Research proposal question example
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Qualitative research questions: Where, why and how questions are used in research proposals
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Best Professional Practices for Artists: The Artist Resume. Proposal? While serving as a juror for a large group exhibition, I had to view a number of professional artist resumes. Overall, the experience was less than pleasant. I was shocked and dismayed by the disorganization I encountered. Solving? One resume did not have the artist#8217;s name at research proposal question the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them!
Several resumes did not include basic contact information. Others included lengthy descriptions of professional experiences that had nothing to do with an art career, and still others were difficult to navigate, with pages and pages of small-type font. I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for the basic information and experience which mattered. If you are going to be evaluated for a professional opportunity based on your resume, the number one thing you need to do is phd thesis on digital watermarking make your information easily available. Make the font legible. Keep the research question size large enough to read without reading glasses. Use bullets and clearly separated or labelled sections. Is there enough white space? Too much white space? If you fail to cover these basics, your resume will be useless.
The Art Resume vs. The Employment Resume. Art resumes are very different from solving websites your job resume. The purpose of an art resume is to help an artist to win awards and grants, to proposal question, gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of this has anything to do with your former employment in non-art-related fields. You will want to leave your employment experience out, for the most part.
Another main issue: length. Typically, an art resume is two to on digital, three pages long. If you are asked for research proposal, a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in length and include everything you#8217;ve ever done in steps art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages. Your art resume should be edited down to the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience. Who is your audience? What is your goal?
The more research you can do on whoever is going to be reviewing your resume, the better for you. How can you make yourself look most appealing to your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. Research Proposal Question? Contact information is always first. Include your name, address, phone, email, and steps process, website. I think it is a good idea to print this part larger than the rest for easy and quick viewing.
Education goes next. Include your most recent degrees first. Research Proposal Question Example? If you have a degree in something non-art related, you may want to leave it out. Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well. I suggest putting #8216;Awards and phd thesis, Honors#8217; next, if you have any. Research? This category is problem solving websites important because it digtinguishes you from all the other candidates. If you have been awarded a grant, put it here. If you received an art award at college graduation, it goes here.
Any #8216;Best in Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here. These items are a big deal. Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. If you have only had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in a more general exhibition section. Research Proposal Question? If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217; Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category. Bibliography References? Base your decision to include a juried section on question your numbers of communication essays, these. Typically, a juried exhibition is seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is well-known. Research? Always list the technology essays name of the juror in addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates.
This type of name-dropping is strategic, especially in an art world that is proposal question example small and phd thesis on digital, inter-connected. #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next. Choose what to include based on what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of proposal question example, a packet you are sending to a gallery, you may want to edit out technology, shows done in coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. Gallerists tend to be snobs. Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is research proposal question example seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the connection essay one you are applying to leave it out.
If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in this section is to display a breadth of research proposal example, experience and a professional appearance. You want to seem responsible and easy to work with this makes you a more desirable candidate. The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for pretty much anything, you need to have some kind of on digital watermarking, press. Research Proposal Question? Press on online sources and making essay, blogs are absolutely fine. Question Example? Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning. If a group show you participate in is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what?
If you need more lines in your press section, then include it. If you have enough press to look respectable, leave it out. 8. Related Professional Experience. This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is connection essay not a job resume. Your goal is not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and any art-related jobs you have held. Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is research question example not a job resume! I know that many professional resumes include an objective. Pre Calc Answers? This takes up unnecessary space and is redundant. If you are applying for something specific, your objective will be obvious. Leave this section out research question example, of an artist resume.
You should keep an all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in connection essay order to cut and paste the info into proposal example, a new, shorter resume designed for a specific purpose. Problem? One other, last suggestion is to look at several examples of resumes by proposal question example, artists you respect. Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes. Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for yourself based on these examples. Happy applications! Oh, and if you want to read the Professional Practices Post from last month on Artist Statements, click here.
Author Cara Ober is making connection Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Cara Ober is the question Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. Biggs and Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of Success. Steps In The? Black Voices in Contemporary Art Criticism. Where are all the research Black art critics?
Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino. Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to technology, Baltimore Artist. Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. This is a pretty good article, except for the typo. That is proposal question essential in creating a good resume. Proofreading. It is funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to distinguished. Also, comma at start of last graph is not needed. Also. What about Public Art?
I m seeking for this only.. The first thing to learn about how to write a resume cover letter is that the essay cover letter gives the job seeker a unique opportunity to introduce him or herself before actually meeting in person.Sample CV. I found your article on Sample Resume writing tips insightful and helpful, thanks for sharing this information on resume. Sample Resume. While it is important to question, put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of school for a while sometimes your experience is actually relevent. In this case, education should be located at the bottom. Technology Essays? Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to resumes, and proposal question example, what may be right for one employer may not be for the next. This is good advice thank you.
But reading it had me thinking that, given all the protocols, would be nice if the enclosed work spoke for itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the over-riding consideration? Great post- thank you so much! All of this is such a mystery to many of us. @Radar Redux- Good luck to you in creative or nontraditional formatting. In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and choose not to deal with you. Phd Thesis Watermarking? There is something to be said for proposal, being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators.
No one wants to problem, work with someone who they perceive will be difficult. If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to question example, hear about watermarking, it. It seems so trivial, though its not. The idea of example, editing the information is great. Very useful post. Pre Calc Homework Answers? Thanks. This is research proposal question a very helpful blog post for artists. I will pass it on to all the recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase.
We am not judging anyone who chooses to bibliography references, conform to any process so as to get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in so as to make a living, get shown, etc. Research Question? The advice here is homework all excellent regarding this. That said, we had asked should an proposal question, artist feel compelled to fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in the first place, if they feel the process does not represent them in the way they wish to be represented. For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at all. They believe it to be archaic. Bibliography? They ask who does it really serve anyone and how? This questioning at least deserves consideration/ examination. And if one has a real deep desire to deconstruct and recontextualize the #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for the project part of, say, a grant. Why not jump in from the start in this way it is a real #8220;action#8221;instead of a simulation. The results may be illuminating. how does an artist apply for grant $$ without a resume if it is question part of the requirement? i would save the #8216;challenging the formula#8217; for my grant proposal. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. as you do more exhibits, you will want to edit and choose the most competitive ones for your resume. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out down the road. Great advice and thanks.
One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for your resume? Even if its decent? This comment has been removed by the author. Making Essay? You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at area retailers like the BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and Atomic Books. Research Proposal Example? Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and events and is updated daily. Tag your art and Balti-centric photos #bmoreart! We want to phd thesis, see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore. BmoreArt#8217;s Picks: Baltimore Art Galleries, Openings, and research, Events October 3 9. The Internet is Exploding: 10 Must-Read Articles this Week. ABOUT ME | Call for Book Publication.
Order the BmoreArt Journal of phd thesis watermarking, Art + Ideas directly from us or from area retailers. BmoreArt is research proposal question example Best Cultural Resource in Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and critical daily online journal. We believe that Baltimore's creative class deserves to be discussed, critiqued, and well-informed.
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What are Examples of Research Questions? - SimplyEducate Me
resume thomas rea Cases - assaults - actus reus. D went to a railway station looking for V there had been animosity between the two of research proposal them. There was evidence that V feared serious violence if D found him. V left his train and was electrocuted trying to cross the tracks. There was no evidence that D had issued any threats or that as a result of his demeanour V could have naturally assumed that he was at risk.
Held : There was no unlawful act in standing on a platform looking into trains, and the conviction could not be sustained even if V's belief were true. Making Essay. There was insufficient evidence for research proposal example, a jury to communication conclude that an research question example assault had been committed. [Assault – exceeding rules of game not always an assault] D caused a serious leg injury during a tackle during an pre calc homework answers amateur football match. The tackle was said to have been late, unnecessary, reckless and high up on the legs.
D stated that that whilst the tackle may well have been ‘hard’, it was a fair sliding tackle in the course of research example play, resulting in unintended accidental injury. Most sports had their own disciplinary procedures that would cater for improper behaviour on steps in the dissertation pitch. Physical injury was an inevitable risk of research example sport, and those participating consented to such injury. Even conduct outside of the websites rules of the game may not be criminal. Research Example. An instinctive error, reaction or misjudgement in the heat of a game was not to be equated with criminal activity. ^[Assault – mens rea - specific intent needed for Sec 18] D pushed a girl to homework the ground, and question he and an accomplice attacked those who came to help her. D slashed one man with a razor, causing severe wounds to his head and dissertation chest, and proposal question example was charged with wounding with intent. Per curiam: In directing a jury in relation to phd thesis watermarking a charge under s 18 of 1861 Act it is unnecessary for the judge to research proposal question explain the meaning of ‘intent’.
He should direct the steps jury that what has to be proved is. (2) the wounding was deliberate and research question example without justification; (3) it was committed with intent to cause really serious bodily harm, and. (4) the test of the intent is subjective. ^[Assault - Sec 18 drunken intent – drunken mens rea] D1 and D2, cousins severely beat D1's father who had gender reassignment and caused the young men embarrassment. They had been drinking, and process caused her nasty injuries.
Held : Intention to be judged objectively. Not subjectively from the stand point of the victim. In a case requiring a specific intent, such as a s 18 offence. Did D have specific intent? D was drunk and research question that if, because he was drunk, he did not intend or may not have intended to cause the making connection requisite degree of harm, then the defendant is entitled to be acquitted. ^[Assault – jury to decide if foresight sufficient to be intent] D wounded, with intent to cause grievous bodily harm, by driving his car directly at three men. Held : Foresight that serious harm would probably happen is not the same as intention to cause grievous bodily harm and proposal example following R v Moloney , the step from foresight to intention was one of homework answers inference to be taken by the jury not by the judge. On the research proposal facts of the instant case no reasonable jury could have come to any other conclusion. ^[Assault – inflict GBH includes psychiatric harm] D a naval petty officer inflicted grievous bodily harm to V after she broke off their relationship.
D refused to accept this and began to problem solving websites follow her, telephone her, write menacing letters to her, and research proposal call at her home. V suffered severe clinical depression as a result. Held : Lord Steyn said inflict includes inflicting psychiatric rather than physical injury. Even where no physical violence is applied directly or indirectly to the body of the victim. ^[Assault - ABH - includes psychiatric harm but not emotions – escape case] D subjected V to questioning about the theft of a ring belonging to essays D's fiance. D then dragged V upstairs to a room and locked him in. V feared D's return and injured himself when he fell to the ground escaping through a window.
Actual bodily harm includes psychiatric injury but does not include emotions, such as fear or panic. ABH does not include states of mind that are not themselves evidence of research proposal question some identifiable clinical condition. Essay References. Only expert evidence to this effect should be made to the jury regarding psychiatric injury. Per curiam : the phrase state of mind is proposal question, unscientific, confusing and should be avoided when considering whether psychiatric injury has been caused. ^[Assault - transmitting disease - not an offence by husband] D knew, but his wife did not know, that he was suffering from gonorrhoea, he had connection with her, that the pre calc homework result was that the disease was communicated to her, and that, had she been aware of his condition, she would not have submitted to the intercourse. Held : D's conduct did not constitute an offence. ^[Assault - definition of - apprehension of immediate force - mens rea is recklessness or intention - everyday jostling is not assault] D refused to speak to a policewoman. The WPC took hold of D's arm to restrain her. Research Proposal Question. D scratched the WPC's arm.
'An assault is an act which causes another person to apprehend the essay references infliction of immediate, unlawful, force on his person; a battery is the actual infliction of unlawful force on another person . Question. any touching of another person, however slight, may amount to battery.' Consent is pre calc homework answers, a defence to battery; and research proposal question example most of the physical contacts of making connection essay ordinary life are not actionable because they are impliedly consented to research proposal by all who move in society and so expose themselves to the risk of bodily contact… it is references, more common nowadays to treat…everyday jostling…as falling within a general exception embracing all physical contact which is generally acceptable in the ordinary conduct of daily life. The vicissitudes of everyday life were also considered in question Wison v Pringle . ^[Assault - Sec 47 - actus - sufficient proximity -psychological damage from fear of violence - – lose interpretation of ‘immediate’ – can include words alone] D wished to form a relationship with V who did not reciprocate. D followed V sent her more than 800 letters, telephoned her on numerous occasions, only speaking sometimes, watched her house from his car and wrote on her door. V suffered from a clinical state of depression and anxiety. Held : It was not essential that the victim was able to see the potential perpetrator of the communication technology essays violence. Conduct accompanying words was capable of research proposal example making the words an assault. The fear was of violence sufficiently immediate to essay be described as the fear of immediate violence.
[Assault - continuing acts, no need to specify particular event] D had ended his relationship with Sandra he made silent phone calls, frequently lurked or prowled around outside her flat and proposal question example allegedly left underneath a dustbin lid on the front doorstep a severed chicken's head on solving a bible. He threatened her by drawing his finger across his throat twice. Before she was due to go on holiday, he telephoned her telling her that she was going to her death and that he could smell burning. The calls could be traced to Lymington and New Milton, not far from where Sandra worked. Medical evidence showed it had caused her actual bodily harm in the forms of research proposal anxiety, depression, distress, insomnia and loss of communication technology essays weight. Held : It is absurd to suggest that the research proposal question example jury should have to consider each telephone call, one by one, but might that the majority of them were made by D, the jury must be asked to problem websites apply their common-sense. [Assault - slashing clothes on person is an assault]
D slashed P's clothes with a knife. Held : It is an assault on a man's person to inflict injury to the clothes on example his back. In the essay bibliography references ordinary case of a blow on the back there is clearly an assault, even though the blow is research proposal question, received by the coat on communication technology the person. ^[Assault - biological GBH] D infected two women with HIV. Proposal. Knowing he was infected he persuaded them to problem solving have unprotected sex; he did not warn them that he was infected.
Held : Guilty of causing grievous bodily harm. Sentenced to 8 years. [Assaults – GBH – inflicting HIV is GBH, although consent should be considered by proposal example the jury] D was convicted on a retrial because he infected a woman with HIV – so called biological GBH – (s 20). Phd Thesis Watermarking. His appeal in research question example 2004 resulted in the retrial, the Court of Appeal ruling that the original trial judge should have allowed the jury to consider consent as a defence. At the retrial the judge followed the Court of Appeal ruling at the earlier appeal. 4 ½ years imprisonment was held not to be excessive. ^[Assault – Sec 20 - recklessness and malice (intention) are not the same] D shot V with an air rifle believing that it had run out of pellets.
Magistrates said that he genuinely believed that he had used the last pellet. Watermarking. He ignored the risk that it might be loaded and so D was reckless. Held : In Caldwell, malice and recklessness were clearly distinguished. To prove malice the prosecution must show D actually foresaw that a particular kind of harm might be done to his victim, in this case he had not. ^[Assault – malicious wounding – mens rea need be proximate to injury – indirect force] D wounded a police officer by releasing his dog and told it to kill that man. The dog went up to example P, knocked him over, and bit him on the leg. D argued that the essay dog's act was the result of its natural exuberance. Held : A charge of research proposal question example malicious wounding might in principle be appropriate in making connection essay such a case, there is research, a need to find some act of the defendant, committed with the necessary mens rea, that had been the proximate cause of V's injury. The actions of D were not connected to the actions of the dog, if they were the dog could be viewed as a weapon. ^[Assault – some actions are not hostile]
Doctors sought permission to sterilise a 36-year-old woman with a mental age of five, who had become sexually active but who because of her condition she was incapable of giving informed consent; other forms of contraception were inappropriate. ….a man who seizes another and steps in the process forcibly drags him from the path of an oncoming vehicle, thereby saving him from injury or even death, commits no wrong. He doubted any requirement of hostility such as was suggested in Wilson v Pringle : a prank getting out of hand, or an over-friendly slap on the back, or surgery carried out by a doctor who mistakenly thought he had the patient's consent - any touching without lawful excuse, in fact - was capable of being an assault. The vicissitudes of everyday life. Again it is well settled that most of the almost inevitable physical contacts of everyday life: the proposal jostling experienced by travellers on public transport or indeed by pedestrians on busy pavements, the touching to essay bibliography references obtain attention, the congratulatory slap on the back and the unwelcomely firm handshake: all are lawful. ^[Assault - phone calls - apprehension of immediate force] D's (separate trials) made a large number of telephone calls to women and remaining silent when they answered. A psychiatrist stated that as a result of the repeated telephone calls each of them had suffered psychological damage. Held : Inflict bodily harm as used in sections 20 and proposal example 47 included the infliction of psychiatric injury on making connection essay another and question did not mean that whatever caused the harm had to be applied directly to the victim. An assault might be committed by words or gestures alone, depending on the circumstances; and that where the making of a silent telephone call caused fear of immediate and unlawful violence; the caller would be guilty of an assault. an assault can consist of any act causing the victim to apprehend an immediate application of force upon her.
The views expressed in Meade Belt's Case , were expressly rejected. Connection. The proposition that a gesture may amount to an assault, but that words can never suffice, is unrealistic and indefensible. A thing said is also a thing done , and there is no reason why something said should be incapable of causing an apprehension of proposal example immediate personal violence. A telephone caller who says in a menacing way I will be at your door in a minute or two can certainly be guilty of an assault if he causes the victim to phd thesis watermarking apprehend immediate personal violence, and there is no reason why a caller who creates the research proposal same apprehension by remaining silent should not also be convicted. ^[Assault - wounding or GBH - actus reus ] D shot V with an air gun. The pellet hit V near the eye, resulting in a bruise below the eyebrow and fluid filling the front of his eye. Held : A wound is websites, a break in research question example the continuity of the whole skin; an internal rupturing of the problem blood vessels is research proposal, not a wound. Not Guilty of wounding.
[Assault - causing GBH with intent – sentence] Held : Six months' imprisonment, imposed on a rugby player who bit another player's ear during a match between two police teams. ^[Assault - ABH - harm caused indirectly – indirect force] D placed acid in a hot air drier (the nozzle was pointing upwards) to essay hide it from research proposal question example his teachers at Stowe School. V then used the drier and the acid caused burns on his face. Held : Parker LJ: D had. . just as truly assaulted] the next user of the machine [V] as if [D] had himself switched the machine on. If the problem solving charge was simply battery, it is not necessary to question example prove harm.
[Assault – if none, no unlawful act - actus Reus of battery] D and a friend V were playing with a revolver. In the chamber there were two bullets, but neither was opposite on digital watermarking the hammer when D, in jest, pointed the research gun at V and pulled the trigger. The chamber rotated and V was killed. Held : Since V shared in the joke and did not feel threatened (since both believed the essay references gun to proposal be safe) there was no assault and hence no unlawful act to problem support D's conviction for manslaughter. ^[Assault - wilfully - action not aimed at police - mens rea ] D wilfully obstructed a police constable in research proposal example the execution of his duty by opened the rear door of police van to ask his friend where he was being taken (D and his friend were drunk). Held : A person wilfully obstructed a police constable in phd thesis the execution of his duty if he deliberately did an act which, though not necessarily aimed at proposal question example, or hostile to pre calc homework the police, in fact prevented a constable from carrying out his duty or made it more difficult for him to do so, and if he knew and intended that his conduct would have that effect; Not Guilty but would be now.
^[Assault and battery - correct indictment] Information alleged that: 'D . did unlawfully assault and batter V.' Held : D's conviction was quashed for duplicity (meaning two bites at the cherry). Section 39 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988, provides that 'common assault and battery shall be summary offences,' deals with two offences, one of assault and the other of proposal example battery. Phd Thesis. An allegation that the example defendant did 'assault and batter' was, in essays respect of one event, bad for duplicity. Research Proposal Question Example. The word 'assault' must, by virtue of the contrast with 'batter' be taken as used in its pure sense of putting in fear of force Obiter, that in section 47 [Parliament employed] 'assault' as including the use of force, for homework answers, without force it would only be in a most unusual case that an assault could occasion actual bodily harm. [Assault – threat sufficient – even if means not present] D showed V, a customs officer a replica gun that would not fire in a drawer and told her he would hold her prisoner until money owing him was repaid.
Held : It was enough that V had reasonable cause to fear that force was about to be inflicted on her; the conditional nature of the implied threat, and research proposal example the fact that D had neither the means nor the intention of carrying it out, were irrelevant. [Assault includes battery] D detained for shoplifting struggled in the manager's office, and steps dissertation process spat in a police officer's eye. D argued that s40 (power to join in indictment count for common assault) did not cover battery. drafting of the 1988 Act is a mess, and they must have meant to research proposal question include battery in s40 as well as in s39. Battery is hard put to exist independent of assault; there isn't even a verb to express it. So assault in normal usage includes battery. Henry LJ; stated that the present state of the law concerning non-fatal offences against on digital the person ‘is yet another example of how bad laws cost money and clog up the courts with better things to proposal example do’ ^[Assault - wounding or GBH - actus reus ] D returned home in a bad temper and in frustration, threw a container containing cleanser at essay bibliography, his wife. The cleanser was acid based and badly injured her face. In my opinion . . Research Proposal Question. . the word 'cause' is wider or at communication technology, least not narrower than the word 'inflict. .' Thus, 'causing grievous bodily harm under s 18 … includes 'inflicting grievous bodily harm' under s 20; it was open to a jury to convict a defendant charged under s 18 of the alternative offence of inflicting grievous bodily harm, contrary to proposal question example s 20.
Not Guilty of Section 18 Guilty of Section 20. [Assault - actus reus of battery = inflicting unlawful personal violence - intentionally or recklessly – indirect force] D, as a joke, placed an iron bar in a theatre across an exit, turned out the lights on a staircase and yelled 'Fire!'. As a result, several people were injured. Lord Coleridge CJ:
The prisoner must be taken to have intended the natural consequences of that which he did. An assault as such was not essential to the offence; some unlawful act and the foresight of harm would be enough. Inflict meant no more than cause and did not require a face-to-face assault. [Assault – words and singing not sufficient] D1 and D2 fired a pistol killing V. D1 had angered local boatman by informing the Customs of their smuggling. The smugglers threatened to come at night and burn down his house. In the middle of the night they came singing songs of menace; Held : No words or singing alone could amount to an assault justifying shooting in self-defence, but invited the jury to consider whether any actions were also performed. D2 was acquitted. Phd Thesis On Digital. D1 Guilty manslaughter. ^[Assault - ABH - actus reus - includes injury to proposal state of references mind]
D had non-consensual sexual intercourse with his wife, after which she was in a hysterical and nervous condition. 'Actual bodily harm includes any hurt or injury calculated to interfere with the proposal question health or comfort of the prosecutor. There was a time when shock was not regarded as bodily hurt, but the day has gone by when that could be said. It seems to me now that, if a person is caused hurt or injury resulting, not in any physical injury, but in an injury to the state of his mind for pre calc answers, the time being, that is within the definition of actual bodily harm. Not Guilty of rape.
^[Assault - amount of force] D a publican wounded V during an attempt to throw him out. Held : A wound was excessive force. ^[Assault - GBH - actus reus - assault, battery – indirect force] D was seized by a woman police officer. The WPC told D she was arresting him. D then dived through a windowpane dragging the proposal question WPC through the glass. The WPC suffered serious facial cuts.
Held : Sect 18 requires an unlawful and communication technology malicious wounding with intent to resist the proposal question lawful apprehension of the person. Not Guilty of Section 18. ^[Assault - GBH - mens rea - intentional or reckless causing of some physical harm] D struck V several times, knocking him unconscious. D's companion had taken money from V. V had seized D by the lapels and on digital watermarking demanded to know where D's companion was. Held : Intention or recklessness as to the wound or GBH need not be proved.
It is enough that [D foresaw] . that some physical harm to some person, albeit of a minor character, might result. The intent expressly required by question example s 18 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 is more specific than the element of foresight of process consequences implicit in the word 'maliciously' in that enactment, and in directing a jury on this offence the proposal example word 'maliciously' is problem solving, best ignored; in the offence of unlawful wounding (Offences Against the Person Act 1861 s 20), the word 'maliciously' imports, on the part of the person who unlawfully inflicts the wound or other grievous bodily harm, an awareness that his act may have the proposal question example consequence of bibliography causing physical harm to some other person. Guilty of wounding. [Assault – transferred malice – cannot be transferred to a different offence] D broke a pub window. D picked up a stone and threw it at the group of men he had been fighting, missed them and broke the question example window behind them. Held : His malice in intending to steps in the dissertation process strike another person could not be transferred to an intention to break the window. Obiter: He could have been convicted had it been proved that he was reckless, having foreseen the risk of damage to the window. [Assault - mens rea - intention as to consequences] D attacked V with a hammer and strangled her, causing injury.
You must feel sure that the defendant intended to research question cause serious bodily harm to the victim. You can only technology essays, decide what his intention was by considering all the proposal relevant circumstances and in particular what he did and making connection essay what he said about it . There is no restriction to cases of virtual certainty.' (citing Lord Bridge in research proposal example Moloney ) Guilty of essays Sec 18. [Assault – words accompanied by research example actions sufficient] D and his men surrounded P, rolling up their sleeves, and threatened to watermarking break P's neck if he did not leave. Research Question. P was a rent collector who entered D's workshop and refused to go until the rent was paid. Held : This was an homework assault: the condition attached to the threat was not enough to nullify it. [Assault – mens rea – did D (or would D, if sober) foresee the research question example consequences] DD two students lifted another over a balcony and dropped him about 12 feet to the ground, causing him serious injuries. Watermarking. During horseplay following an evening's drinking.
Held : Clarke LJ said that the question example question was not what another person would have foreseen but what DD themselves would have foreseen had they been sober. ^[Assault - escape cases - ABH - occasioning refers to causation - not the assault] D in a car with V a not inexperienced 21 year old woman. Homework Answers. They were travelling between two parties. Research Proposal Question. D made advances towards V who then jumped out of the car (travelling at 20 mph), sustaining injuries. Occasioning in ABH relates to problem solving causation, and is an objective test. If the (common assault) was intentional there is no need to consider Recklessness. The proper test for occasioning is not whether D actually foresaw the research question conduct of the phd thesis on digital watermarking victim which resulted in the actual bodily harm, but whether that conduct could have reasonably been foreseen as the consequence of research example what he was saying or doing. ABH requires proof of an assault together with actual bodily harm occasioned by the assault. The prosecution are not obliged to prove that D intended to cause some actual bodily harm or was reckless as to whether such harm would be caused.
The victim's reaction does not break the problem websites chain of causation if it was reasonably foreseeable, that is it was not. . so daft . or so unexpected . that no reasonable man could be expected to foresee it' thereby constituting a novus actus interveniens. ^ [Assault - actus reus - inactivity by D - an omission can amount to the actus reus of an assault] D injured a woman police officer by allowing her to search him, knowing he had hypodermic needles in his pockets which stabbed her. D denied having any needles or sharps when asked. D had “ created a danger by an act … that act was a continuing act ”. The risk of injury was foreseeable. Not guilty but would be now. Comment : The police woman was not infected by research proposal question example HIV or hepatitis present in the defendant's blood. [Assault - meaning of grievous bodily harm] D, on a road at night, approached a stranger who was sitting resting at the roadside, asked him what the problem was and, when the victim said that there was no problem, D said that he would give him one and punched him in the face.
The victim suffered a broken nose and other injuries. Held: The origin of the phrase really serious injury was DPP v Smith : Bodily harm needs no explanation. ‘Grievous’ means no more and no less than really serious.. Connection Essay. A broken nose on any view was serious bodily harm, Commentary (L. Norman Williams, Barrister.)
The word really is, as the Oxford Dictionary has it, used to research emphasise the truth or correctness of an epithet or statement. It means no more than actually or as a matter of fact. In the context it does not add anything to serious but emphasises to the jury that the solving websites harm caused must be - actually or really - serious. ^[Assault - ABH - actus reus of proposal example ABH and mens rea of common assault - not intention or recklessness] D intentionally threw beer at V (a former girlfriend of her husband). Problem Solving. The glass left her hand and struck V, causing a cut. P roughly handled his child, causing the breaking of arms and legs. Held : Throwing the beer would clearly have been an assault. The offence requires an proposal question actus reus of assault causing bodily harm and the mens rea for common assault. The intent required in s 47 relates not only to the assault, but also to the consequences of the assault, . maliciously in a statutory crime postulates foresight of consequence.
the physical harm which the defendant intended or foresaw might result to some person need only be of a minor character for him to be Guilty and essay bibliography it is question example, unnecessary for the Crown to show that he intended or foresaw that his unlawful act might cause physical harm of the steps in the process gravity described in s 20, ie either wounding or grievous bodily harm. Research. P Not Guilty of GBH. Connection. Guilty of ABH. ^[Assault – actus reus – cutting hair is research example, ABH] D caused actual bodily harm to V by steps process cutting off her pony tail. D went to proposal question example the home of his ex-partner and cut of making connection essay her pony tail with kitchen scissors. The magistrates accepted that there was no actual bodily harm; the DPP appealed.
Held : Cutting off a person’s hair amounted to ABH. Proposal Question Example. Harm was not limited to phd thesis injury to the skin, flesh and bones and extended to hurt and damage. That the hair cut was dead tissue was not relevant. Obiter: If paint or some other unpleasant substance were to research be put on a victim’s hair that would to could amount to actual bodily harm. R v Donovan ; R v Chan-Fook ; R v Stephen Cook (unreported, 28 July 1994, CA) and R (on the application of T) v DPP  considered. ^[Assault - meaning of grievous bodily harm] D trying to pre calc homework escape from the police in proposal a car was signalled to stop. Problem Solving Websites. He did not do so. A PC jumped onto the car’s bonnet. D drove at high speed, swerving from side to side, until the officer was thrown off and killed.
Held : Viscount Kilmuir LC; I can find no warrant for giving the words “grievous bodily harm” a meaning other than that which the words convey in their ordinary and natural meaning. “Bodily harm” needs no explanation and proposal question “grievous” means no more and no less than “really serious”. We consider that the same is communication essays, true of the phrase “actual bodily harm”. These are three words of the question English language which require no elaboration and in connection the ordinary course should not receive any. Proposal Question Example. The word “harm” is a synonym for injury. The word “actual” indicates that the injury (although there is no need for steps process, it to be permanent) should not be so trivial as to be wholly insignificant. Question Example. In the first place, the watermarking word bodily does not limit harm to proposal question the flesh, skin and bones. Watermarking. The body of the victim includes all parts of his body, including his organs, his nervous system and research question example brain. Bodily injury therefore may include injury to any of those parts of his body responsible for pre calc, his mental and other faculties.
The phrase actual bodily harm is capable of including psychiatric injury, but it does not include mere emotions such as fear or distress or panic, nor does it include, as such, states of mind that are not themselves evidence of some identifiable clinical condition. The phrase which is often used to explain actual bodily harm – interference with the health or comfort of the question example victim – is likely to result in the jury thinking that this is sufficient, whether or not any injury has occurred; it should not be used. Guilty of murder. ^[Assault - apprehension of immediate force] D frightened V by looking through her bedroom window late at night. V a policewoman was absolutely terrified, to the extent that she was very nervous and jumpy for a few days afterwards. Held : D assaulted V as V apprehended unlawful personal violence. [Assault – mens rea – recklessness – Cunningham] D caused ABH by shooting a 7-year-old girl with an essay references air pistol.
He was firing from the window of research proposal question example his flat, aiming at a target in the yard below. V was playing in the yard D had not known she was there. Held : Recklessness as envisaged in Venna was clearly subjective recklessness (that is, that D foresaw the risk but went ahead regardless), because the judgement in Venna speaks of recklessness and intention as being often almost indistinguishable. [Assault – threatening actions sufficient] D advanced towards V with his fists raised but was stopped by another person before coming within striking range. Following an argument.
Held : It was enough that V was put in apprehension even though the phd thesis on digital battery (the actual striking) never occurred. [Assault – no mens rea because of drunkenness] D, in a drunken state stabbed V causing GBH, during a fight outside a pub. He was charged under s.18, but the prosecution and the Recorder accepted a plea to s.20. Held : Although the absence of mens rea due to drunkenness would be a defence to proposal question a crime of specific intent, that drunkenness would have to be very extreme to references justify reducing a s.18 offence to s.20. [Assault – must be indecent - assault is - merest touch] D, a school caretaker assaulted a 12-year-old after taking hold of the hem of her skirt. Held : The act was not inherently indecent and proposal question there was no evidence of circumstances making it so. There could be no dispute that if you touch a person's clothes while he is wearing them, that is equivalent to touching him.
^[Assault - apprehension of homework answers immediate force] D struck V causing him to loose an example eye. D had placed his hand on his sword and references said to question V that, If it were not assize-time, he would tell him more of his mind. V ‘defended himself’ when there had been no assault, D's response was to remove V's eye. Held : As the judges were in communication essays town D would not have used force on research example V.
No assault, finding for D. [Assault - actus reus of battery] D a schoolboy, in phd thesis fun seized the bag over C's shoulder, causing him injury, and C sued for the tort of assault. Held : C must establish an intentional and hostile touching of one person by another, though not necessarily an intent to injure. A claimant who cannot prove hostility on research proposal question example the defendant's part is likely to fail, because in a crowded world people must be considered to take upon on digital themselves some risk of injury from the lawful acts of others. ^[Assault - mens rea is recklessness or intention] D struggled with the research police officers who were arresting him. D fell to on digital the ground and lashed out wildly with his legs, fracturing a bone in the hand of an officer.
The offence of example battery is satisfied by making connection proof that the defendant intentionally or recklessly applied force to the person of example another. [Assault - words and on digital actions sufficient] D threatened and kicked gatekeeper, calling out Get out the research proposal knives. D was found poaching and the gamekeeper tried to arrest him. Obiter: Lord Goddard CJ; Words such as those were capable of being an pre calc assault on their own, even without any accompanying acts. Guilty of research question common assault.
[Assault - ABH. Phd Thesis On Digital Watermarking. sec 20- actus reus ] D, whilst driving, nearly ran down V. D got out of his car and research question example punched V in the face. Held : An infliction of grievous bodily harm contrary to s 20 may be committed without establishing first an essay bibliography assault. Lord Roskill, citing Salisbury (1976). [G]rievous bodily harm may be inflicted . either where the proposal accused has directly and violently inflicted it by assaulting the steps in the victim, or where the accused has inflicted it by doing something, intentionally, which, though it is not itself a direct application of force to research proposal the body of the victim, does directly result in force being applied violently to the body of the pre calc homework answers victim, so that he suffers grievous bodily harm.
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Examples of main research questions for a dissertation - Scribbr
Advantages and Disadvantages of Parole Essay Sample. Research! The history of problem, community corrections shows that many changes have occurred in the criminal justice system regarding punishment of offenders. Shortly after the creation of the penitentiary community, many people came to the view that incarceration was not an appropriate response to address all offenders. As a response to research this concern, community corrections such as probation and problem parole were developed and implemented by question example the criminal justice system (Travis 1998, p.308). Essay Bibliography! The aim of proposal example, this paper is to making examine the issue of parole, which has been discussed prolong and research proposal question many controversies related to it have arisen. The essay will explore the advantages and disadvantages of the existence of parole in the criminal justice system. Firstly, various community measures addressing offenders will be explored. Next, a definition of the concept of parole will be provided, followed by a discussion of its#8217; aims and objectives. Communication! Next, the advantages and disadvantages of parole will be examined.
Finally, the paper will address the issue whether parole is under or over utilised in Australia. The Queensland criminal justice system takes a utilitarian approach to crime, providing inmates with programs designed to help rehabilitate offenders for the long-term benefit of society. Proposal Question! Queensland Correctional Services provides offenders with options that are aiming at their rehabilitation and successful reintegration back into society (Qld Department of Corrective Services 2004). Technology! These options seek to provide prisoners with the opportunity to participate in community work programs, release to work programs, home detention and conditional parole. However, these programs are only proposal question example, available to low risk prisoners who have committed non-violent offences and are not considered a threat to society (Qld Department of Corrective Services 2004). Community work programs provide prisoners with meaningful work and problem solving websites assist offenders in developing skills that can improve their possibilities to be employed upon release (Qld Department of Corrective Services 2004). Releases to work programs are usually granted to research proposal inmates who have served an extensive period in custody and face a lengthy reintegration process. The goal of these programs is to encourage prisoners to references gain employment and research proposal example develop a work ethics. Problem! Prisoners on the release to work order must not drink alcohol and are regularly drug tested.
Failure to proposal example obey the set rules and regulations results in an immediate return to custody. There is no time limit for communication technology, a release to work order. The average stay is around four to research proposal example six months, however some prisoners may reside there for up to eighteen months. The release to essay references work usually precedes home detention and parole (Jacobson 2005, pp.43-48). Offenders granted home detention live in approved addresses, which can be a private home or a rehabilitation center. Participants are closely monitored and are not allowed to leave their residence or drive a car or motorbike without approval. Home detainees are usually required to attend external services such as rehabilitation programs or counseling and are regularly drug and breath tested (Jacobson 2005, pp.49-51). Parole is usually the last stage in the prison release process.
In order to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of parole a definition of the question example term needs to be provided. Parole is defined as the conditional release of a prisoner by the decision of a parole officer, after a part of the sentence has been served (Travis 1998, p.309). For parole to be granted, the prisoner needs to demonstrate good behaviour during serving the sentence, as parole is making, only available to prisoners who after being observed have shown that they can comply with the rules and regulations of the institution (Petersilia 1998, p.1). After being granted a parole all Queensland parolees remain under the research proposal supervision of Corrective Services until the problem end of their sentence. Parolees must report regularly to the Corrective Services Officer and research proposal example usually have to attend programs, undergo drug testing and consume no alcohol. They must notify their parole officer of any change of address or employment and cannot leave Queensland without written permission (Qld Department of Corrective Services 2004). Communication Technology! If a parolee re-offends or fails to comply with the parole guidelines a warrant is issued and they are likely to be returned to prison to serve the example whole term of the solving prison sentence (US Parole Commission 2004). Proposal Question! The purpose of parole in the criminal justice system will be discussed next. There are three main aims of parole.
Firstly, parole helps to rehabilitate offenders. A parolee receives assistance from a parole officer concerning employment, residence, finances, or other personal problems that the parolee may experience in the process of adjustment to life upon release from prison. Secondly, parole protects society by providing parolees with assistance helping them to get established in the community, which prevents situations leading to new offences (Stevens 2006, p.289-291). The third aim of parole is to problem prevent the imprisonment of offenders that are not likely to commit further crimes, and who meet the criteria to be released on parole (US Parole Commission 2004). Parole will be discussed in more detail next, considering its#8217; advantages and disadvantages.
Parole is advantageous to the offender, to the State, and to society as a whole for various reasons. Firstly, prisoners spend less time in question prison and when released are given the opportunity to adjust to life outside prison under the supervision of a parole officer and still having access to on digital essential support services. Proponents of parole argue that it assists the offender in reconnecting to family and reestablishing family relationships. Therefore, it can be argued that parole benefits family structure, as the social costs of family breakdowns are reduced. Another advantage of parole is that it reduces the risk of criminal association posed to the parolee, which occurs in correctional institutions (Qld Department of proposal, Corrective Services website 2004). Furthermore, correctional facilities use parole as means to induce prisoners to essays participate in programs and maintain good behaviour while in prison.
Without this inducement, maintaining order in prisons would be more difficult as overcrowding can cause problems. Additionally, it is also far less expensive for the individual to be on question, parole as opposed to being in prison (Petersilia 1998, p.51). Finally, individuals on parole are monitored, which allows a measure of watermarking, control and research question example safety for the community while the individual#8217;s adjustment to the community is evaluated. Phd Thesis Watermarking! A person with the opportunity to adjust gradually to life outside prison poses less danger to society than an proposal question example individual who walks out of prison unprepared and with no support behind them (Gottfredson 1988, pp.230-231). However there are many arguments against parole, which will be addressed next. The first and most convincing argument against release on parole is the affect it can have on the success of a release. A number of studies indicate that early release has a negative success rate in regards to the offenders#8217; reintegration in the community.
Results provided by a study performed by essay bibliography the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) in 1992, indicate that 43 per research proposal example, cent of parolees#8217; that had been released from prison were rearrested for phd thesis on digital, felony within three years of sentencing (Petersilia 1998, p.53). Drug abusers make up a big majority of these offenders whose parole is rescinded. A study on these offenders indicates that they accounted for a 44 per cent increase in the prison population between 1986 and 1991. These offenders play a significant role in the burdening of the justice system as such a large number of parolees#8217; simply re-offend (Bureau of Justice Statistics 2000). Proposal Question Example! The second argument against pre calc answers, parole is the fact that when an offender is released early on parole, the full measure of question, punishment intended by society has not been carried out. Therefore parole release can be seen as dishonest by society because the offender does not serve the full length of the sentence. In some cases the homework balance of justice is proposal question, disturbed because some offenders are released on parole, while others who may have committed lesser crimes are not paroled. Additionally, there is always a risk to the community that the individual will re-offend while on parole (Petersilia 1998, p.57).
As there is no way to watermarking accurately assess the danger posed by an offender who is granted parole, some members of the society argue that it is more expensive to research question keep offenders in prison in comparison to putting them on parole. Therefore, opponents of parole argue that it must be considered that keeping these inmates in prison for their full sentence does not increase costs when compared to the costs of releasing them and taking the risk that they will commit further offences (Gottfredson 1988, p.231). Due to these reasons there has been a movement to abolish parole in essay the United States. Some high-profile crimes committed by people released from prison have been the reason for the commencement of a movement based on the idea that they should have served their full sentence behind bars. Proposal Question Example! Eleven American states have already eliminated parole to indicate a tougher stance on criminals. Another four abolished it but then reinstated it when they found out that prison sentences were not being served because the prisons became so overcrowded and inmates had to be released due to these circumstances (US Department of Justice 1998, pp.31-36). However, a comparison between the American states that continue to use the parole system and the states that abolished it, is needed in order to consider whether parole benefits or disadvantages society.
Statistics indicate that in many states where parole has been abolished, costs have risen, prison populations have grown out of control, and violent and dangerous offenders have been routinely released without supervision. Essay Bibliography! Abolishing parole means no supervision in the community after release (Stevens 2006, p.293). This results in more harm to society caused by offenders and minimizes the possibility that they are going to reintegrate in society. Furthermore, parole implies more than the opportunity of an early release. Parole implies the possibility that offenders can turn their lives around and escape from a live of crime (redemption). However, the harsh reality is question example, that even though statistics show that few seek redemption in prison, and even fewer manage to redirect their lives, there is in the, a percentage of people that manage to change their lives. The fact that some offenders do reform themselves does promote a successful system. Research Proposal Question Example! Furthermore, it would be a far harsher reality if redemption were not possible, and if society could not forgive (Jacobson 2005, pp.48-53).
If parole were abolished then those who commit serious or less serious offences would not have the opportunity to learn and reform themselves while serving time in correctional institutes. Therefore, abolishing parole would be ultimately detrimental to society (US Department of Justice 1998, pp.31-36). The next section of the essay will consider the question whether parole is over or under utilised in communication Australia. Example! Queensland has utilised parole in a very professional and accurate way. It can be argued that it is answers, not possible to over utilise rehabilitation programs. The current Australian system provides an incentive for inmates to abide the prison rules and participate in rehabilitation and employment programs, which is research, beneficial for both the offender and steps in the process society as a whole (US Department of Justice 1998, pp.31-36).
Queensland has implemented a structure where an inmate initially undergoes a character assessment and if deemed a low risk offender and demonstrates willingness to change, the prisoner will be granted the option to gradually undertake a series of rehabilitation and work programs to example ensure a quicker and more successful integration back into society (Qld Department of Corrective Services website 2004). All these ensure that the Australian criminal justice system provides services assisting offenders in rehabilitation, reintegration, and redemption. It can be concluded that the pre calc homework parole system in Australia is paramount for the future success of research proposal, corrections and offender rehabilitation. Notwithstanding many claims that parole puts society in risk, it can be argued that there are many benefits of having parole implemented by in the the criminal justice system. Parole benefits society as it promotes good behaviour of inmates while in custody, provides rewards to those who are willing to be rehabilitated and assists offenders in successfully integrating back into society. Example! According to statistical information it can be concluded that abolishing parole would be detrimental to the Australian society as institutions would become overpopulated and prisoners would be released without having any support assisting them to pre calc adjust to the outside live. After a discussion whether parole is over and under utilised in research proposal question Australia, it can be argued that parole has been utilised in a professional manner achieving it#8217;s goals of rehabilitating and reintegrating offenders into the community, therefore it can be concluded that it has not been over utilised in Australia. Bureau of Justice Statistics (2000) Probation and Parole Statistics, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pandp.htm, April 19. Gottfredson, M.R. Problem Solving Websites! (1988) Decision Making in Criminal Justice: Toward the Rational Exercise of example, Discretion, New York: Plenum Press. Jacobson, M. (2005) Downsizing Prisons: How to reduce Crime and end. incarceration, New York: New York University Press. Petersilia, J. (1998) Community Corrections: Probation, Parole, and making Intermediate Sanctions, New York: Oxford University Press.
Queensland Government: Department of question, Corrective Services (2004) Release to technology essays Work http://www.correctiveservices.qld.gov.au/thedept/comcordir/communitycorrections/Community%20Custody/rtw.shtml, April 17. Proposal Question Example! Stevens, D.J. (2006) Community Corrections: An applied Approach, Boston: R.R. Donnelley Sons. Travis, L.F. (1998) Introduction to Criminal Justice, Cincinatti OH: Anderson, pp.307-329. United States Parole Commission website (2004) What is Parole? http://www.usdoj.gov/uspc//questions.htm, April 19. US Department of Justice (1998) Rethinking Probation: Community Supervision, Community Safety, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/probation/rethink.pdf, April 20. Is this the perfect essay for dissertation process, you? Save time and order Advantages and Disadvantages of Parole. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
Top grades and research proposal question example quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Advantages and Disadvantages of Parole. Probation is a court ordered sanction being served by the person while under supervision in the community. Community programs are used to help retain control over criminals and to making help#8230; When Prisoners Comes Home Modern Parole. Drawing from numerous dozens of research proposal example, interviews within inmates, prison officials and former prisoners, the author has exposed how the current system if failing to help the enamors number of jailed#8230; Rehabilitation Definition and pre calc homework Origin.
One objective in the criminal justice system is to rehabilitate offenders. Proposal Question Example! In this paper, I will describe what rehabilitation is in prison, as well as provide the origin of rehabilitation#8230;. Parole For The Elderly. Paroling the elderly and sick could be the best way to websites deal with the cost and overcrowding of he prisons. There is a large number of inmates who are elderly#8230; Criminal Justice Perspectives.
Is there a right way of dealing with crime and recidivism rates in the United States How do we know what is the most effective way What one may feel#8230; Research Article Analysis. Research Article Analysis August 4, 2013 Research Article Analysis Rehabilitation is very essential in the criminal justice field. Studies have shown the research question example importance of connection essay, rehabilitation in proving that offenders can#8230;
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Chapter 1 - Introduction to Business Planning. By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Define business planning. Proposal Question. List the objectives and uses of a business plan. Explain how the objectives of a business plan intended for steps external audiences differ from those intended for internal audiences. List and describe the key components of a business plan. List and proposal question example, describe the key steps in the business planning process. Define the key requirements of an effective business plan. As we approach the twenty-first century, the need for business planning has never been more apparent.
Businesses today are confronted with increasing competitive pressures, ever more demanding customers, and essay bibliography, accelerating and discontinuous change. Given the new economic realities, planning cannot be an abstract exercise or a ritualistic activity. Planning must form the research, foundation for making essay ensuring that the business takes those actions required to establish and sustain a competitive advantage. Planning within organizations usually takes three forms and is done at research proposal question example, three levels, as shown in Exhibit 1-1. Not all businesses engage in each form of planning. All businesses, however, do some planning, even if it only making involves two business owners or managers thinking about and discussing what to do next. A safe generalization is that the larger and more complex the environment of the business, the more likely it is that the business will be engaged formally in all three types of planning. As the descriptions in research proposal, Exhibit 1-1 suggest, all planning should flow from the company's strategic plan and be tied back to it. Pre Calc Homework Answers. This course presumes that an research question, organization has a strategic plan in place; it is designed to help implement a proactive and flexible approach to the development of the second form of planningthe annual business plan. To understand the concept of a business plan and the business planning process in general, it is important to recognize that the communication technology, plan is not a document.
The plan may be presented through a planning document, but the business plan itself should be a set of management decisions about what a company will be doing to ensure success in the future. In its most basic form, business planning is the process whereby a company makes the following decisions: What products or services it will deliver Where it will compete Why the customer should do business with the company How it will organize and reengineer itself to accomplish its goals. Business planning is used, to some degree, by all organizationslarge and small, for-profit and not-for-profitregardless of the nature of the business. Proposal Question. The scope and complexity of the business planning process and the resulting plan should mirror the size and complexity of the company and its business. For smaller companies that operate in a fairly stable business environment, the planning process may be an bibliography, informal review of certain key aspects of the company's performance by a handful of top managers. As a company becomes larger, or as the business environment becomes less stable and less predictable, the planning process becomes more formal, comprehensive, and question, complex. More personnel are involved in reviewing and solving websites, planning various aspects of the company's performance, and the time horizon addressed by planning decisions may extend farther into the future.
As an illustration of research proposal example, formal versus informal business planning, contrast the neighborhood gas station to process, an international petroleum company. For the research proposal question example, neighborhood gas station, the planning issues include appropriate inventory levels of a limited range of products, product or service pricing, and cash flow management. The time horizon of the plan is no more than 1 year and making connection essay, frequently is only 1 month. All of the required information and decision-making authority resides with the research question, station owner. In contrast, the websites, planning process for proposal the international petroleum company must address a much broader range of issuesfor example, the acquisition of raw materials; appropriate inventory levels at several stages in a complex manufacturing process; cost control; pricing for a wide range of products; investments in capital equipment, facilities, and new product development; the search for nontraditional sources and alternative materials; the management and motivation of thousands of communication technology essays, employees; and the distribution of hundreds of products to thousands of research, consumers. The information required for planning decisions exists in formal data systems and in the brains of hundreds of management personnel. The time horizon may extend more than 20 years into the future. The key point is that, regardless of homework, size, all businesses are engaged in some form of business planning. OBJECTIVES AND USES OF A BUSINESS PLAN. In general, a business plan is necessary to provide a clear, precise, and meaningful sense of example, direction for a company for a specific period of timeusually 1 year.
The preparation of an annual plan forces management to think through its intended actions and shows how they will affect various aspects of the business. Beyond these overriding purposes, a business plan can have several different objectives that, in turn, relate very closely to the plan's intended usesboth internal and external. A business plan can provide several internal benefits for a company. First, it can improve performance by identifying the strengths and essay, weaknesses of the company's operation and research proposal example, any potential or emerging problem areas. Improved performance also will result from developing strategies that simultaneously build on the company's strengths and correct its weaknesses. Second, a business plan can communicate to management and staff clear expectations regarding the company's performance and making connection, priorities.
Third, for research example companies with multiple divisions, units, or points of problem solving, management responsibility, a business plan can effectively coordinate and ensure consistency in the plans and operations of the various units or divisions. Fourth, a business plan provides a solid basis for measuring performance of the research proposal, overall company and of individual units and managers. It establishes a standard for deciding if actual performance is good, bad, or indifferent. A business plan also establishes a framework for reviewing key decisions in essay bibliography, the ongoing management of the company. As new developments and opportunities arise, a business plan provides a rational structure for evaluating their impact on the operations and performance of the overall company and its individual units. Finally, and perhaps most important, a business plan and the process of proposal example, developing it can be used to educate and motivate the key staffsuch as managers and phd thesis, supervisorsof the company. Through participation in analyzing past performance, evaluating the impact of trends and developments, and developing action plans for the future, managers and other key staff can learn more about the total operation of a company and the relationship of their specific areas of responsibility to research, the achievement of the company's overall goals. A business plan has several uses in relationships with significant parties outside the homework, company.
First, it can be used to educate outside parties regarding the objectives, structure, and performance of the example, company. Essays. This use becomes important if the research proposal question, support, either financial or nonfinancial, of outside parties is steps in the dissertation important to the company's success. A clear example is the support of current or potential stockholders or investors. Second, a business plan can be used to secure funding from outside investors, either individual or institutional. If this use is intended, it is important to identify in advance the research proposal question, issues and types of information that are of primary concern and interest to the investors. A business plan also can communicate planned actions, deflecting competitive or regulatory moves that may be under consideration by problem solving outside parties. By formalizing its intentions in a business plan, a company commits itself to action. By communicating this commitment to question example, selected, significant outside parties, a company may preempt actions that could have a negative impact on its own plans and actions.
Given the many different objectives and uses of the business plan, management must decide whether it is desirable or necessary to distribute its plan. If the technology essays, plan is to be distributed, the specific structure and content will be affected by the intended uses and target audience. WHAT TO INCLUDE IN A BUSINESS PLAN. Every business planregardless of the company, the nature of its business, its size, or the intended uses of the planshould address a number of research question, basic issues. These issues can be organized according to five major business strategies: Market strategy Production or service strategy Research and development (RD) strategy Organization and management strategy Financial strategy. Descriptions of each strategy compose the process, major portion of a complete business plan.
The five strategies define the areas in research proposal question, which management must make future-oriented decisions as part of an effective business planning process. Each strategy is highly interrelated and must be consistent with the others. This basic relationship is illustrated in Exhibit 1-2. A market strategy addresses the following critical issues: What products or services will the company sell? Who are, or will be, the target customers of the company? What will be the company's policies regarding product or service pricing, advertising and promotion, sales, and distribution? By developing a market strategy, an organization is able to websites, prepare estimates of revenues and selling costsbut not production costsfor its products and services. Several very important analyses underlie the development of a market strategy, including the following: Preference, consumption, and purchasing behaviorthat is, timing and volumeof customer segments Usefulness of research question example, products or services to customers Satisfaction of customers with products or services Degree of steps in the process, competition within the industry for the same customer segments. These analyses are important in developing realistic estimates of what can be sold to proposal, whom, when, in what quantities, and at what price, given the level of promotion, sales, and distribution effort. A production or service strategy addresses several critical issues: the process and technology that will be used to produce and deliver the company's products or services; the requirements for connection materials, equipment, and facilities; and the production schedule required to support sales goals. It enables the company to determine estimates of operating income profitability and to determine the level of sales and revenue that the organization must attain before it can become profitablethat is, the breakeven point.
Similar to the market strategy, several important analyses underlie the development of a production or service strategy: Identification and evaluation of both the fixed and variable production costs for research proposal each product or service. Evaluation of required lead times for acquiring materials and the time required for connection essay the actual production process. Assessment of supplier relationships regarding availability, quality, and cost of materials and services. Research Proposal Example. Evaluation of production efficiency and quality control. Assessment of production cost efficiency and its impact on overall production costs. These analyses are important to ensure that sales and revenue objectives are appropriately meshed with the production or service capability of the company. If sales goals significantly exceed the current capacity of an on digital, organization, they must be adjusted downward or additional investments must be made to increase or expand the production or service capacity. Sales and revenue goals should be high enough to cover basic production and operating costs to ensure economic viability. If projected revenues do not cover estimated production and operating costs, sales and revenue goals must be adjusted upward or cost-cutting actions must be planned and undertaken. Reconciling and balancing both market and research, production strategies are processes that may require several iterations.
Research and on digital watermarking, Development Strategy. The RD strategy addresses two key questions: What critical areas of the proposal question example, company's business operation must be developed, maintained, or expanded to sustain a competitive edge? Given trends in the marketplace and the operating environment of the company, what investments are necessary to maintain or expand the competitive edge? The need for a formal RD strategy is determined, to a large degree, by the structure of the company's operating environment. If the company operates in a highly competitive environment, characterized by steps in the dissertation process rapid and frequent technological change and research proposal question, requiring medium- to long-range planning horizons, a formal RD strategy is an operating necessity. If the company operates in a more stable environment or in connection, one where new product introduction is research proposal question not a primary determinant of essay, market success, a formal RD strategy is less necessary. As the economy becomes more and proposal question example, more knowledge-and information-based, fewer and fewer companies will have the making connection essay, luxury of not developing some type of RD strategy. The need for research proposal example and the scope of an RD strategy flow from the market analysis. If the market analysis indicates that the purchasing behavior of target customers is influenced by technology essays factors other than price, the need for some level of RD effort is indicated. The level of effort can range from long-term new product planning and introduction to fine-tuning adjustments of proposal, existing products and pre calc answers, services.
Organization and Management Strategy. An organization and management strategy addresses several critical issues: Functions that must be performed and who will be responsible for performing them Organization of functions to promote overall effectiveness, efficiency, and productivity Management of the organization's processes and practices to ensure quality products or services Staffing requirements in terms of numbers, skills, qualifications, and promotional opportunities Procedures for guiding, motivating, and controlling the overall operation of the proposal, company. Through the organization and management strategy, the company begins the process of deciding how to implement its major business strategies. Who is in charge and who will do the work, particularly regarding critical functions, are important concerns to outside investors. Several important analyses underlie the development of an organization and management strategy. Technology. These analyses are important to ensure that the company effectively addresses the people issues that are central to any company's success: Evaluation of management attitudes and beliefs regarding company values, the treatment of employees, and research example, key measures of company success Availability and cost of required staff capabilities, both within and outside the on digital, companyfor example, consultants and board members Historical strengths and question, weaknesses in essays, the structure, organization, and management of the company, including communications, interunit cooperation, and employee morale and productivity. A financial strategy addresses three critical issues: (1) how business operations will be managed financially to generate an adequate profit or to ensure ongoing economic viability, (2) how excess revenues or profits will be used, and (3) how basic operating funds and funds required for key investments will be generated. In effect, the development of proposal, a financial strategy becomes a reality test for the other strategies in the business plan.
A financial strategy answers the overall question of communication essays, what investments or expenses can be made or incurred. A financial strategy answers questions such as the following: Does the planned level of operations generate a sufficient level of revenues or profits to research example, support the investment? Can the level of planned operations generate a sufficient cash flow to sustain operations? If not, can the pre calc, shortfall be covered from other sources? Do the levels of investment (expenses) and returns (revenues) maintain economic solvency and viability? As with the example, other strategies, several analyses underlie the development of a financial strategy. They establish a framework for evaluating the financial viability of the marketing, production or service, RD, and organization and management strategies. The analyses include the connection, following: Historical information regarding the time relationship between the incurrence and payment of costs and the receipt of revenuesthat is, the cash flow problem Policies of the company and its suppliers and customers regarding payments and collections Historical performance of the company on key financial indicators Composition of assets and liabilities, including future financial obligations Value and current usefulness of assets Cost and availability of funds from external sources.
Although the business plan strategies are highly interrelated and the development of the individual strategies is definitely an iterative process, a basic series of steps can and proposal question example, should be followed in developing the plan. Exhibit 1-3 summarizes these steps. Step 1: Organizing the Planning Process. Many business planning efforts fall flat because inadequate attention is given at the outset to solving, organizing and energizing the planning activity. Several considerations are involved. First, a company's management must define and clearly communicate its commitment to the planning effort. This commitment should include a statement of the objectives and anticipated uses of the business plan. Second, all key parties must be involved in the planning process. Top management should identify who will be involved, including outside parties; determine the appropriate form and timing of the involvement; provide the opportunity for proper participation; and ensure that participation occurs. Research Proposal. Third, responsibilities for developing and implementing the plan should be precisely defined and making essay, assigned. Proposal. Finally, the steps and process for completing the plan should be timed and made an integral part of the work schedule.
An overall timetable for developing the homework answers, plan, including intermediate milestones, should be established. Sufficient time should be incorporated into question the timetable so that staff can effectively perform both planning and ongoing work responsibilities. If these considerations are adequately addressed in the organizing phase, the planning process becomes a high priority and a feasible activity for the company and its staff. The result is a high-quality business plan with shared ownership. The first analytical step in the planning process is to assess and evaluate what a company is in the dissertation process currently doing in relation to its operating environment. Research Proposal Example. The first part of this analysis is to assess the technology, company's current capabilities that is, its strengths, weaknesses, and research example, historical performance. The second part is to assess external marketplace developmentsthat is, threats and opportunitiesand their impact on the future performance of the company. Information from both parts of the analysis is critical to an effective planning process.
For some companies, it is important to monitor external developments continually and evaluate performance in light of responsiveness and adaptability to any developments. These companies typically have the resources as well as the desire to invest in a high level of in the process, research and analysis. Other companies prefer to evaluate marketplace developments in light of question example, their specific impact on current performance and capabilities. This approach, which requires significantly less effort and resources, reflects a lower perceived need for timely external review. The specific approach that a company takes depends on the competitive setting, management's preferences, the availability of connection essay, resources to support ongoing evaluations of the external environment, and the frequency and proposal question example, significance of external developments on communication, the company's performance.
The situational diagnosis produces a set of findings about what is being done and an assessment of the adequacy of existing strategies in terms of current performance and future developments. The results of the situational analysis are used in two separate, but related, ways in the goal-setting step of the planning process. First, the results define specific areas and levels of improvement in the company's operations and management. They also establish performance standards for each key dimension of the company's operations and management. By setting goals, the company is defining the parameters of its overall business strategies for the future. Within each strategymarketing, finance, and so forthgoals should be established for each operating dimension in which performance improvement is necessary or appropriate. Goals should address both current and potential strengths and weaknesses, as well as future or emerging opportunities. Across all strategies, goals should be supportive of each other and mutually attainable. Typically, goals are first established for each strategy area.
When viewed collectively, some of these goals may conflict with those of other strategies. Research Proposal Example. Conflict often occurs with marketing and production goals, or with RD and financial goals. Essay Bibliography References. For a business plan to work, conflicting goals must be reconciled and a consistent overall goal framework established. Because assumptions on which the plan may be based are not perfect predictors of the future, the company should develop alternative goals and strategies based on other feasible assumptions. These alternatives are the research proposal question example, bases for contingency planning. Adequate attention to these considerations should yield a good, feasible set of technology essays, goals and performance standards for the company. Step 4: Developing Operating Plans.
Operating plans should be developed for each of the operational strategies that is, marketing, production or service, research and research question example, development, and organization and management. The purpose of this step is to translate the strategies into specific business and operating plans for each of the operating components of the company. Each component's objectives and strategies will vary somewhat, but the technology, operating plan for each component should spell out in question example, fairly specific terms the making connection essay, performance objectives for the component and provide a clear, overall indication of how the objectives will be accomplished. Step 5: Developing a Financial Plan. The development of a financial plan flows from the performance objectives and proposal question, strategies of each of the essay bibliography references, operating components. These objectives and strategies provide estimates of revenues and expenses. A financial plan must use this information to produce several pro forma and supporting schedules that can be used to evaluate and manage the financial performance of the company. Pro forma schedules are standard accounting statements prepared by the company's accounting department and are minimum requirements for internal management and external users. The three pro forma schedules are as follows: Quarterly, and example, frequently monthly, income statements for the period addressed by the business plan, reflecting the relationship among revenues, expenses, and profits generated Quarterly and annual balance sheets, reflecting the relationships among short- and long-term assets and liabilities and owners' equity or level of investment Monthly cash flow summaries, reflecting the impact of business operations on the cash position of the essay bibliography references, company.
Supporting schedules provide a more complete description or explanation of the financial figures included in research question example, the pro forma schedules. Two of the more common supporting schedules are the monthly sales and revenue projections. These projections are obtained from the marketing operating plan and monthly departmental budgets that reflect planned expenses and expenditures for answers production and overhead operations. Beyond these schedules, a financial plan should include summaries of question, planned financial performance according to selected indicators of on digital, profitability, growth, solvency, and return on research proposal example, investment. The results of a financial analysis provide an indication of the adequacy and communication essays, attainability of the operating objectives and strategies from the perspective of research example, available financial resources. Based on the results of the financial analysis, it may be necessary to reevaluate and revise the operating objectives to support more satisfactory and viable financial performance. Step 6: Writing the Business Plan Document. The preparation of a formal business plan document is a requirement if external uses of the plan are anticipated. A formal document should be prepared, even if the intended uses of the pre calc, business plan are strictly internal, in order to provide a written record of the management decisions that have been made during the planning process. Preparing the planning document has three objectives.
First, it brings closure to the planning process. Second, it communicates the seriousness of the planning process and a commitment to resultant objectives and strategies. Finally, the planning document provides a tangible framework for evaluating subsequent activities, accomplishments, and opportunities. Preparing the business plan document is an exercise in writing, but not in creative writing. The document should simply and concisely present the analyses and decisions that have been made during the research proposal, planning process. In general, the longer the planning document is and the more verbiage it contains, the more the document will reflect decisions that have not been made, rather than those that have. The document should be organized according to the major strategies of the business plan or at least those strategies that are relevant to the company's operation. The document should begin with an executive summary, which briefly highlights each major section. Answers. The document also should include a brief assessment of the company's market position and business outlook.
The assessment is important to research proposal question example, validating the assumptions that will be reflected in the business plan strategies. A business plan is a set of management decisions that define what a business will do to essay, try to be successful in research proposal, the future. The business plan spells out making, goals and strategies in five key areas: marketing, production or service, research and development, organization and research proposal, management, and finance. The plan is developed employing a six-step process: (1) organize the planning process; (2) diagnose the situation; (3) set goals; (4) develop operating plans; (5) develop a financial plan; and (6) write the plan document.