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Kinopoivre, les films critiqués par Jean-Pierre Marquet - Les classiques - Le guépard. Titre original : Il gattopardo. Réalisateur : Luchino Visconti. Scénario : Suso Cecchi D#146;Amico, Pasquale Festa Campanile, Enrico Medioli, Massino Franciosa et Luchino Visconti, d#146;après le roman de Giuseppe Tomasi Di Lampedusa. Dialogues français : René Barjavel. Interprètes : Burt Lancaster ( le prince Fabrizio Salina ), Alain Delon ( Tancredi Falconeri ), Claudia Cardinale ( Angelica, et sa mère Bertiana ), Paolo Stoppa ( don Calogero Sedara, maire de Donnafugata ), Serge Reggiani ( don Francesco Ciccio Tumeo ), Rina Morelli ( Maria Stella, l#146;épouse du prince ), Romolo Valli ( le père Pirrone ), Ivo Garrani ( le général Pallavicino ), Leslie French ( Chevalley ), Mario Girotti [Terence Hill] ( le comte Cavriaghi ), Lucilla Morlacchi ( Concetta ), Pierre Clementi ( Francesco Paolo ), Carlo Valenzano ( Paolo ), Giuliano Gemma ( le général ), Ida Galli ( Carolina ), Ottavia Piccolo ( Caterina ), Anna Maria Bottini ( mademoiselle Dombreuil, la gouvernante française des enfants ) Musique : Vincenzo Bellini (opéra La somnabula ), Giuseppe Verdi (opéra La Traviata - non mentionné au générique), Nino Rota, et une valse inédite de Verdi. Durée : 3 heures 25 minutes à l#146;origine dans la version italienne, 3 heures 15 minutes au Festival de Cannes. Sortie en France : 14 juin 1963 en version italienne à Paris, 29 octobre 1963 en version française à Lyon, 18 décembre 1963 en version française à Paris. Doublage en français : Jean Martinelli ( le prince Fabrizio Salina ), Fred Pasquali ( don Calogero Sedara ), Robert Marcy ( le père Pirrone ), Jacqueline Ferrière ( la princesse Salina ), Henri Crémieux ( Chevalley ) Doublage en italien : Corrado Gaipa ( le prince Fabrizio Salina ), Isa Bellini ( mademoiselle Dombreuil ), Lando Buzzanca ( don Francesco Ciccio Tumeo ), Pino Colizzi ( Francesco Paolo ), Solveyg D’Assunta ( Angelica ), Franco Fabrizi ( le comte Cavriaghi ) À l#146;origine, deux hommes, deux aristocrates, deux artistes : d’abord, Giuseppe Tomasi, duc de Palma, prince de Lampedusa (1896-1957) , homme de grande culture, officier de carrière sicilien qui démissionna de l’armée en 1925, au moment où le fascisme pointa son vilain nez en Italie, écrivain sur le tard #150; à 59 ans #150;, auteur d#146;un roman unique, Il gattopardo . Biographical Research Papers! Après avoir été refusé chez Einaudi et chez Mondadori, les éditeurs étant toujours aussi avisés, ce roman va triompher en Italie dès sa publication chez Feltrinelli en novembre 1958, donc après la mort de l’auteur. Thesis Index! Ensuite, un réalisateur de cinéma, le plus illustre d#146;Italie, Luchino Visconti (1906-1976), qui adapte le roman, laissant de côté la fin, avec juste raison, et réalise en 1963 un film inoubliable et portant le même titre.
Lampedusa était un esthète, et surtout un sceptique, et son héritage mental lui venait du siècle des Lumières ; il fut ainsi un observateur sarcastique de l’Histoire et de la comédie du pouvoir. Biographical Papers! Mais on spanish school doit à la vérité de dire que son roman, qui frôle parfois la farce, est moins réussi que le film, ce qui est rarissime. Biographical Research! Mais enfin, c’était peut-être dû à la première traduction française, or le roman a connu une seconde traduction en 2006, que l’on dit bien meilleure. Le guépard traite, sur le plan politique, de l#146;unité italienne, sujet que déjà Visconti avait abordé dans Senso , et conserve la vision pessimiste de ce précédent film. Descriptive! L’histoire de Senso se situait plus tôt, et les personnages étaient bien peu attrayants, or on biographical verra que ceux du Guépard , le prince excepté, ne sont pas forcément plus reluisants, mais sauvegardent au moins les apparences. Résumons : en 1860, l’Italie vient de se libérer de la domination de l’Autriche, qui a dû céder la Lombardie au royaume de Piémont-Sardaigne, et des soulèvements locaux ont entraîné le rattachement de certains duchés Parme, Modène, la Toscane, la Romagne à ce royaume, alors que Naples et la Sicile restent aux mains des Bourbons. Infirmiers Anesthesistes! Mais il existe aussi des républicains, c’est Garibaldi qui est à leur tête, et il s’empare de la Sicile. Papers! L’armée piémontaise l’arrête pour l’empêcher de proclamer la République, les anciens partisans des Bourbons se rallient au roi du Piémont, Victor Emmanuel, et, en mars 1861, celui-ci devient roi d’Italie via un plébiscite. Spanish Riding School! Le roman de Lampedusa raconte cet instant précis de l’histoire italienne. Biographical! L’unité sera parachevée lorsque Venise, en 1866, puis Rome, en 1870, auront rejoint le royaume.
Autre thème du film, le vieillissement, des hommes comme des nations, et la nécessité pour celles-ci d#146;y remédier pour elles-mêmes, alors les premiers ne le peuvent pas pour leur propre compte. Thesis Index! Le personnage central qui défend ce point de vue est le prince Salina, un aristocrate sicilien, dont on research papers peut penser qu#146;il est, non seulement le portrait de l#146;auteur du roman, mais aussi le porte-parole du metteur en scène. Lui-même issu d#146;une des familles les plus illustres d#146;Italie, ce qui ne l#146;empêchait pas d#146;être membre du Bureau Politique du Parti Communiste italien, Luchino Visconti a hérité le sens de la beauté, de l#146;élégance, du raffinement, mais ses films ne donnent jamais dans l#146;esthétisme gratuit. Statement! Celui-ci, en tout cas, offre une vision politique, sous des dehors de fresque historique, et concilie ainsi les deux faces apparemment contradictoires du réalisateur. Le titre du film, devenu sybillin depuis que le carton d#146;explication qui ouvrait le film lors de sa sortie a disparu, fait référence à cet animal qui figurait dans les armoiries de la famille princière sicilienne Salina, et que l’on voit au passage dans celles du village de Donnafugata. Biographical Papers! Le prince, excellemment joué par Burt Lancaster, et que Visconti n#146;avait d#146;ailleurs pas prévu dans le rôle puisqu#146;il aurait préféré Laurence Olivier, est un aristocrate à la fois progressiste, autoritaire, désabusé, sceptique et lucide, un scientifique et un patriarche vieillissant qui n#146;attend plus que la mort. Economic Case Studies School! Non pas que son âge réel soit si avancé #150; il a entre quarante-cinq et cinquante ans #150;, mais il n#146;a plus aucune illusion, ni sur la politique, ni sur l#146;Église, ni sur l#146;amour ( Un an research de flammes, trente ans de cendres ), ni sur ses compatriotes. Course! Riche, mais père de sept enfants (dans le roman, il en a huit, mais le deuxième garçon, Giovanni, son préféré et qui s’était volontairement exilé à Londres parce qu’il ne supportait plus son existence en famille, a été supprimé du scénario), héritiers qui seront forcément moins pourvus après le partage, et qu#146;il doit donc doter, il a aussi un neveu, Tancrède (Alain Delon, dont c#146;est le meilleur rôle), aristocrate jusqu#146;au bout des ongles, brillant, mais arriviste et sans scrupules, comme on biographical l#146;apprendra dans la dernière séquence : il change de camp, passant de celui des Bourbons à celui du nouveau roi. Essay! Bref, un mauvais garçon, auquel, bien que l’oncle ne soit pas dupe (il le trouve un peu ignoble ), va pourtant l#146;essentiel de son affection. Biographical Research! C#146;est pourquoi, non seulement il ne prendra pas au sérieux l#146;amour que sa propre fille Concetta porte à son brillant cousin, qui ne saurait aimer une fille aussi effacée, mais il ne mettra aucun obstacle à une mésalliance en favorisant le mariage de Tancrède avec la belle Angelica (Claudia Cardinale), la fille unique d#146;un richissime propriétaire terrien, don Calogero Sedara, un roturier, un profiteur pour lequel il a ce dédain total que lui inspire les nouveaux Italiens #150; sentiment qu#146;il dissimule afin de ne pas peiner la jeune fille, fort amoureuse de son Tancrède. Thesis Index! En somme, un vieil homme lucide, incapable de se leurrer, favorise les entreprises d’un jeune homme cynique.
Il refusera néanmoins, contrairement à son neveu, candidat aux élections et redevenu opportunément royaliste après avoir combattu dans l#146;armée républicaine, de jouer un rôle politique dans le nouveau royaume, né en 1861 après le Plébiscite d#146;octobre 1860, ici dénoncé comme honteusement truqué, royaume où le Pouvoir piémontais s#146;affaire à remettre de l#146;ordre, suite à l#146;épisode garibaldien de l#146;année précédente : Salina se sent trop vieux pour cela (scène symbolique devant le tableau de Greuze), et ses compatriotes ne s#146;amélioreront jamais, ils s#146;estiment trop parfaits ! Pourtant, la Sicile est au plus bas, toujours dirigée par des pouvoirs venus d’ailleurs, et qui balance entre la beauté somptueuse et la pourriture point de vue résumé en un plan célèbre lors de la réception finale, celui qui passe, sans aucune coupure, du réduit où l’on entrepose les vases de nuits (pleins) à la salle de bal où triomphe le luxe aristocratique d’une demeure princière. Le guépard , somptueux et qui ne craint pas de prendre son temps, balance entre la nostalgie des temps révolus et le faible espoir d#146;un avenir auquel il faut néanmoins croire, même s#146;il s#146;annonce mal, car il n#146;existe pas d#146;alternative. Biographical! En fait, tout peut être résumé par la fameuse phrase-clé que l#146;on cite souvent depuis la sortie du film : il faut tout changer afin que tout reste comme avant, profession de foi énoncée par Tancrède au début du film, et que le prince reprendra ensuite à son compte lors d#146;une conversation avec Chevalley, l#146;envoyé du nouveau Pouvoir, qui envisageait de faire de lui un sénateur #150; proposition qu#146;évidemment il repousse. Thesis Index! En d#146;autres termes, les réformes valent mieux que la révolution. Biographical Research! De la part d#146;un communiste comme Visconti, en 1963, c#146;était déjà une prise de position audacieuse ! Il est vrai que l#146;Italie n#146;a jamais été l#146;Union soviétique. L#146;histoire, très noire sous une apparence de luxe et de raffinement, prend fin, au contraire du roman qui continue le récit bien au-delà #150; le producteur avait envisagé une suite au film, mais elle ne s#146;est pas faite #150;, avec l#146;épisode des quatre soldats de l#146;armée du nouveau roi, qui avaient déserté afin de rejoindre Garibaldi, républicain vaincu : on thesis statement les fusille, au petit matin, un peu pour l#146;exemple, comme chez nous durant la Grande Guerre. Research! Déjà, Senso s’achevait sur la fusillade d’un traître. Infirmiers Anesthesistes! Et c#146;est le triste tenant du réel Pouvoir, l#146;arriviste et richissime Sedara, qui a le dernier mot : Enfin nous sommes tranquilles . Research Papers! . Anesthesistes! Tranquilles ? Lampedusa, lui, voyait dans le Pouvoir piémontais la graine du fascisme à venir, mouvement amorcé dès 1919, moins de soixante ans plus tard par conséquent. L’interprétation atteint la perfection. Biographical! Jamais Delon n#146;a été meilleur, et reconnaît du reste, avec une modestie rare chez lui, qu#146;il n#146;existerait pas sans Visconti.
Burt Lancaster est incomparable dans un rôle à l#146;opposé de ses origines (il a débuté comme trapéziste dans un cirque). Spanish School Essay! Claudia Cardinale est plantureuse et resplendissante, Reggiani teigneux à souhait, Romolli Valli cauteleux comme un authentique jésuite, Paolo Stoppa ruisselant de vantardise et d#146;obséquiosité, Pierre Clementi, le plus beau garçon de la distribution, a l#146;air d#146;un ange, et Mario Girotti, qui ne s#146;appelait pas encore Terence Hill, très digne et désabusé en soupirant dédaigné. Papers! Le goût de Visconti pour les palais, les costumes raffinés, les festins et les beaux garçons (même le soldat mort du début est un bel éphèbe !) ne s#146;est jamais mieux exprimé qu#146;ici, et l#146;image rend hommage à tout cela, surtout au cours des scènes d#146;intérieur, réalisées dans d#146;authentiques demeures seigneuriales, et non en studio. Mais à propos de beaux garçons, voici une histoire peu connue, voire pas du tout, et que vous ne lirez pas ailleurs qu’ici : au début des années soixante, il existait un garçon encore plus beau qu’Alain Delon, c’était un Allemand, Horst Buchholz, qui avait une quinzaine de films à son actif et devait tourner dans le remake de Marius , en 1961 (personnnage décidément voué aux interprètes du nord, puisque Pierre Fresnay, le précédent, était alsacien !). Rfid Statement! Et Buchholz fut effectivement pressenti pour jouer dans Le guépard . Biographical Research! Mais il refusa, et fit savoir à Visconti qu’il pouvait aller se faire foutre ! La raison ? Lorsque Visconti voulut réaliser Rocco et ses frères , trois ans plus tôt, Horst reçut un message le priant d’envoyer au réalisateur une photo de lui en slip de bain. Thesis Index! Il le prit très mal. Biographical Research Papers! Or le message émanait, non de Visconti, mais d’un assistant du maître, qui avait voulu faire plaisir à son patron. Descriptive Rubric! À quoi tiennent les choses. Mais plutôt que de faire l#146;exégèse d#146;une #156;uvre en définitive trop connue pour que j#146;aie l#146;illusion de vous en révéler quoi que ce soit de neuf, je préfère m#146;attarder sur un aspect peu souvent abordé : les différentes versions des films italiens.
Bien entendu, je suis, comme tous les cinéphiles, un chaud partisan des versions originales ; je n#146;en serai donc que plus à l#146;aise pour écrire que Le guépard fait exception, et que mieux vaudrait voir la version doublée en français. Biographical Papers! si elle était complète ! Tout d#146;abord, la post-production ne s#146;est pas contentée de faire traduire le texte du film déjà tourné, elle a engagé un écrivain connu, René Barjavel, pour en faire l#146;adaptation. Rfid Thesis! En général, cette étape est bâclée par des tâcherons, comme j#146;ai eu l#146;honneur de le dire ailleurs, et l’enregistrement se fait en une journée ; ici, le doublage français a duré quatre mois, écriture comprise, ce qui est tout à fait inhabituel. Papers! Les comédiens d#146;expression française ont évidemment gardé leur propre voix : Claudia Cardinale, Alain Delon, Pierre Clementi, Serge Reggiani. Writing! Il faut savoir qu#146;en Italie à cette époque, la coutume était bien différente, il n#146;y avait jamais de son direct, c#146;est-à-dire enregistré lors des prises de vue, et même les acteurs italiens étaient doublés par quelqu#146;un d#146;autre dans leur propre langue ! Ainsi, c’est une certaine Solveyg D’Assunta, au prénom bien peu méditerranéen, qui fut la voix italienne de Claudia Cardinale. Biographical Research! En outre, la version originale du film, celle du tournage, n#146;aurait pu être exploitée : Burt Lancaster a donné ses dialogues en anglais, Claudia Cardinale en anglais, français ou italien selon son partenaire, Reggiani en italien, Delon et Clementi en français, etc. Studies! Le résultat est inécoutable. Biographical Papers! Notons l#146;excellent travail de Jean Martinelli, qui doublait Lancaster : ce grand comédien, plus connu au théâtre, possédait une voix de basse profonde extraordinaire.
On ne peut pas conclure sans mentionner la très belle musique du film, composée pour l#146;essentiel par le grand Nino Rota, qui fait ici un travail bien différent de ce que l#146;on connaît habituellement par les films de Fellini, dont il fut le musicien attitré. Rfid Thesis Statement! Avec Bernard Herrmann, Nino Rota est l#146;un des maîtres de la musique de cinéma. Dans les salles de cinéma françaises, Le guépard était sorti avec de multiples coupures, opérées sur la demande de la production par Visconti lui-même, pour des raisons de durée. Research Papers! Aujourd#146;hui encore, il n#146;existe aucune version satisfaisante en vidéo, et la mode bidon du director cut (le montage prétendûment désiré par le réalisateur) n#146;existait pas au moment de sa mort, de sorte que les différentes éditions semblent avoir été conçues au petit bonheur. La cassette vendue en France durait deux heures et quarante-huit minutes, et correspondait en gros à la version cinématographique, mais réduite de quelques scènes, comme celles du général amateur d’art, dont il est question ci-dessous. Riding School Essay! Certaines des scènes coupées ont été rétablies plus de trente ans après, pour la version qu#146;Arte a diffusée en juin 1997. Papers! Malheureusement, elles n#146;avaient pas été doublées en français, ce qui a donné lieu à cette apparente absurdité : un dialogue qui commence en français, puis se poursuit en italien sous-titré, et reprend en français. Spanish Riding School Essay! Certains téléspectateurs se sont offusqués du choix de la chaîne, souvent mal inspirée il est vrai, mais c#146;était un moindre mal : comment faire autrement ? Jean Martinelli était décédé entre-temps, en mars 1983, on biographical ne pouvait plus lui faire enregistrer les scènes manquantes. Economic High! Hélas, même cette version d#146;Arte n#146;est pas complète, il y manque deux courtes scènes. Biographical Research! qui existaient dans la version en cassette ! Elle a néanmoins ce mérite de faire disparaître une autre absurdité : Giuliano Gemma, pourtant mentionné au générique, était absent de la version exploitée, où il n#146;avait que deux scènes, coupées en salle, rétablies sur Arte, dans le rôle d#146;un fort séduisant général, mélomane, chanteur d’opéra et adepte de peinture, qui visite la villa historique des Salina, près de Palerme. Le guépard est également sorti en DVD en décembre 2003, édité par Pathé, qui était le distributeur du film en France. Descriptive Essay Writing Rubric! Destinée au public français uniquement, cette édition est basée sur le film restauré pour la Cinémathèque italienne en 1991.
L#146;image y est souvent trop contrastée, et comporte parfois une dominante orange, notamment dans le générique, assez prononcée. Biographical Research Papers! Deux versions sont vendues dans le même coffret : la version italienne, sous-titrée en français, dure deux heures, cinquante-sept minutes et quarante-trois secondes. Spanish School! Elle est incomplète, puisqu#146;il y manque une très courte scène entre Alain Delon et Paolo Stoppa, juste après la partie de cartes, scène pourtant présente sur la version française du même coffret. Cette version française, qui ne comporte aucune possibilité de sous-titrage, dure deux heures, cinquante minutes et sept secondes, à peu près comme sur la cassette précédemment vendue en France, car la séquence de la bataille urbaine a été raccourcie, et les deux flashbacks de la visite du général chez les Salina sont toujours supprimés. Papers! Si cette dernière scène, assez courte, n#146;a pu être rétablie dans la version française, c#146;est, comme mentionné plus haut, en raison du décès de Jean Martinelli, la voix française du prince Salina : la séquence ne pouvait plus être post-synchronisée. Spanish Riding School! Mais d#146;autres coupures sont injustifiables, puisque les passages coupés sont présents sur la cassette en français, bévue fort malencontreuse.
Pourquoi malencontreuse ? Un exemple : dans la version italienne et sur la cassette, la prière vespérale de la séquence d#146;ouverture est interrompue quand le prince referme brusquement son missel #150; ce qui est un indice de son caractère autoritaire et patriarcal (c#146;est lui qui décide de tout, même de la durée des offices religieux, tout comme, plus tard, Angelica prise de fou-rire, il écourtera le dîner à Donnafugata) ; mais, dans la version française du DVD, ce jeu de scène plutôt significatif a disparu. Le disque en français comporte trois interviews assez longues, celle du producteur Goffredo Lombardo, de Claudia Cardinale et d#146;Alain Delon. Research! Si l#146;actrice n#146;a pas grand-chose à dire (proférant même une contre-vérité sur la durée du tournage, de trois mois prétend-elle, alors qu#146;il en a duré six), et le dit dans un langage approximatif, Delon surprend par son humilité très inhabituelle et par la qualité et la quantité d#146;informations inédites qu#146;il nous livre. En fin de compte, faut-il acheter ce DVD, qui par ailleurs est respectueux du format de l#146;image ? On pourrait argüer que le son gagne en qualité, passant de mono en 5.1, mais il est affecté de parasites pendant les passages musicaux, et, si on meaning en a la possibilité, mieux vaut régler la sortie sur DVD/LD plutôt que sur DVD/LD 6 canaux . Biographical Research Papers! À conseiller aux seuls passionnés du film, par conséquent. Et puis, ultérieurement, le film a été réédité en Bluray. Spanish Riding Essay! L’image est évidemment meilleure.
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An Introduction to Biographical Research
11th grade essays Writing standards for biographical eleventh and twelfth grades define the knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at these grade levels. By understanding 11th and 12th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. What is 11th and 12th Grade Writing? In grades eleven and twelve, students are expected to produce error-free essays that demonstrate their understanding of the course, elements of writing (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form). Students plan, draft, and complete written compositions on a regular basis, editing their essays for clarity, engaging language, and the correct use of papers, standard American English.
Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students practice all forms of writing, with an emphasis on writing coherent and focused persuasive essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students also focus on personal forms of writing, including a response to literature, a reflective essay, or an course autobiographical narrative. What Writing Standards Measure. Academic standards are very specific, detailing every aspect of what students are expected to learn in each grade. Organized into five key areas, writing standards focus on: writing process, writing purposes (what students write), writing evaluation, writing conventions (grammar, usage, and mechanics), and research/inquiry for writing. The following writing standards represent what states* typically specify as benchmarks in writing proficiency for grade eleven and grade twelve. Grades 11 and biographical 12: Writing Process. Writing standards for all grades focus on of work, the writing process as the primary tool to help students become independent writers. In grades 11 and biographical 12, students are expected to use each phase of the process as follows: Prewriting: Students in 11th and 12th grades use prewriting strategies to generate ideas, develop voice, and descriptive writing rubric plan their writing. Students generate ideas from multiple sources (e.g., brainstorming, journals, research materials), and use strategies and tools (e.g., technology, spreadsheets, graphs, plot pyramids) to papers, develop a personal organizational style.
Students make a plan for writing that addresses purpose, audience, controlling idea, logical sequence, and a timeframe for completion. Drafting: In eleventh grade and twelfth grade, students develop drafts, alone and collaboratively, by organizing and reorganizing content. Drafts should structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and relevant examples. Eleventh and twelfth grade students are expected to use point of view, characterization, style (e.g., use of irony), and related elements for specific rhetorical and aesthetic purposes. Course Of Work! Students should work to enhance meaning by employing rhetorical devices, including the biographical research papers, extended use of parallelism, repetition, and economic case studies high analogy. Drafts should also be planned to incorporate visual aids (e.g., graphs, tables, pictures) and a call for action where appropriate. In 11th and 12th grades, students demonstrate a command of language by biographical research, using natural, fresh, and vivid ways to establish a specific tone.
Students analyze the language techniques of professional authors (e.g., figurative language, denotation, connotation) to help them establish a personal style and conviction of essay, expression. Revising: In 11th grade and 12th grade, students revise selected drafts to highlight the individual voice and point of biographical papers, view, improve sentence variety and style, and spanish riding school essay enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and genre. Students also evaluate their drafts for the development of a central theme, the logical organization of content, and the creation of meaningful relationships among ideas. Other revision techniques used by eleventh- and twelfth-graders include creating precision and interest by elaborating ideas through supporting details (e.g., facts, statistics, expert opinions, anecdotes), creative language devices, and modifying word choices. Editing: Eleventh- and twelfth graders are expected to produce error-free final essays. Students proofread carefully for appropriateness of organization, content, style, and language conventions, using resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, checklist to guide proofreading). Students edit for grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling, and check for varied sentence structure and appropriate word choice.
Publishing: Using technology, students in papers, grades eleven and thesis index twelve publish their work frequently in a format appropriate to purpose (e.g., for display, multimedia). Published pieces use design techniques, such as margins, tabs, spacing, and columns and integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents. Use of technology: Eleventh grade and twelfth grade students use advanced publishing software and graphic programs to support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing texts. Grades 11 and 12: Writing Purposes. In grades eleven and research papers twelve, students write in a variety of forms, including business, personal, literary, and descriptive rubric persuasive texts, for various audiences and purposes. Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce essays of at least 1,500 words each.
Specifically, writing standards for biographical papers 11th and 12th grades stipulate that students write in the following forms: Narrative: Eleventh and twelfth grade students write fictional, biographical, and autobiographical narrative essays. In these essays, students relate a sequence of events and communicate the economic studies school, significance of the events through concrete sensory details (e.g., sights, sounds, smells), and the explicit actions and research papers gestures of the characters. Eleventh- and course of work twelfth-graders develop the plot/events and characterizations further by creating dialogue and interior monologues to depict the characters’ feelings and locating scenes and incidents in specific places. Students are expected to use literary devices and make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details. In addition, students learn to pace the presentation of actions to accommodate temporal, spatial, and dramatic mood changes. Expository: Students in 11th and 12th grades write in a variety of informational/expository forms, including documents using precise technical and scientific vocabulary (e.g., manuals, procedures, assembly directions) and essays that speculate on the causes and effects of a situation. Essays must include introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs, and demonstrate coherence, logical progression, and support for ideas. Research Papers! In the cause-effect essay, students establish the connection between the postulated causes or effects, and meaning offer evidence supporting the validity of the proposed causes or effects. Students are expected to incorporate information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information accurately. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders may also be asked to write detailed travel directions and design an biographical accompanying graphic using the cardinal and ordinal directions, landmarks, streets and highways, and distances. Persuasive: Students in eleventh and twelfth grades write persuasive essays, such as a logical argument or expression of opinion.
Persuasive essays in these grades should state a position or claim, and present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to thesis statement, support effective arguments and emotional appeals. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders are expected use persuasive techniques (e.g., word choice, repetition, emotional appeal, hyperbole, appeal to authority, celebrity endorsement, rhetorical question, irony, symbols, glittering generalities, card stacking, testimonials, bandwagon, image association, transfer). Students must also refute opposing arguments by addressing readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations. Responses to biographical research, Literature: Eleventh and anesthesistes twelfth grade students are expected to demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas in literary works or passages. Students analyze the use of imagery, language, universal themes, and unique aspects of the text, and support their ideas through accurate and detailed references to the text or to biographical research, other works. Eleventh- and twelfth-graders should also show an understanding of the author’s use of stylistic devices and infirmiers an appreciation of the effects created. In addition, students must identify and biographical assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text. Reflective Essays: In reflective essays, 11th and 12th grade students are expected to explore the significance of thesis index, personal experiences, events, conditions, or concerns by using rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, description, exposition, persuasion).
Students draw comparisons between specific incidents and biographical research papers broader themes that illustrate their important beliefs or generalizations about of work meaning life. These essays should also maintain a balance in describing individual incidents and relate those incidents to more general and abstract ideas. Historical Investigation Reports: In historical investigation reports, 11th and 12th grade students are expected to use exposition, narration, description, argumentation, or some combination of rhetorical strategies to research papers, support the main proposition. Students analyze several historical records of a single event, examining critical relationships between elements of the research topic. The goal of such essays is to explain the perceived reason or reasons for the similarities and differences in historical records with information derived from course of work meaning primary and secondary sources. Students should incorporate information from all relevant perspectives and take into consideration the validity and reliability of the sources.
These reports should also include a formal bibliography. Business and biographical research Work-Related Documents: Students in course of work, grade 11 and grade 12 write a variety of papers, business and work-related documents, including letters, memos, emails, meeting minutes, speaker introductions, resumes, applications, and cover letters for applications. The goal of business writing in these grades is to present information using a tone and style that fits the purpose and audience. In the case of thesis index, job applications and resumes, students strive to papers, provide clear and relevant information and address the rfid thesis, intended audience appropriately. Students use varied levels, patterns, and types of language to achieve intended effects and aid comprehension. Research! Eleventh- and twelfth-graders are expected to follow the conventional style for that type of document and use page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to the readability and impact of the case high, document. Biographical Papers! Multimedia Presentations: Students in 11th and 12th grades create multimedia presentations that combine text, images, and sound and draw information from many sources (e.g., television broadcasts, videos, films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, the Internet, electronic media-generated images).
Students select an appropriate medium for course each element of the presentation and use the biographical, selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for quality. As a final step, students should test the audience’s response and revise the presentation accordingly. Grades 11 and 12: Writing Evaluation. Eleventh and twelfth grade students evaluate the writing of others, as well as their own writing. Students make suggestions to improve writing and assess their own writing for both mechanics and content. In grades eleven and infirmiers twelve, students are expected to respond productively to peer reviews of their own work. Papers! Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer. Essay! Grades 11 and 12: Written English Language Conventions.
Students in eleventh and twelfth grades rely on the conventions and mechanics of written English, including the rules of usage and research papers grammar, to write clearly and effectively. Students are expected to produce legible, error-free work that shows accurate spelling and correct punctuation and capitalization. In particular, writing standards for studies high school grades eleven and twelve specify these key markers of proficiency: —Understand correct use of varied sentence structure, including the elimination of dangling or misplaced modifiers, run-on or fused sentences, and unintended sentence fragments. —Compose increasingly more involved sentences that contain clauses (e.g., main and subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerunds, participles, absolutes, and infinitives) in their various functions. — Exhibit command of biographical research papers, grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure and an understanding of English usage. High! —Demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as parts of speech, verb tense, noun/pronoun agreement, subject/verb agreement, pronoun/antecedent agreement, parallelism, modifier placement, comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and biographical research papers unintended shift in person or tense. —Use appropriate manuscript requirements in writing, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material. —Identify and correctly use the mechanics of infirmiers, punctuation, including commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophes, dashes, quotation marks, parentheses, ellipses, brackets, and underlining or italics. —Eleventh- and papers twelfth-graders pay particular attention to capitalization of names of academic courses and proper adjectives. Course Of Work Meaning! — Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and biographical research roots, including Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon root words. —Understand foreign words commonly used in English (e.g., laissez faire, croissant). —Students use fluent and essay writing legible handwriting skills. Grades 11 and 12: Research and biographical research Inquiry. In eleventh and twelfth grades, students use appropriate research methodology and a variety of print and electronic sources to meaning, gather information for research papers and other writing assignments. Students use writing as a research and learning tool in the following ways: Use writing to discover, organize, and support what is known and what needs to be learned about a topic.
Compile information from primary and secondary sources using clear research questions and research creative and critical research strategies (e.g., field studies, oral histories, interviews, experiments, electronic sources). Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies, summaries) and statement draw conclusions, identifying complexities, discrepancies, and different perspectives. Research! Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and case studies high school bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style). Analyze strategies that writers in different fields use to compose. Use writing as a study tool to clarify and biographical research papers remember information. Eleventh and Twelfth Grade Writing Tests. In many states, students in grades eleven and of work twelve take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper or on biographical research papers, a computer. While tests vary, students are typically given questions about descriptive essay writing rubric grammar and mechanics, as well as timed essay-writing exercises in which they must write an research essay in response to a writing prompt.
On 11th and 12th grade essay writing tests, students demonstrate their ability to produce an effective composition for a specific purpose, as well as their command of the conventions of course of work meaning, spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure. In some states, students’ revising and editing skills are tested with multiple-choice questions on reading passages. Students are asked to indicate how a particular sentence might be corrected or improved or how the organization or development of a paragraph might be strengthened. Tests may also require students to proofread for biographical research correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and spelling. Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to a reading passage. In addition, 11th and 12th grade students are given classroom-based writing tests and writing portfolio evaluations. State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards. These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught. Rfid Thesis! If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Biographical Papers! Educators consider standards-based tests to be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations.
These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of education usually include information on writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including testing guidelines and sample questions. Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in eleventh and twelfth grades consists of course of work meaning, encouraging your student to write, raising awareness of the biographical research, written word, and offering guidance on economic case studies high, writing homework. Talk about writing and share appropriate articles and books with your child. Students learn to write effectively when they write more often. Suggest keeping a journal, writing movie reviews for the family, or writing the procedures for using a new piece of biographical research, home equipment. Any writing is valuable practice. By becoming familiar with 11th and 12th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them to spanish school, use the strategies of writing process to revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 11th and 12th Grade Writing Standards.
Time4Writing is an research papers excellent complement to economic studies high, eleventh and twelfth grade writing curriculums. Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of a certified teacher. *K-12 writing standards are defined by each state. Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and biographical research California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of Teachers of English and infirmiers anesthesistes the International Reading Association.
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BIOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH REPORT A biography is a true story of
essay of e.s.l class A great variety in biographical student populations seems to be the norm in our college writing classes, and ESL (English as a Second Language) students constitute a small but significant number of this population. While the faculty teaching college writing recognize that these student writers are somehow distinct, they may perhaps expect these learners who have completed the College ESL program to produce writing that is indistinguishable from that of their native peers. Anesthesistes! Given the nature of second-language acquisition, the truth is, as Tony Silva says, these learners still bring with them “distinct strategies for learning and writing,” and are still in the process of learning the language (Silva, 1997, p. Biographical Papers! 359). Hence, the question of how to work with these writers and their writing remains an thesis, urgent and important matter, particularly because the majority of faculty teaching college writing are not ESL instructors, and therefore not familiar with these writers’ unique characteristics. If we are to help these students overcome their feeling of being “strangers,” and biographical papers, enable them to make a smooth transition and successfully complete their college writing classes, then we need to understand who these ESL writers are and how their sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds affect their writing. We also need to base our approach to working with these students on a body of knowledge about the process of language learning. Who are our ESL writers? What is their sociocultural background?
ESL writers in college classes belong to the following groups: a) those who are highly educated in their native languages, and are recent immigrants to this country seeking to major in a chosen curriculum and establish careers; b) visiting international students who wish to economic studies high school, return to research, their country after completing their chosen program of study; c) students of “generation 1.5,” who, having been educated in this country, are fluent in spoken English but not proficient in rfid statement written English. All three groups have been through the ESL program in the College after being appropriately placed in the different tiers in the ESL program. What the research papers above-mentioned three groups have in common is high, that they are all trying to biographical papers, learn a second language to perform higher order academic tasks within a short period of time. What makes it more difficult for some of these students is their linguistic backgrounds. Infirmiers! For example, we have students from Asian, Middle Eastern, and African countries whose languages differ completely in terms of script, syntax, and lexicon when compared to English. Therefore, even though they have studied and learned the grammar, syntax, and lexicon in the ESL program, their linguistic backgrounds still influence their writing. Biographical! Another important factor to consider is the cultural affect and alternate rhetoric that they bring into the mainstream classes. Even though a majority of infirmiers them have been in the USA for a few years, they are still immersed in their cultural values and writing styles. Many come from cultures where the papers “teacher” is the riding school sole authority, and research, have been taught to spanish riding school, speak only biographical papers when spoken to.
Therefore, voluntarily participating and expressing their opinions or seeking clarifications in meaning a classroom goes against their cultural norm, and they often choose to be “rare contributors.” Some cultures do not value stating one’s intent and purpose directly in writing and believe that quoting authority makes for biographical papers impressive writing. In addition to these cultural factors, students also enter these mainstream classes with the “I can’t write or speak English well” syndrome, since they realize that they will be competing with native speakers. Spanish Riding Essay! This results in intimidation, and the apprehension that their peers and teachers may reject their utterances and writing due to their distinct ESL quality. An Approach to Sentence-level Errors. To be sure, ESL students do a lot to improve their writing skills, as do native speakers of papers English. ESL students analyze model readings, answer questions for understanding different texts and their organizational methods of spanish riding essay development, and complete vocabulary and grammar development exercises. They also engage in pre-writing activities, writing groups, and revision work. Furthermore, they sign up for individual teacher conferences and Lab tutoring to go over the strengths and weaknesses of their compositions. Still, even though many of these students progress quite nicely with their writing, there are some students who show uneasiness about their chances of successfully completing their college course work while making errors with the language.
As ESL teachers, we try to allay their fears. Some of the errors of advanced, college-level ESL students are quite predictable and violate rule-governed categories. For these students and for their teachers, a good ESL grammar handbook or even most ESL advanced grammar textbooks will provide explanations of the rules. Unfortunately for the students, however, many errors are mis-selections of papers features of arbitrary categories of of work meaning English grammar or violate rules so complex that it almost seems necessary to be a native speaker in order just to understand the rule, let alone apply it (Leki, 1992, p. 112). Understanding the sources of errors has a practical relevance.
Such information can help faculty to consider our judgments about the errors in biographical research papers question, as well as what to teach and emphasize in the limited time available in the language classroom. In the interest of efficiency and practicality, what seems especially important is to teach students not to make errors that are causing the most comprehension problems. Helping ESL students address the errors that most seriously and frequently affect others’ comprehension of their writing will allow more attention to be focused on a larger and more important goal— communication. Below is a sentence from an ESL student’s in-class essay about infirmiers a short story in English 098, an biographical papers, advanced writing course for non-native speakers of English. Under the sentence, there is commentary regarding the targeted errors and possible revisions that could be discussed with the essay writing rubric student during a conference session. Given the time constraints of an in-class writing assignment, the student’s errors here may be a result of paying more attention to biographical papers, content than linguistic detail. “They only invited the children that are rich to see their doll house and disinclude the Kelveys who are poor.” Discussion would first revolve around the inconsistent verb tenses, which can be distracting and confusing, and may be due in this case to rubric, a lack of focus and/or confusion about the literary convention of describing fictional events in the present tense. Also, there is the misuse of the biographical research prefix “dis.” Usage of studies this prefix with common words such “agree” and “like” possibly led the student to use it with “include.” Unfortunately, not all verbs carry this prefix, and generalizing here led to papers, error. Next for discussion would be how the writing rubric determination as to research, whether a clause is restrictive or nonrestrictive controls punctuation. Revision 1: They only spanish riding school invited the children that were rich to see their dollhouse and did not include the biographical research papers Kelveys, who were poor. Economic High! (narrative stance)
Revision 2: They only invite the children that are rich to see their dollhouse and do not include the Kelveys, who are poor. (conventional stance) Learning the English Lexicon. Language learning, in addition to leaning about papers sentence structure, is to a great extent a matter of infirmiers anesthesistes learning about a set of vocabulary items, a lexicon. The lexicon, or the “mental dictionary” of a speaker or learner of a language, consists of individual words known by the speaker, along with a great volume of associated information about pronunciation, meaning, relationship between forms of the same word, grammatical information (such as what grammatical role the word can play in a sentence), and research, collocations (groups of words that frequently occur together, or that change their meanings when they are combined). The complexity of lexical learning and its connection to pronunciation, grammar, spelling rules, etc., is an area of language learning that may not always receive the attention it deserves. Distinguishing Learning and Acquisition. The engine that produces the course meaning bulk of new linguistic knowledge is language use that is meaning-focused and biographical research, that allows users to engage both receptively and responsively. (Many writers refer to this somewhat occult, subconscious process as language “acquisition.”) In the process of acquisition, it is the focus on tasks outside of language itself, tasks with an inherent value or purpose, which produces the necessary raw language material that enables one to use a language fluently and accurately. We refer to economic high, examples of research papers language that can serve as this raw material as language “input.” One way of seeing the essay role of a teacher is as a provider of “input” that is at just the biographical papers right level for students to spanish school, make the research papers next steps in economic their language development. This long-term process of language acquisition seems miraculous at biographical times, but it is not always efficient; it cannot allow learners to know all that they need to know in the span of one lifetime.
Indeed, acquisition needs to be supplemented by infirmiers anesthesistes, language “learning,” a conscious process of coming to know items and rules that are brought to the attention of learners, often by biographical papers, a teacher. This “learned” knowledge, the kind we’re used to anesthesistes, imparting directly as teachers, can only be applied in a minority of situations. It is research, used for editing, revising, or correcting utterances that are generated more or less automatically. Note 1. An implication of the learning/acquisition distinction is that in some cases, including learning a lexicon, it is most effective for learners to wait for language ability to develop over the long run, and focus on high school reading and writing as communication rather than as rule-based instruction. We can be sure that most knowledge of the lexicon will come from extensive reading, discussion, and writing.Note 2 Acknowledging an biographical, acquisition/learning distinction also may have other implications: 1 . Since acquisition takes so long, a great deal of this meaning-focused study and work should take place before entering credit composition courses. Not everyone has had enough exposure to English over time to be ready for college writing. 2 . Even the most successful language learners will be characterized by a necessarily incomplete, but on-going, process of learning a lexicon during the course of their lives. This process is always incomplete because, ironically, the majority of individual English lexical items are of very low frequency; the chance of descriptive writing rubric encountering a low-frequency item repeatedly in a meaningful context in a short period of time is very small.
3 . When they are in credit composition courses, students might benefit from the existence of a distinction between writing situations that are designed for biographical the learning of vocabulary (that is, early drafts in thesis index which students focus on meaning and are free to take risks with words they do not know well) and those that are designed for the display of their lexical and other knowledge (that is, later drafts for research grades, test, etc.) 4 . If a grammatical rule can be easily and succinctly explained, it’s a promising candidate for explicit teaching. 5 . Teachers and students might benefit from prioritizing which words are targeted for deeper lexical knowledge. One way of infirmiers prioritizing is to distinguish the 20,000 or so “families” of words known by educated native speakers of English according to the contexts in research which they are seen and used. For instance, we know that over three quarters of the running words (“tokens”) in infirmiers anesthesistes academic writing consist of the most common 2,000 words. Note 3 (Over 70% are typically from the 1,000 most common!) If students and teachers focus on deep knowledge of these 2,000 words, the chances of producing writing that gives an impression of accuracy go up considerably. Beyond this, recent work on vocabulary has revealed that there is an even smaller, but crucially important, set of word families consisting of words that are not “common,” and are used in a variety of academic disciplines. These word families are neither technical words (restricted to a particular discipline) nor commonly encountered words. Deep knowledge of these items might be an achievable goal, and papers, might deserve special attention from teachers who have decided to thesis index, focus on the lexical issues that have the greatest payoff for students. Toward a More Pluralistic Definition of “Good” Writing: Contrastive Rhetoric. It is biographical, not only at the level of the sentence that language issues arise; cultural ideas about the organization of texts are also a topic of concern for ESL writing students and their teachers.
If one accepts that cultural and language backgrounds affect writing behaviors and written products, then contrastive rhetoric could be defined as “the study of differences or preferences in the pragmatic and strategic choices that writers make in response to external demands and rfid statement, cultural histories” (Leki, 1992, p. 244). Why such an research, involved definition? Leki cautions us to avoid “overgeneralized, overinterpreted, or oversimplified explanations of other cultures” (p. 240). Specifically, it is essay writing rubric, crucial that we remember that all conclusions made are based on norms of the English-speaking mainstream (ethnocentric views) and biographical papers, would definitely be viewed differently from another culture’s purview. For example, we may view a Chinese student as “passive” because she does not speak or ask questions in economic studies school class. Biographical Research! Although this behavior may stem from the cultural norms of classrooms in China, we may find that this particular individual in another situation is rfid statement, not passive or shy in the least!) Most of all, we must be vigilant not to judge a student’s thinking, perceptions or intelligence by his/her use of biographical papers English—in speech or in writing. As Leki explains, “Rhetorical choices are not directly linked to thought patterns; they are made in response to social, political, and thesis index, rhetorical contexts and histories” (p. Biographical Research! 236).
Therefore, we can conclude that culturally embedded preferences exist for what constitutes “good” writing. What can we learn from a review of the literature on contrastive rhetoric? The following are some brief examples of observations that have been made about the various rhetorical traditions of writing in which our students may have been educated: Arabic . In comparative studies, researchers have found that when Arabic speakers write in English, they tend to give more data than other groups, but they make fewer claims, warrants, backings, and rebuttals based on the data. When asked to write on a specific topic, they fulfill the task less often. Although they express more pathos, they address the audience less often, using less ethos. According to these studies, explaining is done through the use of examples, and course of work meaning, arguments are developed by restating positions. Writers use fewer paragraphs and less rhetorical connectedness, as well as a looser, less formal, organizational structure and fewer types of conjunctive elements, favoring coordinate rather than subordinate clauses. Spanish . Although there is not much data on Spanish speaking ESL writers, one fact is sure to appear in their writing in English: Although their writing is biographical research, linear, there is greater tolerance for thesis index tangential breaks. There is biographical papers, greater freedom to digress and to introduce “extraneous” material than in course the US.
Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai . Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Thai speakers write in English using an indirect approach (delayed introduction of papers purpose). These groups tend toward inductive reasoning (specifics leading up to school, the conclusion, coming to biographical research papers, the point at the end) and circularity. They also tend to anesthesistes, look at research papers the topic from statement different perspectives, rather than just one perspective. Nevertheless, the above Asian groups differ in significant ways: Chinese : In China, education is controlled and regimented to teach moral principles and reflect social values such as patriotism, the collective good, group loyalty, and biographical papers, respect for authority. The focus of education is on maintaining order and authority, not on individual expression and meaning.
Japanese : Japanese writers more often mix arguments (arguing both for and against) and demonstrate argument alternations (going back and forth between arguing for and against). Thesis Index! They also end arguments in directions that differ from papers beginning positions. They remain more tentative and less hyperbolic, using more hedges and thesis index, fewer superlatives. In Japan, language is valued as a means of expressing social cohesion, not individual expression. In addition, writing demands more of the papers reader, whereas in Western rhetorical form, more of the case studies high school burden of clarity is placed on the writer. Korean : Writers often do not want to take strong positions. Implications for Teaching. As teachers, we need to remember that preferences in writing styles are culturally influenced, and biographical papers, teachers need to be aware of cultural differences in students’ writing and understand students’ composing and revising behaviors.
Such awareness can benefit students psychologically; they should not be told that they are “bad” writers, but rather that they have been taught to write differently. Teachers should not write comments such as “This is not logical.” When teachers do this, they are not remembering that other cultures operate under different norms for what is “good” writing. Teachers should not tell students that their writing is poor just because the logic and sentence structure is not linear. Knowledge of contrastive rhetoric can be especially helpful to spanish, teachers who must teach the expectations of the English speaking audience to ESL writers. Striving for perfection in biographical writing is rfid statement, truly commendable. However, given the reality that there are grammatical features that are actually governed less by research, rules than by an acquired understanding of correct usage gained over time, and because such errors do not necessarily prevent a reader’s understanding of the text, it seems appropriate that such errors not be seen as a student writer’s inability to understand and communicate about a subject.
When ESL students have a fine understanding of the riding school subject matter of a course, as evidenced by the content and organization of their writing, and the language (albeit grammatically imperfect) does not interfere with the reader’s comprehension, we ask that composition teachers acknowledge the complex process involved in learning to write well in English as a second language. Even after several years of academic training, these writers may not attain native-like proficiency in writing. We also propose to continue our discussion with composition teachers about approaches and strategies in second language teaching that can contribute to biographical, the development of second language writers. ©Copyright 2004. Contact author for permission.