought-provoking environment between twenty to ap english essay prompt, thirty years of how to a 6 page research paper age. The nature of work or profession of the individual triggers his or her knowledge on concrete operations for further development (Hewston, Fincham, and Foster, 2005). At about twenty years of age, the ap english, individual had undergone roughly two decades of changes in cognitive aspects (Fischer, Yan, and write a 6 page research Stewart, 2003). The cognitive development beginning from the ap english prompt, infancy stage has been becoming complex. Along with this, as revealed by researches in developmental psychology, individuals exhibit cognitive skills at different levels of cognitive development (Fischer, Yan, and Stewart, 2003).

This means that the individuals at this point can apply both basic and a considerable cognitive skills complexity in dealing with life problems. In addition, the how to research, concept of upper limit or the set of tasks beyond which the individual can not perform is not absolutely real for appropriate scaffolding or contextual support can facilitate the attainment of goals (Fischer, Yan, and ap english Stewart, 2003). Instead, the absence of scaffold or tasks per se is the caused why certain skills won’t be observed in an individual (Fischer, Yan, and Stewart, 2003). Thus, the progress of uk cognitive development should be analyzed as a continuous process from infancy to the present state. Ap English Essay Prompt. In fact, the present cognitive skills honed by college, cognitive tasks are built upon the previous cognitive skills attained (Fischer, Yan, and Stewart, 2003).

The theory of Dynamic skills described the context-based development and refinement of cognitive attributes. Cognitive tasks from infancy to the present state have been building and restructuring conceptual categories and concrete skills upon the minds of individuals (Fischer, Yan, and Stewart, 2003). Both adolescent and young adult restructure tasks from representation to abstractions. Also, the ladder of skills is essay prompt, not merely just a reflection of development, rather a yardstick onto essay, which variation in cognitive tasks are assessed (Fischer, Yan, and ap english Stewart, 2003). This permits for the comparison of essay metaphors every activity under optimal, scaffolded, or functional classification. Cognition is generally defined as set of metal activities involved in the encoding, perception, storing, and retrieval of information. It is essay prompt, described as a set of inter-related process that guides one’s contexts of action as well as emotion. University. The information processing theory holds that proper allocation of attention on a task or stimulus results to efficient perception.

On the other hand, perception means recognition of stimuli; thus, successful perception entails efficient processing of information that becomes the ap english prompt, basis of how to a 6 paper one’s volition. Meanwhile, the ap english prompt, cognitive faculties of the individual are primarily shaped by research paper, the cognitive tasks and scaffold or contextual support provided by his or her immediate environment. Thus, although every human has inborn capacity for cognitive advancement, environmental influences take precedence on the expression and further development of ap english cognitive attributes. As a result, the dissertation, age demarcation for any cognitive stage is prompt, just a rough estimation for some people may advance or lag far behind, on age basis, with respect to cognitive skills attainment. Moreover, even though Piaget’s theory was extremely attacked by criticisms, it provided insights on the development of cognitive skills from infancy to college to start, adolescence. On the other hand, Lev Vygotsky proved that through proper scaffolding, a child can accomplish a task higher than associated tasks under his or her classification in Piaget’s stages of ap english essay prompt cognitive development (Elliot, Kratochwill, Cook, and Travers, 2000). Hence, cognitive development is not made of distinct phases, but the development can proceed gradually.

This means that a child at pre-operational stage by means of scaffolding can accomplish cognitive tasks under formal operations. Further, the respective theories of Schaie, Sinnot, Perry, Vief as well as of Riegel and Kramer, similarly recognized the crucial role of environmental support on the cognitive development of every individual. Elliot, S.N., Kratochwill, T.R., Cook, J.L., and how to a 6 Travers, J.F. (2000). Ap English Essay Prompt. Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Fischer, K., Yan, Z., and Stewart, J. (2003). Handbook of Developmental Psychology. Valsiner, J. and Connolly, K.J.

Eds. London: SAGE Publication. Hewston, M., Fincham, F.D., and college essay metaphors Foster, J. (2005). Psychology. United Kingdom: BPS Blackwell. Louw, D.A., Ede, D.M., Louw, A.E. (1998). Human Development, 2nd ed.

Cape Town, South Africa: Pearson Education. Santrock, J. W. (2006) Life-Span Development, 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Haven#039;t found the Essay You Want? PhDessay is an educational resource where over 40,000 free essays are collected.

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