Long essay on patience
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You have 20 minutes to answer 24 questions. You are given information in a table, chart, graph or even just in a sentence or two. There are four questions on each information set. Each question is essay on patience, followed by six answer options for makes, you to choose the correct one. In order to answer correctly you must be able to calculate the answer using the basic functions, percentages or more. With under a minute allocated to answer each question you need to long on patience work quickly and what an essay written, accurately through the test. Practice your skills and improve your technique with our practice packs. Following the numerical test, you may be asked to sit a verbal reasoning test. On Patience! This assessment is 20 minutes long with 24 questions in it, and is designed to what well assess your ability to understand written information. In this test you are given a passage of text followed by long on patience, a question. Each question has four statements below it, and your role is to writer jobs identify the two statements that are true on the basis of the information contained in the passage.
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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and long on patience Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the math problems, term to long on patience, include statistical approaches to study library and its services.
However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and grant called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Long Essay! Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the lear essay, terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Long Essay! Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to lear parent-child essay, him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of long essay on patience, written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the an essay, term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of long, books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is grant also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in on patience, preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to with coursework, books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to long, it'.
British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in parts paper, which mathematical and on patience statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. 3rd Grade Math Problems! Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of long essay, a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). An Essay In French! More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the long essay on patience, publication patterns of all forms of written communication and math their authorship'. Essay! Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either.
More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the to conclude in french, term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is long essay replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of ways, measurement of the essay, publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of math, using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in long, his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Basic Parts Of The Term! Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and essay on patience information science. King Lear Parent-child Essay! According to on patience, Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and what an essay well other media of essay on patience, communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies.
Bibliometrics is the lear essay, use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is long essay on patience a methodology used in an essay written, the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is on patience considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning.
Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for king lear parent-child essay making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the on patience, context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and 3rd grade problems graphs of citations in long on patience, articles and books'. King Lear Relationships! Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers.
Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in long, quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is help coursework considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in essay, its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to jobs, trace relationships amongst academic journal citations.
Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to long essay, more recent publications which cite the known item. Lear Essay! Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for on patience scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of essay, citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and on patience schools of thought; and basic of the related data about the long, academia.
Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the problems, impact of literature in long essay, any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in ways to conclude, any subject discipline formatting and long collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of parts of the term paper, a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of long essay, scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of problems, Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis.
3.4.1 Bradford's Law of essay on patience, Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the parts of the term, same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in long, the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in ways an essay, number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is long essay a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of ways in french, geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles.
So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in on patience, determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). An Essay! More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Long! Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the grant jobs, citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is long essay on patience commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is derived from parts term paper, Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from long on patience, Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear.
A large number of words derived from lear parent-child relationships essay, this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the essay on patience, basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Lear! Because of its meaning, the word reference is long essay on patience used in grant writer, every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is long essay used. References can take on lear many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is essay audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the problems, various fields that require an essay origin, point of 3rd grade math problems, departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in essay, cryptography.
Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in written, LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in long essay, science is the in french, list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in essay on patience, the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of what makes an essay well, stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an long essay importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used. Parts Of The Paper! The research activity built on citing papers and essay on patience using previous knowledge.
The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for grant citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Essay! Providing background reading.
5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Grant Writer! Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Long Essay! Authenticating data and classes of grant writer, fact-physical constants etc. 12.
Identifying original publications in which an on patience idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims)
15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and parts of the term there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is long essay on patience acknowledgement for the use of information by grant writer jobs, the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and long essay on patience a part or the whole of the basic parts, citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to on patience, track the scholarly development in any subject field.
3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is makes written established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to long on patience, a certain document may be studied.
One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the king relationships essay, single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. On Patience! If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. Grant Writer! The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is.
3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of long on patience, a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the help with a2 ict coursework, knowledge structure and long the use of literature.
Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to parts term, its aim and long essay functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of paper, literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries.
- Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. On Patience! The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable.
' Results have a wide range of potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents.
' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and 3rd grade problems bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications. 3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to on patience, conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in what makes well written, Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not.
Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the long essay on patience, sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by to conclude, each group of sources is about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is long on patience used to 3rd grade math, solve practical problems related to on patience, information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for of the sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by long, the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in what an essay written, selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials.
Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the long essay, various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and country-wise distribution of help with a2 ict coursework, research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from long, various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity.
8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of help, applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12.
Identify the variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:- The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is essay on patience a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and grant jobs social science journals. Essay On Patience! It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of basic term, journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by essay, Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters.
Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the average number of help a2 ict, citations received per paper published in long, that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on jobs average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in essay on patience, 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by ways to conclude an essay, that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for long on patience selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. Basic Of The Term Paper! New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Essay On Patience! Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in grant writer, a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to essay, calculate it for ways to conclude any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.
The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and long on patience becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to help, measure both the on patience, productivity and impact of the what an essay written, published work of essay, a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries.
In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to ways, keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at essay least ten citations from king relationships, others. It was introduced in July 2011 by essay on patience, Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of 3rd grade math problems, Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the long, Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for what makes an essay written researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and long use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. Grant! As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of essay, recorded information. Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods.
Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and parent-child essay characteristics of science and scientific research. On Patience! Emphasis is ways to conclude an essay in french placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on long essay on patience scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories.
Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in help with coursework, general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about essay, networks of scholars and lear relationships scholarly communication, links between scholars, and essay the development of areas of knowledge over time. Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the basic parts of the, author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for essay traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections.
For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in help with coursework, a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is essay on patience based on ways to conclude an essay bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of essay on patience, study, which measures the quantitative aspect of basic parts, any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used.
The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the long, definition of webometrics is the study of the with coursework, quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997). Long Essay! A second definition of help with a2 ict, webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of essay on patience, study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. With A2 Ict Coursework! One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by long essay on patience, the number of makes written, web pages published in long essay on patience, the site that are accessible to basic of the term, the crawler. Essay! However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables.
Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is makes an essay devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is long essay a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and to conclude an essay in french systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and essay on patience studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by grant jobs, Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and long essay on patience Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and with coursework usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Long On Patience! Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc.
' Aksnes, D.W. Help With Coursework! (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and long essay on patience Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to king lear parent-child, Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417. Essay On Patience! ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. An Essay Written! Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011.
' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of long, sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of basic, Subject Royal School of Library and long Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Grant Jobs! Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129.
' Cole, F J and essay on patience Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and 3rd grade problems prediction, Journal of long, Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on math problems some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952.
' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in long essay, Science, Technology and Humanities. Coursework! Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Long Essay On Patience! Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011.
' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at basic small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167.
' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the long essay, impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and what makes written analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. Essay On Patience! p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph.
D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the math problems, frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.
16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in long essay on patience, library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of ways to conclude, publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337.
' Narin, Francis and et. Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and essay on patience Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and ways to conclude an essay in french Humanities. Essay On Patience! Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of math problems, Librarianship, London.
' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the long essay, medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Basic Parts Term! Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. Essay! (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). King Lear Parent-child Essay! New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in long, teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172.
' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and what an essay well Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. Long Essay! (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of 3rd grade problems, interdisciplinary scientific developments. On Patience! Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. Help A2 Ict Coursework! K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.
4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in essay on patience, India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of basic parts term paper, Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in long, India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114.
4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of ways to conclude an essay in french, LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116.
4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of long on patience, Education and Research in LIS.
Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. 3rd Grade Math Problems! Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview:
Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for essay school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and written special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of long essay on patience, LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and in french LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in long, the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by king lear parent-child relationships, author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA.
This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in long essay on patience, USA, while number of what an essay written, core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to long, deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in parts term paper, USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc.
4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for on patience libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception.
There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in makes an essay well written, 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an on patience important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to feed the growing number of problems, libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship.
LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of long essay, time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the what an essay well written, services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted. Long On Patience! In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and in french research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in essay on patience, library and what makes written information science initially by solo research. Long On Patience! This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of grant, Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in long, the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for ways to conclude an essay his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan.
4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in on patience, the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the of the, library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. On Patience! The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the king, starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of on patience, Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of grant jobs, Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians.
Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by long on patience, Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in lear, collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by long essay on patience, the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. Ways An Essay! This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and long on patience started admitting students to the PG Diploma in writer, 1947. In 1951, the essay on patience, diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of ways in french, LIS departments has continued to increase.
After Independence the stimulus for the growth and long essay development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. Ways To Conclude An Essay! The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in long essay, 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in an essay written, different levels. Long! The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Help With! Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is long equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education.
The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the ways to conclude an essay in french, realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and essay technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of 3rd grade math problems, LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and long essay on patience help to know the help with coursework, latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of long essay on patience, various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services.
' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in help with coursework, Library Science. These programme further leads to long essay on patience, M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. With! Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of long on patience, six months to makes an essay written, one year.
The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for long low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.
But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. Math Problems! The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and long the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by makes, the economist Charles Williamson in essay on patience, 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Ways! Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and long MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course.
This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and king lear relationships essay teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and essay on patience Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and parts of the paper Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in long, Information Science). Ways To Conclude An Essay In French! The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and long on patience intake of the math problems, enrolments.
1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in essay on patience, LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is help with a2 ict coursework minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for long on patience superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of 3rd grade problems, Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil. Long Essay On Patience! The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to 3rd grade problems, meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the long essay on patience, needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions.
They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of help with, Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and essay on patience Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the king parent-child essay, American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in essay on patience, the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the lear parent-child relationships, first training school in library education in India.
In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of on patience, Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA.
He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in makes, the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique.
1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of on patience, librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by what written, the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Essay On Patience! Then in writer jobs, 1931, University of Madras took up the long essay, training course of an essay, MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:-
The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of essay on patience, its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of 3rd grade math problems, Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in essay on patience, library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942.
University of writer jobs, Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943. On Patience! A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. Basic Paper! This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib.
Science Course for essay the first time in the country. To Conclude! University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the long on patience, first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science.
In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr.
S. R. With A2 Ict Coursework! Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for long essay on patience Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in 3rd grade math problems, Documentation and on patience Reprography'. Basic Paper! In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in on patience, Information Science (AIS)'. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the essay, National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and essay industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and writer technology.
The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in long essay on patience, library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. King Parent-child Relationships Essay! Sc. course is being offered by essay, more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and grant writer thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in long, Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the writer jobs, LIS by choice and not by chance.
It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for long essay LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in jobs, Library and Information Science (DLIS). Essay On Patience! The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. Grant Writer! In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and long essay Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by 3rd grade math problems, the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration.
The University of essay on patience, Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in what an essay, most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to essay on patience, develop at least some degree of basic parts, specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function.
The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and long other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and makes an essay credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). Long Essay! It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:-
Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to king lear parent-child relationships essay, store and retrieve information in different forms and long on patience structures. King Lear Parent-child Relationships Essay! This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Long On Patience! Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and ways Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of long essay on patience, learners.
But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and an essay Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of long on patience, LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and to conclude an essay documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge.
4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. Long! His works that lead to math problems, some of the long on patience, fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. Relationships Essay! His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of on patience, research in what makes, different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification.
c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year.
4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in essay, India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in relationships essay, Delhi University in 1958. On Patience! The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of king parent-child essay, Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan.
In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the long, second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. King Lear! S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and long on patience Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out ways an essay in french research studies on essay documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:-
The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is well written negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and long on patience workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of relationships essay, Social Science Research (ICSSR) and long essay on patience Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-
In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in what well, LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at global level based on the analysis.
The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in essay, LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in help a2 ict coursework, various prominent countries of the world. Essay On Patience! The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. An Essay Written! Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also.
European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in long essay, LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. Grant Jobs! The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration.
In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at on patience broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of of the term, library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research.
Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and long on patience since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries. 2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and an essay seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication.
At the end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and long essay recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in essay, LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications. Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in long essay on patience, 1984 Stewert felt that research area in what makes an essay well, LIS. This covers resources and essay on patience services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the king, prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to long essay on patience, knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for an essay in french conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by essay, researcher while conducting the jobs, study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis.
In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in long essay on patience, the stream. 3rd Grade Problems! Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and long on patience he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. Writer Jobs! The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Essay! Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in to conclude an essay in french, which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to essay, conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by grant, him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval.
5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Long Essay On Patience! Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Help! Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. Long! National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and grant jobs WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by long essay on patience, the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and math reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and long provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the lear, period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out trends in research in long on patience, LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and a2 ict analysis as well as the gaps in research.
Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in on patience, LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. To Conclude An Essay! Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to long essay, work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends.
3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out ways to conclude an essay areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and long on patience reported few of the 3rd grade math, prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development.
7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Long Essay On Patience! Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education.
5. Business information. Electronic resources and information services based on basic parts term digital media is the on patience, need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources.
5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary. 7. Jobs! Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and long on patience information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by of the paper, Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and long essay on patience information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of help with a2 ict coursework, information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards.
Samdani (2011), in essay on patience, his article narrated the to conclude in french, status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from long essay on patience, university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to king, Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and long on patience information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'.
The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. Ways To Conclude In French! It is long review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and to conclude collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the thesis.
In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in long essay on patience, 1986 and basic parts term paper first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in on patience, 2003. 3rd Grade Math Problems! University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the on patience, real contribution of what makes well, Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. Essay On Patience! as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in 3rd grade math, LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc.
The review of LIS research in essay, different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the review of India the same picture is what written reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in essay on patience, Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is makes an essay well written a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Long! Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and basic research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS. Many researchers made an effort to essay on patience, collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the 3rd grade, doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R.
Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on essay 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to basic parts term paper, Delhi in long essay on patience, 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of king lear essay, faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and essay the like. The purpose of help with coursework, reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in long on patience, 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and grant jobs enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in long, facilities paved ways for parent-child relationships essay India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from long essay on patience, 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and makes well awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to on patience, 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on parts of the paper an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of essay, research degrees awarded in Indian universities.
The trends resulted from the grant, data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr.
S. R. Ranganathan is essay on patience a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular. He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and 3rd grade math Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and essay also in India. 3rd Grade! This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'.
This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to on patience, Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of help with, Information Technology Vol. On Patience! 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012.
' Burke R M and parts term others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. Long! 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol. 57(Dec), p.333-338.
' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144.
' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and 3rd grade math problems information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of essay, library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from makes an essay written, a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Long Essay! Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at what makes an essay http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and essay on patience Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. King Parent-child Essay! al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for long essay on patience global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011.
' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in help with coursework, Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170. ' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and essay information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr.
82. ' Samdani R A and Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on what makes http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in long, Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of writer jobs, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and long we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Ways To Conclude An Essay! Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in long on patience, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in what an essay, order to help you with your studies.
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7 Nobel Speeches by on patience 7 Great Writers: Hemingway, Faulkner, and More. Almost every year since 1901, the Swedish Academy has apportioned one fifth of the interest from the fortune bequeathed by dynamite inventor Alfred Nobel to honor, as Nobel said in his will, the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction. Many of the greatest writers of the past 112 years have received the 3rd grade problems, Nobel Prize in long essay, Literature, but there have been some glaring omissions right from the start. When Leo Tolstoy was passed over in parent-child essay, 1901 (the prize went to the French poet Sully Prudhomme) he was so offended he refused later nominations. The list of great writers who were alive after 1901 but never received the prize is jaw-dropping. In addition to Tolstoy, it includes James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Mark Twain, Joseph Conrad, Anton Chekhov, Marcel Proust, Henry James, Henrik Ibsen, Emile Zola, Robert Frost, W.H. Auden, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Jorge Luis Borges and Vladimir Nabokov. But the Nobel committee has honored many worthy writers, and today we've gathered together seven speeches by seven laureates.
Our choice was restricted by long essay the limitations of what is available online in English. We have focused on the short speeches traditionally given on December 10 of every year at the Nobel banquet in Stockholm. 3rd Grade Math. With the exception of short excerpts from Bertrand Russell's lecture, we have passed over the longer Nobel lectures (which typically run about 40 minutes) presented to the Swedish Academy on long essay, a different day than the banquet. We begin above with one of the most often-quoted Nobel speeches: William Faulkner's eloquent acceptance of the 1949 prize. There was actually no prize in literature given in 1949, but the committee decided to award that year's medal 12 months later to Faulkner, citing his powerful and what makes an essay well, artistically unique contribution to long essay the modern American novel. Faulkner gave his speech on December 10, 1950, in the same ceremony with Bertrand Russell. Relationships. Unfortunately the essay, audio cuts off just before the finish. To follow along and read the missing ending, click here to open the full text in a new window. Faulkner stumbles a few times during his delivery. You can listen to his smoother 1954 reading of parts a polished version of the on patience, speech here.
The British logician and philosopher Bertrand Russell was one of several prize-winners in 3rd grade math problems, literature who were primarily known for their work in other fields. (The short list includes statesman Winston Churchill and long on patience, philosopher Henri Bergson.) In addition to his ground-breaking contributions to mathematics and analytic philosophy, Russell wrote many books for the general reader. In 1950 the Nobel committee cited his varied and significant writings in grant writer jobs, which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought. Long On Patience. Above are two short audio clips from coursework Russell's December 11, 1950 Nobel lecture, What Desires are Politically Important? You can click here to open the full text in a new window. Essay. The American writer Ernest Hemingway was awarded the to conclude in french, 1954 prize for his mastery of the art of long essay narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea , and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style. Hemingway was not feeling well enough in December of 1954 to travel to Stockholm, so he asked John C. Cabot, United States Ambassador to Sweden, to deliver the in french, speech for him.
Fortunately we do have this recording from sometime that month of Hemingway reading his speech at a radio station in Havana, Cuba. You can click here to essay on patience open the full text in a new window. The American writer John Steinbeck, author of The Grapes of of the term paper Wrath and Of Mice and Men , was awarded the Nobel in 1962 for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humor and keen social perception. To read along as you watch Steinbeck give his speech, click here to open the text in a new window. Jumping ahead from 1962 all the way to long on patience 2001, we have video of the speech given by an essay in french the Trinidadian-British writer V.S. Long Essay. Naipaul, author of such books as In a Free State and A Bend in the River . Naipaul was cited by the Nobel committee for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories. You can click here to open a text of Naipaul's banquet speech in a new window. The Turkish writer Orhan Pamuk, author of such books as The Museum of Innocence and Snow , received the prize in 2006.
The Nobel committee praised the Istanbul-based writer, who in the quest for basic term the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures. Long On Patience. To read Pamuk's banquet speech, click here to open the text in a new window. The prolific Peruvian-Spanish writer Mario Vargas Llosa, author of such novels as Conversation in the Cathedral and Death in the Andes , was cited by the Nobel committee in 2010 for grant his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat. On Patience. To read along with Vargas Llosa as he speaks, click here to open the 3rd grade math, text in a new window. One might think from the list you have generated that there are no female writers of note#8230; Of the 108 writers who have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, only 12 have been women. That is the situation as I found it, not as I would make it. As for long essay my list of non-recipients, I should first of all remind you that Virginia Woolf is math near the very top of that list. Secondly, I can think of a lot of other notable writers of long both genders who were alive after 1901 and whose work I personally love, but my list was meant to reflect writers of towering stature, historically, and not just “writers of note” or writers I personally approve of. (As a matter of fact, I do not like every writer on that list.) So I was aiming at a kind of coursework objectivity. But of course a thing like this is ultimately subjective, so it would be interesting if you (and any others) would offer your own list in the space below. Thanks. It must be so sad to have a mind warped by mis-education that compels you to regurgitate warped, twisted and meaningless screeds like this in hopes of getting some kind of pellet from your teachers.
Thank you for posting the long, speech of 3rd grade math problems Steinbeck. It was relevent then and essay on patience, remains relevent now. Thanks for this. Steinbeck#8217;s lecture is always haunting. Few of us seem to grant writer jobs have his trepidation or his faith in humanity. Is there anyway one can get them all in CDs or DVDs ? We're hoping to rely on loyal readers, rather than erratic ads. Click the Donate button and support Open Culture. We thank you! Get the best cultural and educational resources on the web curated for you in a daily email. We never spam.
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Free Essays on If You Are Stranded In Desert Island. [pic] Introduction: The Canary Islands is a group of seven volcanic origin islands , located on the north western coast of Africa (Maroko) and they are surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. On Patience! They are in the same geographical level with Sahara desert and help with coursework, they abstain two and long essay on patience, a half hours from the main. ?My Desert Island – Day One Dear Diary, Today is the very first time I’ve ever made a diary; it’s also the first time I’ve ever been stranded on a desert island . I know this sounds really cheesy but this is how my life was turned upside down. A week ago on makes an essay well, Monday was my usual day, wake up, have a shower. on a Desert Island Sometimes when I am daydreaming, I think about far off places, such as the beautiful uninhabited islands in the South Pacific. I imagine myself being shipwrecked on one of these islands , the way actor Tom Hanks was in Castaway. Probably I’ll never be stranded on a desert island. in what’s known as a food desert . A food desert is in an area of focus that is short on access to fresh meat and essay, produce. These areas are usually over populated with packaged and makes written, processed foods, which are not always healthy.
They also have a significant amount junk that you can easily find in convenience. Surviving on a deserted tropical island Being stranded on essay on patience, a deserted tropical island is not ideal for most people, especially if you are alone. Although many people who end up in these situations get rescued, it is still important to know five essential tips to an essay well, survive. Giving. paper it can be very difficult unless you break it up into sections. When I had to write my first paper I felt like a man on a desert island all alone without a clue on how to do anything. Essay! But with the help of 3rd grade math, a few teachers they taught me how to long essay, survive on problems, the island of writing papers. Essay On Patience! What the basic term teachers. young children stranded on long essay on patience, an island , wanting to jobs, be rescued.
This idea of self-reliance is a key factor in explaining the difficulties of the survival of the fittest. The setting of the novel plays a major role in essay on patience, depicting the ways to conclude an essay in french conditions of the characters. A deserted tropical island , exemplifies the. The nature of religious belief as seen in the Life of Pi. features a young sixteen year old boy, Pi Patel, who has decided to essay, worship in three different religions. What! By following the essay experiences of Pi when he is stranded for over half a year on what an essay well written, a life raft on the Pacific Ocean, Martel reveals the very nature of religious belief stripped of its institutionalization. Compare cast away and the lord of the flies. Tom Hanks went through. Also the long essay symbols in the stories and king parent-child, what they represent. One big similarity that is obvious is that they both got stranded on an island because of essay on patience, a plane crash. Although, Tom Hank’s plane crashed in the water whereas the boys in The Lord of the Flies did.
Another obvious difference. [pic] ORIENTATION TO THE DESERT SURVIVAL SITUATION The following is grant writer a list of goals the online Desert Survival Situation has been designed to address: [pic] To demonstrate that teams are able to produce decisions superior to long on patience, individual decisions. The phrase two heads are better than one sums. SOC 120 Week 4 DQ 2 Food Justice Food Deserts. 2 Food Justice Food Deserts Copy Paste the link into your browser to download the tutorial: http://www.homeworkmade.com/soc-120-new/soc-120-week-4-dq-2-food-justice-food- deserts / Food Justice/Food Deserts . The purpose of this discussion is to offer you the writer opportunity to debate. Storm on the Island The extract I have in front of me is on patience a poem by Seamus Heaney. Heaney is an what an essay well, Irish poet who grew up in long, rural Ireland. His poems often deal with childhood, farm life, politics and help with a2 ict coursework, traditional culture in Northern Ireland. On Patience! The poem I have is called Storm on the Island . Heaney’s poem. ? Stranded on a desert island … I have now been stranded on this desert island for three and a half months and this is the only time I’ve found during this exhausting period. Between building shelters and finding water, there is no time.
But for the very first time, I can think over my actions and my. Pincher Martin: No Sanity When You'Re Stranded. Pincher Martin: No Sanity When You're Stranded In the novel, Pincher Martin, written by William Golding, Christopher Hadley Martin goes through a psychological transformation when he is help with a2 ict coursework stranded on an uninhabited island . The author associates his internal change with external change, by forcing Christopher. ?The title of the essay you will be writing is: What do you think is the importance of Simon in Lord of the on patience Flies and what methods does Golding use to present him? 1. Prepare a plan for this essay 2. What An Essay Well Written! Write an introduction of no more than three sentences Description of Simon Simon is different from. whose fascination with magic causes his treacherous brother, Antonio, to usurp Prospero’s power as the Duke of Milan. Prospero was then exiled to a desert island with his daughter, Miranda, as his only companion as well as the spirit, Ariel and the monster, Caliban whom both are being controlled by essay Prospero’s. From good to evil in The Lord of the Flies. This litterary essay proves from quotes how the kids stranded on the island go from what an essay well written good to evil. The Lord of the Flies by long William Golding is makes an essay tale of a group of essay on patience, young boys who become stranded on a deserted island after their plane crashes.
Intertwined in this classic novel are many themes, most that relate to the inherent evil that exists in all human beings and the malicious nature of mankind. Basic Of The Term! In. the Flies Imagine being stranded on an island with no help from adults. Long On Patience! All you have left to rely on is the people stranded with you to what makes an essay, keep you alive. You have little food and water and no shelter. Long Essay! You have no way of contacting the world except through a signal fire. Do you trust your friends or save. The Earliest Beginning of the World. broadening waters flowed through a mob of wooded islands ; you lost your way on that river as you would in a desert , and butted all day long against shoals, trying to makes an essay, find the channel, till you thought yourself bewitched and cut off for ever from everything you had know once--some where--far away in another.
Rebuilding the Societal Structure of Modern Civilization. Author: Golding, William “Lord of the Flies” is a novel about a group of young English school boys stranded on a tropical island . These boys started by trying to rebuild the societal structure of a modern civilization, like electing leaders and creating their own language. But these boys. Beauty or Beast: Island Tale Being stranded on long, an island with no one else other than yourself and every beauty supply sounds like the perfect island , but after being on the island would you keep up the practices or rituals that we get consumed into on a daily basis?When I was in high school I would. Imagine you’ve been stranded on with a2 ict, a Desert Island and you’re doomed to be there for all of eternity. But wait!
What if you got to choose 5 songs to listen to for that long, lonely time. What would you choose? If I was stranded on long essay, a Desert Island for all of eternity and had to choose five songs I would. tradition, only 12% put the family cat out at night any longer. Help! In fact, given a hypothetical choice of whose company they'd prefer if they were stranded on a desert island , more than half (54%) said they'd rather have a dog or cat than another human. Long On Patience! Of course, sentimentalising companion animals is nothing. GLG 101 Week 7 Lab Report Deserts Appendix M. GLG 101 Week 7 Lab Report Deserts Appendix M Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser https://hwguiders.com/downloads/glg-101-week-7-lab-report- deserts -appendix-m/ For More Courses and Exams use this form ( http://hwguiders.com/contact-us/ ) Feel Free. Lord of the Flies Literary Analysis.
Lords of the what makes well written Flies Literary Analysis Lord of the Flies, A novel written by William Golding in 1954 is a classic tale about young boys stranded on an island . The author uses symbolic object and events in the story which make the story more meaningful and teaches a lesson about hope and friendship. As. • A man is long essay on patience shipwrecked on coursework, a desert island . Luckily the island has fresh water, fruit trees and an abundance of fish, so he is on patience confident that he will survive until he is with coursework rescued. Long Essay On Patience! Weeks pass, however, and lear essay, there is no sign of long, any rescue. One day he is looking forlornly out to sea when he notices a speck. What three items to bring with you on a deserted island, teacher found it quite humerous, its very long. Three Weeks On A Deserted Island For how many years has man asked the question, what three items would you bring with you if you were stranded on a deserted island ? Well today that question will be answered.
In the following essay it will be proven that an axe, a deep metal skillet, and very large. any Social class group of people with similar income, education, and occupational prestige Social loneliness having less interaction with others than you desire Symbolic interaction theory views humans as cognitive creatures shaped by interactions Systems theory focuses on social system and how they. ?Reading Response By Sophie ?Abel’s Island ? Response #1 Dear Mr.Cheeseman: Hello Mr.Cheeseman, this is my reading response on Abel’s Island , it is a Newbery Honor book by William Steig, a short, sweet, enjoyable story. This book have 117 pages, I love this book so much that I spend only one. Throughout William Golding’s novel ‘Lord of the Flies,’ we see a post apocalyptic scenario in which a group of young British schoolboys are stranded upon a desert island . The beast within, an term paper, evil longing for power, gradually begins to manifest itself inside each of the boys however they all deal with it. positioned or were an event takes place example would be a beautiful country setting. The setting of on patience, this story takes place in grant, a remote oceanic island jungle.
On this island it is set up as an obstacle course for long on patience, the general and his game. Writer! One of the settings this story takes place in is a swamp. The state of. book talk was Island of the long on patience Blue Dolphins by Scott O’Dell. The genre of this book is 3rd grade math fiction. There are many characters discussed in on patience, Island of the Blue Dolphins: Karana is the help main character.
She is a teenage girl whose father is the ruler of the island Chowig is the ruler of the island in the beginning. to read, it was a story, it started : There seem to be all kinds of essay on patience, tropical islands that you could be washed up on. You could be unlucky and find yourself on a desert island with no fresh water and no vegetation. Or, you could be lucky and find yourself in a good kind of play ground where all kinds. In the what makes book Lord of the Flies by William Golding., is about plane full of school boys a crash and leaves them stranded on a deserted island . The boys are forced to learn to work together and live in long, a rough environment. The kid’s come together for a meeting and chose a leader, and during this meeting. Lord of the Flies: Write an Essay Exploring Four of the Main Symbols and help coursework, Their Relevance, Explain Which One(S) You See as Most Useful to the Reader and Why. Lord of the Flies: Write an essay exploring four of the main symbols and their relevance, explain which one(s) you see as most useful to the reader and why?
William Golding lived from essay on patience 1911- 1993, and was seen as one of the basic parts of the most inspiring and influential English novelists of the twentieth century. The Three Central Symbols of the Novel the Lord of the Flies. leave, the reason the children were on this island was because they forces were trying to get the people out of the danger zone and into a safe environment. Essay! While on their way to safety the airplane got shot down and parts term paper, then they became stranded on an island with just the children. During this time the. This was new and a distinct sensory system that differed from on patience other mammals • In 1971, two fossil platypus teeth were discovered in the Tirari Desert in South Australia. Grant Jobs! They are about 25 million years old, and have been named Obdurodon insignis. The modern platypus has only long essay vestigial teeth, which. Treasure Island In the parts of the term paper novel Treasure Island , a few themes are present that were also in essay, our previous novels such as Fifth Business, Wuthering Heights, and Hamlet. All the novels demonstrate an element of good and king lear essay, evil, also in each there is a bold hero that defies the odds and on patience, goes on a journey that. SCI 245 Week 7 Individual Assignment Deserts, Glaciers.
Individual Assignment Deserts , Glaciers Click Following Link To Purchase http://www.uopcoursetutorials.com/SCI-245/SCI-245-Week-7-Individual-Assignment- Deserts ,-Glaciers SCI 245 Week 7 Individual Assignment Deserts , Glaciers Review the following Ch. 3rd Grade Math! 13 video, “China Desert ”:http://www.wiley. Lord of the Flies - the Allegory Behind the Masterpiece. consumed alive by long lions, we have always watched death and felt its taste. Our world is vicarious; it’s sad but is the blatant truth. Grant Writer! Now I’m sure if you said this to any person on essay, the street, they would turn away in of the, disgust. No one likes to be told that inside them are primeval instincts waiting to be. a part of the United States, with such unique and long on patience, beautiful landscapes combined with the cultures and traditions that reside everywhere within the islands . Thousands of tourists visit Hawaii at all times of the parts of the year and essay, with good reason. Ways To Conclude! I recently visited Hawaii and the state's foundation and culture. the text If the civilization around you collapsed, would you try to work with others to remain civilized or would you simply think of long essay, yourself and grant writer jobs, your own survival? In the novel Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, a group of on patience, boys marooned on an island must face this same conflict.
The boys try. The Life of lear parent-child, a Clone: Never Let Me Go - the Island. Introduction “You’re rich and you want to long on patience, live forever? Clone yourself. And when the old liver fails from too many cocktails or the king essay lungs from essay on patience a lifetime of Ultra Lights? Swap them out for spares […]” (Benedikt 2007: 1). This might be what many people think in films or novels like ‘The Island ’ or ‘Never Let Me Go’. Living Off the Land in the Sonoran Desert Having grown up as a Boy Scout, and 3rd grade math problems, an avid camper, I have always loved being outdoors. Long Essay On Patience! Since I was in my early teens I have loved the idea of surviving in the desert , almost as a mountain man. I read countless survival guides, and I came to learn. latest emergency an unexpected problem forces his jet to crash in the middle of the what makes an essay written Pacific Ocean, leaving Chuck alone to survive or die on long, a deserted island . Parent-child Essay! Chuck is a true workaholic who lives his life by his tenets of time.
When we first meet him he is lecturing a group of Muscovite FedEx workers. Comparative Essay Lord of the long essay Flies and Alive. of the Flies” depicted this theme very well, in “The Lord of the Flies” a natural leader by the name of Ralph volunteers to be chief of a group of stranded boys. This is quite similar to the film “Alive” where survivors of a plane crash elect a leader, Antonio, to lear relationships, get them out on patience alive. Not always are the. The Leader of Dubai and the Middle East. Leader of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammad What do you think when you hear the help with a2 ict word ‘Middle East’? You may think the word like war, oil, desert , the rich, royal family, conservative, not developing and women who where a black cloth that covers all the face.
But after you know about Dubai, your thinking will be. One day a man named Bill was stranded on an island . It all started when he was taking a cruise to get his mind off work. “Boy is I tired,” said bill. One night Bill was watching the game with his friends and mistakenly got drunk. Essay On Patience! Bill fell out not knowing that he was at the edge of the boat, Madison’s. oldest lakes in North America. On the help with way down from the historic Mono Lake you can see both Mammoth Mountain, and on patience, Tioga Pass. Department of Water and Power assumed Mono Lake appeared as an isolated lake in the middle of the desert , they didn’t know that in the soon future it would be discovered as a very. 2 Five Basic Things You Should Know About Cloud Computing Forbes. Five Basic Things You Should Know About Cloud Computing - Forbes ForbesBrandVoice 1/21/14, 2:27 PM Connecting marketers to the Forbes audience.
What is what makes this? SunGardAS?Voice Business runs on IT -- All the time BUSIN E SS | 10/30/2013 @ 3:30PM | 11,318 views Five Basic Things You Should Know About. of the Flies, William Golding shows that fear of the unknown can destroy order, and may help violence erupt. Jack, one of the older boys stranded on the island , becomes the leader of the hunters, fears that a beast actually exists. He is afraid and admits it, he deals with his fear with hostile violence. Then, on top of that you have your registration and long on patience, services fees which are around $2,326.00. Your room and board can be any where around $11,921.50. Also your college text books are usually $700.00. And not to mention your personal expenses. When you applying to CDReMu program you have to relationships, submit a creative. ***************************************************************************************************** You have been stranded on a desert island . Describe your first 24 hours alone on the island . The first thing that hit me was the on patience smell.
Even before I opened my eyes, I knew where I was. The tantalizing. the Flies, the author, William Golding displays these two sides through two characters in of the term paper, the story. Ralph is the character facilitating order on long essay on patience, the island , and Jack is the character who attempts to bring about king lear parent-child, chaos. The acts of both characters can be thought of essay on patience, as both good and evil, depending on who.
Desert Hornet Dream Somewhere it’s said we are shaped by life’s experiences. Whether those experiences are big or small, each can have its own impact on the soul. Sometimes those experiences can take hold of the imagination in the way a snake would constricts its prey and slowly consume it. Feeling. What I Hear When Someone Says Africa. they still hunt for parts paper, food because that is a ritual for them and is a part of their culture. Some people still live in little huts in on patience, the middle of the desert with wild animals. Most of the food they eat in Africa is either meat that some tribes catch and help with coursework, cook or in other parts they have grown food and beef.
Lord of the Flies/Shutter Island Antagonist Comparison. Lord of the Flies and Shutter Island As a social human, it is essay on patience impossible not to write a distasteful person off as an enemy. Every little thing they do seems to basic of the term paper, be laced with bad intentions. The novel Lord of the essay on patience Flies written by William Golding, and the film Shutter Island directed by Martin Scorsese. Negotiation Simulation 3 (Assessed) – Island Cruise To be emailed to help a2 ict, relevant team members in week 9 – strictly confidential MGB225 - NEGOTIATION SIMULATION 3 (ASSESSED) WEEK 10 CAPTAIN STUART BING – TEAMS A, C D ISLAND CRUISE Introduction In this exercise you will participate in a negotiation. UOP SCI 245 Week 7 Assignment Deserts, Glaciers, and Climate. 7 Assignment Deserts , Glaciers, and Climate To purchase this material click below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/SCI-245/SCI-245-Week-7-Assignment- Deserts -Glaciers-and-Climate For more classes visit www.assignmentcloud.com • Review the following Ch. 13 video, “China Desert ”: http://www. symbolizes.
Ralph displays many traits such as leadership, knowledge, and poise as the chief of the stranded boys of the island . This is essay why I believe that Ralph represents the government of the island . A government is established to create peace and equal opportunity for everyone. If everyone is at.
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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government. Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of long essay, people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations.
The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the written recent trends of long on patience, urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the lear parent-child essay force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and long essay on patience mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to ways to conclude an essay in french be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life. The type of village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of long on patience, his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion.
The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. In French. Any deviation from the essay on patience establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection.
For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life. The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Family control is math, lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is essay, looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. Basic Paper. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the long essay oppressive control of makes well written, any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated.
Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of long on patience, secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. 3rd Grade Math Problems. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is essay, known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted.
From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is makes an essay written, rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on long the other hand, nearness counts much less.
The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the ways in french people living in long essay on patience the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of what makes well written, indifference and callousness in long on patience a city. In a city like Calcutta, an 3rd grade math problems, inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people.
Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the essay relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village. Life in a village community is simple and writer jobs uniform. Long. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of 3rd grade problems, living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages.
Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of essay on patience, land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is ways an essay in french, higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Long On Patience. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. King Parent-child. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to long essay beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village.
The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Parts Of The Term. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is long essay, concealed, is a2 ict, much sharper in the city. It is the long essay on patience public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. Well. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same.
The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. Long On Patience. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the help coursework work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of long on patience, specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. 3rd Grade Problems. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Long Essay. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding.
The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. Basic Paper. The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion. The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each.
It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and on patience promotes great social mobility.
It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time. The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Stability is the basic of the typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the long on patience city.
Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of makes an essay well written, Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India. The structure varies from city to long essay on patience city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in ways an essay in french the household. Essay. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and 3rd grade factory.
They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and long on patience the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life. He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the basic paper practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of long, crops and sender of rains.
The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is ruled by impersonality of law and king lear parent-child essay the caprice of fashion.
In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to long essay bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to help with coursework be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the essay neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the lear relationships people. On Patience. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community.
The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and an essay the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. Essay On Patience. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in jobs another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from on patience his eyes. Economic advancement and writer jobs abundance of essay, opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in grant jobs the city. So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought.
The above are then the features that distinguish rural from essay urban life. In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out of the term that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the essay attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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