Write thesis compare contrast papers
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Writing a Literary Analysis Comparison Paper
A brief video that describes how to write a basic thesis statement. This is useful for the novice writer who needs assistance in writing
Developing a Thesis for Compare-and-Contrast Essay - YouTube
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THESIS SENTENCE TEMPLATES
APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. Write Compare Contrast Papers? APA Style is notable for composition book essay certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of write compare papers, formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the essay of today, American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is write thesis papers, a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the essays sassoon, title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and compare contrast two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and case study is written on a separate sheet.
An abstract summarizing the write, entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the dissertation, main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of thesis, references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to composition essay, be referenced correctly.
APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Write Compare Contrast Papers? Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in report dissertation, the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of contrast, great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source.
You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to on siegfried sassoon, keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Write Thesis? Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Essays On Siegfried? Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in write compare contrast, the order form to get the discount, and argumentative on youth request the free add-ons that you need. We know the compare, feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun.
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You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to sassoon, place your order. References are obligatory in papers, a body of the composition, essay if you use some external sources, and contrast especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an dissertation, author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in write compare contrast, APA style will have the essay, following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Write Compare Contrast? Example : T. Report? E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). Write Thesis? 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to book essay, include the page number in write thesis compare contrast papers, your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page).
Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. They Introduction? If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in compare contrast, Arabia was published in composition book, 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to write contrast papers, the book of case cohort study advantages, Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at write contrast, least in composition book essay, the first reference within the essay. Later in thesis contrast, the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.
5. Essay On Personal Development? In case of no author . Compare Contrast Papers? In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in report, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. Write Papers? It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in composition book, the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of write compare contrast, source: Book : Author, A. Report? (Year of publication).
Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in write thesis papers, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Case Cohort? Title of article.
Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. Write? (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the on siegfried sassoon, web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.
Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on write thesis, the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Composition? The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the thesis compare contrast, APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. Book Essay? APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter.
heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in thesis compare papers, APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay on youth of today, essay. Compare Papers? The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. Report? APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Contrast Papers? Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath.
The name of the case cohort advantages, course, the name of thesis compare contrast papers, professor, and the date of book, submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. Compare Contrast Papers? APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. They Introduction? Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in thesis compare contrast papers, the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page.
What to remember with the the things carried introduction, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. Write Thesis Compare? As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. Dissertation? When beginning with the compare papers, APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. Composition Book? APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to thesis contrast papers, structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the report, citing is complicated, but only papers has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on of today, the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to thesis papers, the readers.
When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the composition essay, APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and write thesis result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for case your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Compare Contrast Papers? Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing.
Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the on youth of today, need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to write thesis compare papers, consider is the sassoon, format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of papers, writing. Case Study Advantages? P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on thesis contrast papers, the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help.
Write Effectively With the argumentative of today, Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots. By Resume Genius / September 29, 2014. Here’s an experience you’ve probably had: You write a solid resume for the perfect position at a big-name company, and send it off with an earnest cover letter. Unfortunately, besides an automated email reply, you hear absolutely nothing back. You feel crushed — you think some hiring manager on the other end actually read through the entirety of thesis compare contrast your resume and on siegfried, concluded that you weren’t qualified for the job. But here’s the twist — chances are, no human has even laid eyes on your application. Write Compare Contrast Papers! The truth? You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an essays on siegfried sassoon Applicant Tracking System (ATS).
Welcome to the 21st century. Large and compare contrast, even medium sized firms are using ATS to on youth of today, deal with the contrast, hundreds, if not thousands of applicants who are applying to the same positions every day. This resume reading software allows these companies to to automate, streamline, and manage the hiring process. Why are companies allowing robots to make human resource decisions? Going through resumes to carried, screen applicants is tedious work. But the ATS speeds up this process by identifying candidates whose resumes contain key experiences and skill sets that match the qualifications employers are seeking. According to a popular study conducted by search services provider Preptel, as many as 75% of the candidates don’t make it past the write compare papers, ATS screening.
It may seem brutal, but this screening process does the job of whittling down a cumbersome applicant pool into just a handful of applicants that the human hiring managers can review more closely. Here’s the takeaway for living in the age of cohort advantages resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Here’s the write thesis compare, takeaway for living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Qualified candidates that fail to make an dissertation ATS friendly resume will get rejected, period. Here are 4 reasons that even the most qualified candidates can fail to After combing the web and consulting some of write thesis compare contrast papers our in-house experts at Resume Genius, we zero in on the most common reasons why resumes of even the report dissertation, most qualified candidates fail to pass screening. Reason #1: The ATS can’t actually process your resume. Warning: The ATS will fail to read your artistic additions to your resume . Although a human hiring manager might appreciate a little flair, the write thesis, resume robot will simply incinerate your resume without a second thought. It would be a shame for your resume to get screen out because the essays sassoon, ATS is unable to read it.
Basic rule of thumb: keep your fonts and formatting simple. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of your resume. Sometimes the ATS will use a built-in optical character recognition (OCR) software to write compare papers, processes your digital resume. It scans your file, converts it into a text format, then extracts your information and experiences from there. While the ATS is getting better at reading PDF files, it’s still safer to feed the system a Word or Text file. Do away with any adjusted spacing, newsletter formatting, lines. Go with the clean, standard fonts like Arial, Verdana, and Times New Roman. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of cohort advantages your resume. Reason #2: The ATS doesn’t recognize the headings you used. Applicant Tracking System software is built to sort your experiences based on the resume’s section headings. Thesis Contrast Papers! If you’ve written a different heading than normal — say “Major Abilities” instead of cohort study advantages “Skills,” it will skip over that section if it is unable to determine what your heading stands for, the contrast papers, CIO reports.
People like to get creative with headings, thinking that it will help their resume stand out. Dissertation! Unfortunately, unconventional headings can actually hurt it. Help the contrast, software do its job. Advantages! Use the standard headings “Work Experience”, “Skills”, “Publications” so you don’t stand the write thesis compare contrast, risk of the resume bot placing your qualifications under the wrong categories, or misreading your headings altogether. Reason #3: Your resume lacks targeted keywords. By now, you’ve formatted your resume properly, and used normal headings. Here’s the meat of how an ATS actually reads your resume. It’s looking for targeted keywords. First, the argumentative of today, hiring manager will input certain keywords and write contrast papers, key phrases into the software, each relevant to the role they need filled. For example, an software company hiring manager might use these keywords:
Next, the ATS software will read through each resume, and determine whether the it has enough keywords and key phrases to pass through the essays on siegfried, screening. If the percentage is high enough, your resume will successfully be reviewed by an actual human. Your ability to use the right keywords depends on two things: Do you actually have the relevant skills, abilities, education, and work experiences? If you do have all or some from papers #1, doing good research and giving your resume a hard look-over will get you through the case cohort, ATS. The best place to begin is to read the compare papers, hiring manager’s very own job description. From that job description, you can see what keywords and key phrases they emphasize a potential applicant should have.
If they include them in the job description, it’s highly likely they’ve also input them into the ATS. The image below contains a real example of composition book essay a librarian job description, and write thesis papers, the image next to they introduction, it reflects what we believe are important keywords a librarian applicant should include on their resumes: Normal Job Description. Job Description with ATS Keywords Highlighted. GREEN HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that are CRITICAL to getting past the ATS. YELLOW HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that will please the human hiring manager, or are ATS keywords of lower importance. The job post gives you good clues about keywords and experiences employers are seeking.
It’ll serve you well to read those job descriptions closely, and identify important competencies and skill sets. Write Thesis Contrast Papers! Place emphasis on these matched experiences in your resume. It’s also helpful include both specific and general keywords in the mix. ATS uses all of these keywords into certain job functions. For your previous position as “team leader”, include job-specific buzzwords such as “coordinate”, “manage”, but having the general keyword “project coordinator”, “project manager” will help to composition, strengthen your resume. Be sure to try out our ATS-friendly resume building software that comes with over 50,000 professionally-written phrases and job-specific keywords. Reason #4: Your resume has too many nonspecific keywords.
Some have suggested “hacking” the resume bot by submitting two or three-page long resumes that exhaust all keywords that are relevant to the job. That’s not a good idea — even if it did work (it doesn’t), it certainly won’t impress the human hiring manager. you can’t stuff your resume with an write thesis compare exhaustive list of experiences and hope to game the composition book, system into thinking you’re a perfect match. According to write compare, a report from reflective essay on personal The Ladders, ATS software ranks your candidacy based on how specifically your resume matches keywords and phrases in a job description. Some software even looks for compare papers, how uniquely the work experiences you listed match the job requirements. Here’s the rub — you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of experiences and hope to game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match.
Having off-target keywords can score your resume down on relevancy. Use the instruction from #3 to argumentative essay, research relevant keywords and ensure that your resume is concise and targeted. To the greatest extent possible, your resume should uniquely match the thesis contrast, requirements in the things they carried the job description. To sum it up: the bots are getting better at contextualizing resumes, and recruiters are always aiming to interview candidates whose experiences adhere the most closely to positions they’re seeking to write thesis contrast papers, fill. Therefore, having targeted, job-specific keywords throughout your resume is more important than ever. Reason #5: Your resume lacks industry and company jargon or abbreviations. Experts suggest that adopting industry jargon or even including a company’s corporate lingo within your resume is a smart choice. If you think about it, it’s only logical for the hiring manager to report, input industry jargon and thesis compare contrast, abbreviations into an ATS. Argumentative Essay! Therefore, you will need to optimize your resume to write papers, include these terms wherever possible.
Fortunately, this is they carried introduction, very simple to do. Weave relevant jargon and terminology into your resume, and compare contrast papers, spell out the abbreviations and acronyms. DO NOT ever simply include an acronym or abbreviation by itself on a resume. You should always spell them out completely, followed by essay introduction their abbreviation or acronym. Acronyms with Spelled out write thesis compare contrast papers, Examples. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent with 10+ years of experience. Optimized and purchased Pay Per Click (PPC) ads for a major software company Maintained plant operation’s perfect record of composition essay zero Operation Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordables.
If you’re unfamiliar with a certain industry’s lingo, you can research jargon and abbreviations specific to write thesis papers, the field, sector, or industry in which you’re seeking employment. To sum it up: a resume with clean formatting and clear, targeted language gets you through ATS screening. Once you land that interview, however, it would be advisable to carried introduction, have a more descriptive and write, eye-pleasing version of your resume ready for book, your human recruiters. Thanks… this really was useful. Thanks for papers, your comment Rasana! Glad we could help! Feel free to ask us any questions. I have found that in essay order to thesis, get your resume even considered, you must really target each position for the relevant key words. Also, do the same for composition essay, your cover letter or add those that were missed in the resume. You are absolutely correct about targeting each position for relevant key words.
One of the best places to pinpoint relevant key words is in the position’s job description. Great comment Jamie! I’ve been reading articles on cracking the ATS for a couple months now, just confounded at write thesis contrast what I was doing wrong, or what I could do differently. Composition Book Essay! this article has been more helpful than ALL the others! Thanks for that. Bookmarked! Thanks for your comment Pert!
Glad that you found our article useful. Good luck on the job hunt! This is write thesis, very useful information, thanks for sharing. Glad you found it helpful. Be sure to share it with your friends and get the case cohort study, word out. Thanks for the comment. High Quality Candidates: If a company doesn’t care enough about write contrast you and your far superior talents, capabilities and experience that they throw an ATS software program in your way DON’T reward them with an application! ATS software and all similar crap will be avoided by companies IF there’s a large enough movement among the highly qualified and most talented employee pool. Concentrate on those companies that treat you like a real human and avoid the on personal development, automated people processors whenever possible! Companies will catch on to the detrimental nature of this “time and cost saving software” and realize it’s costing them everything! Many already have.
Imagine, as with myself, you work in a totally “visual” industry where picture representations of your work tell virtually your whole story! Applying for compare, a graphic design, art director or illustrator job has been rendered orders of magnitude more difficult with the advent of ATS processing! The situation is about as insane as trying to get a singing job with no recordings of essay on youth of today your voice being allowed and no chance for a personal audition! Companies with H.R. people who have virtually no expertise in the commercial art field are already at a huge disadvantage in making any kind of thesis compare contrast qualified decisions regarding such applicants. Add to that a totally intrusive, opaque and “dumb” software program placed strategically as a final barrier to any chance of actually communicating your amazing talents and, well, you have the advantages, “perfect storm” of thesis employment failure – both for the employer and potential employee.
Agreed. However, my line of work is not with the smaller companies that seem to actually read a resume but within the larger corporations and they ALL use ATS! Buzz words (key words) are definitely the secret and on personal development, one must learn this and use the write compare contrast papers, job description in the posting and on siegfried, customize the resume accordingly or else be among the roughly 75% that are automatically not reviewed and write compare contrast papers, receive the proverbial computerized canned rejection letter from reflective on personal development a “do not reply” to email address! Definitely, if your are in the design and arts profession, ATS is surely the Antichrist! Preach!! I 1000% get what you’re saying!! I’ve been in the advertising industry for 25 years, 13 years on staff, and the last 12 years as a freelancer. How in the world do you include 12 years of significant freelance work with several different clients on thesis compare contrast a multitude of different accounts with all kinds of varying calendar timing through an ATS and expect it to spit out anything resembling a solid, successful overall career?? Despite the fact that so many highly qualified candidates are finding the book essay, ATS to write thesis compare papers, be their ultimate challenge in the job search, the “sheeple” continue to composition book, just follow the guidelines to gaming the system via keyword dumping rather than avoiding companies who rely on filtering human beings through their ATS.
Unfortunately for the likes of you and me, we don’t really have the luxury to NOT play along at least a little bit or get utterly left behind, but I agree completely that if more people just stop playing along, companies will finally get exactly what you said: it’s costing them everything! That’s easy to say if you have a job. Compare Contrast Papers! But if you are unemployed, you have little choice. This software should be outlawed. No wonder the nitwits in HR claim they ‘can’t find qualified people’, their ATS screened them out beforehand.
Woww. Having the right information at the tip of essay your finger can actually ease the endless pain of job seeking and resume submission without consideration. Thesis! Thanks, your article is encompassing and indeed rich. Keep it up. Glad we could help! Thanks for report, you comment. While I found this article very helpful as a job seeker, it is a sad commentary on compare papers the state of corporate hiring today. We are being dehumanized and reduced to automatons in the new world order system.
This article is so very. useful. It really helped me a lot to understand what I was doing wrong. Just few. questions: 1) do you advise to composition, mold my resume to match every single job I am. applying to? 2) In situations where one does not possess all of the required.
skills of thesis compare contrast papers a job posting, but one knows it will not take long to acquire them; how. do you suggest one should handle such situation? Ignore the job post, and move. to the composition essay, next one? Any advice is greatly appreciated. Yes, your resume should always be tailored to the specific job post. As far as skills go, check out this page for more advice: https://resumegenius.com/resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Write Thesis Compare Contrast Papers! Thanks for you comment. Dude seriously?? and essay, here I thought even after knowing whatever was the demand of our beloved employer I wasn’t getting hired because I had no skill. On top of that I didn’t even know ATS existed, I always thought living human beings reject me :p. Bravo…. and lamentation.
In these days of big data, it’s laughable that job matching is still such an outrageously resource wasting game of hide and seek. Compare Contrast! Resumes and reflective essay development, job postings are still crafted as for a single pieces of thesis paper formatted to communicate all pertinent information in book the 10 or so seconds of write papers attention that conventional wisdom says they may receive. While an essays ATS attempts to tweak that Cretaceous period bottleneck, clearly there’s something missing. I’m considering starting a company that would provide the mirror analog of an ATS to job seekers for free, with the ultimate goal of write thesis steering development of the reflective on personal, cooperative, common have/need data platform that would evolve once the inevitable war between the two systems runs its course (I’d rather just skip to the common platform, but sometimes you’ve got to kick the mule). Who’s with me?
How should I handle the resume I post on job boards (e.g. Compare! Monster, Dice)? That resume can’t be tailored to a specific job description. They Introduction! Should I use keywords common to many of the job descriptions for my target position? And then use a customized resume when I apply for write thesis compare, a specific job? BINGO! Sounds like you know what you’re doing.
Best of luck! Thanks for your help and for the great article. Cheers! Thanks for the comment! You bring up a good point — it’s important to create a resume that both gets through the ATS and appeals to hiring managers once it lands in their hands. Share Beat the advantages, Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots Our code geeks and papers, HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to argumentative essay, MS Word and write thesis compare contrast papers, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
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Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in write thesis today's competitive job market. Essay Of Today! HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to write contrast papers, MS Word and PDF.
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How to Create a Thesis for a Compare & Contrast Essay | Education
Writing Task 2 Discuss Both Views Essay Lesson. This lesson will help you answer IELTS writing task 2 discussion (or discuss both views and give your opinion) questions. These particular questions require a different approach to compare contrast opinion essays because you have to discuss both sides rather than just argue in favour of one side. This post will look at: Identifying the question Example Questions Structure Sample Answer Task Achievement Coherence and Cohesion Lexical Resource.
Many students fail to do well in these kinds of questions because they do not do what the question asks them to do and they do not use an appropriate structure. This post will help you overcome these problems and give you a sample answer. We will also look at ‘lexical resource’ and ‘coherence and cohort cohesion’; two of the marking criteria IELTS examiners use when marking your essays. Compare Contrast Papers! Understand the marking scheme will help you to get inside the head of an book essay, IELTS examiner and give then exactly what they want. Look at the three questions below and write choose one you think is a discussion question. Computers are being used more and more in education and on siegfried sassoon so there will soon be no role for the teacher in education. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Computers are being used more and more in education. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and write thesis compare give your own opinion. Computers are being used more and more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences.
Discuss both sides of report, this argument and then give your own opinion. The first question is an opinion question and we can tell this from the instructions ‘To what extent do you agree or disagree?’. The second question is write thesis compare papers obviously an advantages and disadvantages question. The third question is the essays sassoon discussion question. We can tell this from the typical instructions in the question ‘Discuss both sides of the argument and then give your opinion’. You may also be asked to compare papers ‘Discuss both views and give you opinion’ or ‘Discuss both sides of the argument and they carried essay give your opinion’. Each of these questions is asking us to do different things and we therefore need a different structure for each question.
Here are a few other typical discussion questions: A growing number of compare papers, people feel that animals should not be exploited by case cohort study advantages, people and write contrast papers that they should have the same rights as humans, while others argue that humans must employ animals to satisfy their various needs, including uses for development food and research. Discuss both views and give your opinion. Blood sports have become a hot topic for debate in recent years. As society develops it is increasingly seen as an uncivilized activity and cruel to the helpless animals that are killed. All blood sports should be banned. Discuss the write thesis contrast main arguments for composition essay this statement and write thesis papers give your own opinion. Some people think that the best way to report dissertation reduce crime is to give longer prison sentences. Others, however, believe there are better alternative ways of reducing crime.
Discuss both views and give your opinion. As you can see, they typically state two opinions and write thesis contrast papers then ask you to discuss both and essays on siegfried sassoon give your opinion. Compare! Make sure you do these things in book the essay. If you only discuss both views and fail to give your opinion you will lose marks. For discussion questions, I suggest you use the following four paragraph structure. Sentence 2- State Both Points of View. Sentence 2- Thesis Statement. Sentence 3- Outline Sentence. Sentence 1- State first viewpoint.
Sentence 2- Discuss first viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to write thesis compare contrast support your view. Sentence 1- State second viewpoint. Sentence 2- Discuss second viewpoint. Sentence 3- Reason why you agree or disagree with viewpoint. Sentence 4- Example to support your view. Sentence 1- Summary. Sentence 2- State which one is better or more important. Here is dissertation a sample answer but I have mixed up the compare sentences. Can you match the sentences below to the structure above?
This exercise will help you understand the structure. In conclusion, while the benefits of report, technology, particularly the internet, allow students to tap into limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of write contrast, this new phenomenon and not allow it to curb face to face interaction. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and composition laptops, in the classroom. Thesis Contrast Papers! It is clear that the internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Moreover, learners have the ability to reflective essay research and learn about any subject at the touch of a button. It is therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for contrast papers education. However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and empathy.
Despite this, human interaction is cohort still possible through the internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason. This essay agrees that an increase in technology is beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of write thesis contrast, view. Composition Book! For instance, Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to interact in ways that were never before possible. Wikipedia is write compare contrast papers a prime example, where students can simply type in any keyword and on siegfried sassoon gain access to in-depth knowledge quickly and easily. However, as long as we are careful to thesis compare keep in mind the importance of human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. It is often argued that this is argumentative essay a positive development, whilst others disagree and think it will lead to adverse ramifications.
Computers are being used more and more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences. Discuss both sides of this argument and then give your own opinion. There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and write contrast laptops, in the things the classroom. It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and thesis contrast papers think it will lead to adverse ramifications.
This essay agrees that an increase in technology is development beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of view. It is thesis compare clear that the internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Moreover, learners have the ability to research and learn about any subject at the touch of a button. It is therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for education. Wikipedia is a prime example, where students can simply type in any keyword and gain access to in-depth knowledge quickly and easily.
However, many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and empathy. Despite this, human interaction is still possible through the internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason. For instance, Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to interact in ways that were never before possible. In conclusion, while the benefits of technology, particularly the on siegfried sassoon internet, allow students to tap in to limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of write thesis compare papers, this new phenomenon and not allow it to curb face to face interaction. Composition Essay! However, as long as we are careful to keep in write contrast mind the importance of human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. This is report one of the thesis four areas you will be assessed on in the IELTS writing test. Task achievement refers to your ability to address all parts of the question and present a fully developed answer.
By following the structure above, we have fully discussed both sides of the argument and given our opinion. This is exactly what the argumentative on youth question asked us to do, no more, no less. Discourse markers (words like ‘however’, ‘despite this’ and ‘In conclusion’) are also referred to as ‘linking words’ and ‘linking phrases’, or ‘sentence connectors’. They are quite formal and thesis compare are used more in academic writing than informal speech. You gain marks for using these under the ‘coherence and cohesion’ section of the marking scheme. These words ‘stick’ the other words together and lend continuity to sentences and paragraphs. If you do not include discourse markers in your IELTS writing, your answer will appear illogical and it is more difficult to understand. However, this does not mean that you should try to insert as many of these words in to they carried introduction your writing as possible. This is a common mistake in IELTS writing. Using too many of them, or using them inappropriately, can make your writing sound too heavy and write thesis compare contrast unnatural. Report Dissertation! They are important, but must only write contrast be used at the appropriate time.
Try to argumentative on youth identify any discourse markers in the essay above ? Don’t look at the essay below yet. How many can you find? Sample Answer with Discourse Markers. Here is the sample answer again with the discourse markers in bold . There is an ever increasing use of technology, such as tablets and laptops, in the classroom. It is often argued that this is a positive development, whilst others disagree and think it will lead to adverse ramifications. This essay agrees that an increase in technology is write thesis contrast beneficial to students and teachers. This essay will discuss both points of view.
It is clear that the internet has provided students with access to more information than ever before. Study Advantages! Moreover , learners have the ability to research and learn about any subject at the touch of write contrast papers, a button. Essay On Personal! It is therefore agreed that technology is a very worthwhile tool for write compare contrast education. Wikipedia is a prime example , where students can simply type in on personal development any keyword and gain access to in-depth knowledge quickly and easily. However , many disagree and feel that technology deprives people of real human interaction. Write Compare! Human interaction teaches people valuable skills such as discourse, debate and empathy. Despite this , human interaction is essay still possible through the internet and this essay disagrees technology should be dismissed for this reason. Thesis Compare Contrast! For instance , Skype and Facebook make it possible for people to interact in ways that were never before possible.
In conclusion , while the case benefits of technology, particularly the internet, allow students to write thesis compare contrast tap in to dissertation limitless sources of information, some still feel that people should be wary of this new phenomenon and compare contrast papers not allow it to curb face to face interaction. However , as long as we are careful to keep in mind the they carried introduction importance of human interaction in education, the educational benefits are clearly positive. This is also one of the four criteria you will be marked on and it refers to your ability to use a wide range of accurate vocabulary. A common mistake is to repeat the same words over and over again. You will lose marks if you do this. A solution to write compare this problem is to argumentative on youth of today use synonyms. You can either think of synonyms as you are writing or leave time at the end to add them in. Can you identify any synonyms in the essay above? Here are some examples: Computers- the internet. Education- in write papers the classroom.
Education- students and teachers. Positive trend- positive development. Negative Consequences- adverse ramifications. By varying your vocabulary in this way you are demonstrating that you have a wide vocabulary and this will boost your band score. However, like discourse markers be careful not to use inappropriate/inaccurate words. Only use words you are confident about. Mistakes will lead to fewer marks. Do you need me to correct your essays and give you feedback on them? Check out our essay correction service. I hope this post helps you with discussion questions and case cohort study advantages if you have any questions please comments below. The best way to keep up to date with posts like this is to like us on Facebook.
Click here to return to the homepage, or click one of the links below to check out write thesis papers more great IELTS stuff. 20 Comments on Writing Task 2 Discuss Both Views Essay Lesson In the report dissertation first paragraph you have mentioned, “This essay agrees that”, instead of that can we mention “In my opinion” because in the questions they asked for an opinion. Please suggest. I’ve learnt a lot that make my eye open how to compare contrast analyse questions,really so helpful that can’t express in words,Thank you Pell for your generous service to the needy who unable to pay your worth. In discussion question, is it okay if you we write one body paragraph on the view you are against and two body paragraphs on the view you support….so in total 3 paragraphs.
Like this: paragraph 1: negative consequence 1. paragraph 2: positive trend 1. paragraph 3: positive trend 2. conclusion: supporting positive trend….since outweigh. First of all, heartfelt thanks for your efforts and insightful posts. I have a question and I need your advice. I have noticed that in your thesis statement you have mentioned your opinion. My IELTS teacher insists on the fact that the opinion should only be mentioned in the conclusion.
So the thesis statement would look like: ” Some people believe …. and others …. without mentioning MY opinion. then in the conclusion I don’t need a summary I just have to mention my opinion. Can you please advise me on this? Posterity will reward you sir. I appreciate your efforts. Home » Writing Task 2 » Writing Task 2 Discuss Both Views Essay Lesson. Check your email for the link.
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How to Write a Thesis Statement for a Compare-Contrast Essay | Pen
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. There's a persistent myth about the SAT Essay: the idea that you can't prepare content because you don't see the prompt until the day of the test. This is a myth because, in order to be standardized, the test has to require the same complexity of argument in every SAT essay question: yes or no, this or that, what causes what. And since all these arguments are very simple, almost every SAT essay argument can be boiled down to one of the 6 we list here . Thesis Papers? In addition to that, though, we also explain how to argue each one, and give you sample support for both sides of case every argument. Read on for the inside scoop on this important aspect of the SAT. SAT Essay prompts are unlike any other writing assignment.
The questions are extremely general, asking things like is the world changing for the better, but they only ever require a very simplistic thesis statement about a complex idea. There are, for write thesis compare papers, example, many ways in essays, which the thesis compare papers, world is and is not changing for the better. The most accurate answer would have to case study advantages be yes AND no, but that's the opposite of what you should say on the SAT. Because on the SAT Essay, simplicity and clarity is the name of the game . You are expected to make a broad, definitive statement about what people 'should' do or whether something is possible. You don't have to believe it, you just have to present a few examples (between one and three) that can show why your statement is write compare papers correct. Essays? In this way, the SAT Essay is easier than most students think. Write Contrast? All of the argumentative essay on youth of today, essay questions in compare contrast, this article are taken from real SATs or College Board prep materials. We've categorized them not by their content--for example, success or personality--but rather by on siegfried sassoon their reasoning . Thesis Compare Contrast Papers? This is because the logic of the question, not its content, is reflective on personal what determines the best argument on which to compare contrast papers build your essay.
For each type of SAT essay question below, we give you 3 sample prompts similar to what you'll run into, and a breakdown of how to argue either side of on siegfried any SAT essay question of that type. You'll get detailed SAT essay examples that guide you through how to construct an argument. SAT Essay Prompt Type 1: Discuss what people should do. This type of SAT essay question lends itself to papers many different kinds of examples. Anything that involves people and their choices is fair game. See the essay on youth, diagram below for more information on how this works. be valued according to their capabilities rather than their achievements? weight all opinions equally, or place more weight on informed opinions? always value new things, ideas, or values over older ones?
Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, people should always value new things, ideas, or values over write thesis contrast older ones, or no, people should not always value new things, ideas, or values over older ones. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Essay On Personal Development? For example, if you argue Yes, people should value new things as your thesis, you can give evidence of a time when people valued new things and write contrast papers it turned out well, or of a time when people didn't value innovation and it turned out poorly. Step 3 : Quickly think of composition book essay 1-3 real-world or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes for ideas). To support the Yes thesis with evidence of when people valued new things with success, we could talk about Civil Rights in the United States, the Industrial Revolution, FDR's new deal, or any other example dealign with positive innovation. We could also discuss evidence where refusal to accept new things turned out compare contrast papers, poorly, like fear of vaccinations and Galileo being excommunicated for his (true) scientific beliefs. SAT Essay Prompt Type 2: Discuss which of two things is better. These questions can be fodder for cohort study, 12-scoring essays because they can be answered so simply: this thing is better than that thing.
Then you just have to think of 1-3 examples in which that thing worked and/or in which the other thing didn't work. See the diagram below for write compare contrast papers, more information on how this can be done. to take an idealistic approach or a practical approach? to do fulfilling or high-paying work? to book use cooperation or competition to achieve success? Step 1 : Pick a side. It is better to use cooperation to achieve success, or it is better to use competition to write thesis contrast papers achieve success. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the case advantages, types of thesis compare papers support you should use). Similar to Prompt Type 1 above, in this case you can use evidence that supports your thesis, or argues against the opposite thesis. For example, if you write that Cooperation is better to achieve success, you can use evidence on a time when cooperation led to success, or when competition led to failure. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in book essay, Step 2 (blue boxes). Following our cooperation is better thesis, we can talk about when people cooperated to great success - like the write, Civil Rights movement, or Abraham Lincoln's cabinet during the Civil War. We could also discuss how competition is report inferior through examples like the subprime mortgage crisis of thesis contrast papers 2008, or the North Korea vs South Korea standoff.
SAT Essay Prompt Type 3: Support or refute counterintuitive statements. These can be the toughest SAT essay prompts--if you don't know how to tackle them. The easiest way to really knock this essay type out of the park is to case cohort advantages say yes, it is thesis compare contrast papers possible, and then think of an example. The other side--no, it isn't possible--is harder to logically prove , but it can be done. See the diagram below for more information on how this works. Is it possible for…. deception to have good results? working to reach an objective to be valuable even if the objective is not reached? any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial?
Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, it is the things carried essay introduction possible for any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial, or no, it is not possible for any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of write thesis compare contrast papers support you should use). Unlike the two prompt types above, this one is more simplistic - just find evidence that can support your thesis in a straightforward way. If you write No, it's not possible for any obstacle to be turned into the things carried something beneficial, you just need to find evidence for when obstacles exist but don't lead to anything helpful. Step 3 : Quickly think of thesis compare 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). To support the No thesis, we could use the example of how gender discrimination against women and income inequality has caused far more harm than the good it has caused. SAT Essay Prompt Type 4: Cause and effect. These can be logically complicated, depending on essays sassoon, which side you choose. If you say x is the result of y , then you just have to think of compare contrast papers 1-3 examples that illustrate it. If you choose the other side, though, then you have a harder logical task in front of reflective essay you--your examples have to fit a much narrower definition to make sense.
See the diagram below for more information on how this works. Is __ the result of __? Is a successful community the result of individuals sacrificing their personal goals? Is accomplishment the result of freedom to thesis compare papers do things one's own way? Is learning the result of experiencing difficulties? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, learning is the result of experiencing difficulties, or no, learning is argumentative on youth of today not the result of thesis compare papers experiencing difficulties.
Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for argumentative on youth, a breakdown of the write contrast, types of support you should use). Composition Book Essay? For example, if our thesis is Yes, learning is the result of experiencing difficulties, we can either argue with evidence of a time when learning IS the result of difficulty, or when a lack of difficulty led to an absence of learning. Both types of evidence support your thesis. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). For our Yes thesis, we could talk about how the difficulty of thesis contrast unmanageable healthcare costs in the USA led to learning and the Affordable Care Act.
We could also use the other type of evidence and talk about how Jay Gatsby's lack of difficulty in having immense wealth led to argumentative essay on youth of today poor learning about write thesis compare papers what really makes him happy. SAT Essay Prompt Type 5: Generalize about the state of the report, world. These kinds of SAT essay prompts are so open-ended that they lend themselves to all kinds of examples and interpretations. But for this same reason, they can be overwhelming and write thesis contrast papers confusing. On Youth Of Today? See the diagram below for write thesis compare contrast, more information on how this works. What is the argumentative, modern world like? Is the world more in need of creativity now more than ever?
Is the world actually harder to write thesis compare understand due to the abundance of information now available? Is the world changing in a positive way? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, the world is changing in the things, a positive way, or no, the world is not changing in a positive way. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of write thesis support you should use).
Let's consider the Yes thesis. We can use evidence that problems in the past that are being solved today, or innovations today that didn't previously exist. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the report, criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). To support our Yes thesis, we can find examples of problems that are better now - women's rights, slavery, and compare contrast papers reduced violence. The Things Carried? We can also discuss recent innovations that dramatically improve quality of life, like the thesis compare, Internet and widespread access to education. SAT Essay Prompt Type 6: Generalize about people. Much like the reflective on personal, state of the world questions, these can be supported by almost anything, but can also get away from you if you're not careful. See the diagram below for some ideas of how to manage these prompts. What are people like? Do people underestimate the value of community due to our culture of individualism?
Are people defined by their occupations? Do people learn from the past? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, people learn from the past, or no, people do not learn from the past. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Let's consider the No thesis that people don't learn from the past - we would have to find an example of when someone repeated a mistake that they could have avoided from history. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the write thesis compare papers, criteria in essay, Step 2 (see blue boxes). A great example to write thesis compare contrast papers use for reflective, our No thesis is comparing Hitler and Germany to Napoleon. Write Papers? In 1812, Napoleon fought a war on multiple fronts, fighting the Spanish army and the Russian Empire simultaneously.
This led to a drastic dilution of focus and essays sassoon led to his defeat. A century later in contrast papers, World War 2, Hitler fought on two fronts as well, facing the Allies in they carried essay, Europe and Russia at the same time. He too was defeated through this mistake. Now that you know the basic types of SAT essay prompts and write thesis compare papers the types of arguments they require, what can you do with this information? A few different things: one is to practice with these questions, thinking of one or two examples to support at the things they introduction, least one answer to compare contrast each question. We've written a guide to 6 SAT essay examples you can use to answer nearly every prompt.
Another is to take a look at our comprehensive SAT essay prompts article, which gives you lots more questions to think about answering and on siegfried supporting with the arguments above. Finally, make sure you read our 15 SAT essay tips to know how to get an edge on write thesis papers, the essay. Want to get serious about improving your SAT score? We have the leading online SAT prep program that will raise your score by 240+ points, guaranteed . Exclusive to our program, we have an expert SAT instructor grade each of your SAT essays and give you customized feedback on how to improve your score. This can mean an instant jump of 80 points on the Writing section alone. Check out our 5-day free trial and sign up for free: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura has over a decade of teaching experience at leading universities and scored a perfect score on the SAT. They Carried Introduction? You should definitely follow us on compare papers, social media. Carried Introduction? You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about papers this article or other topics?
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Case#x02013;Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Our goal was to investigate the write compare contrast papers association between ADHD and the things carried essay introduction blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. We conducted a pair-matching case#x02013;control study with 630 ADHD cases and thesis compare papers 630 non-ADHD controls 4#x02013;12 years of book essay, age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The case and write thesis papers control children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th ed., revised criteria (DSM-IV-R).
We evaluated the association between BLLs and reflective essay ADHD using the compare contrast Pearson chi-square test for reflective categorical variables and the Student t -test for continuous data. We then performed conditional multiple variables logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection to predict risk factors for ADHD. There was a significant difference in thesis contrast papers BLLs between ADHD cases and controls. On Siegfried Sassoon! ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to lead during childhood than the non-ADHD control subjects, with adjustment for other known risk factors [children with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL vs. #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.10#x02013;8.77, p #x0003c; 0.01; 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL vs.#x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.47#x02013;6.98, p #x0003c; 0.01]. Thesis Contrast! These results were not modified by case cohort advantages age and thesis contrast papers sex variables. This was the largest sample size case#x02013;control study to date to study the argumentative on youth association between BLLs and compare papers ADHD in Chinese children. ADHD may be an carried essay additional deleterious outcome of lead exposure during childhood, even when BLLs are #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is write thesis contrast papers, one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders, characterized by report developmentally inappropriate levels of write compare contrast papers, inattention, impulsivity, and they hyperactivity [American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2000; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Rappley 2005; Remschmidt 2005]. Prevalence of ADHD in write contrast papers children has been reported to be 3#x02013;8% worldwide (Froehlich et al. 2007; Leung et al. 1996; Remschmidt 2005). Children who have ADHD are at case cohort study advantages, increased risk for conduct disorder, antisocial behavior, and drug abuse later in life (Satterfield et al. 2007). Moreover, the costs associated with their medical care and education are substantial (Leibson et al. 2001). Although the causes of ADHD remain unclear, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to influence the etiology of ADHD (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Castellanos and write Tannock 2002; Millichap 2008; Remschmidt 2005; Swanson et al. 2007).
Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated high heritability, and various polymorphisms of they carried essay, dopamine-related genes have been found to increase susceptibility to write thesis papers ADHD (Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Durston 2003; Khan and Faraone 2006). Composition! Furthermore, many environmental risk factors and potential gene#x02013;environment interactions have also been shown to increase the risk for write thesis contrast papers the disorder (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; Thapar et al. 2007). Indeed, there is on siegfried sassoon, growing interest in studying the relationship between chronic heavy metal toxicity, including lead exposure, and ADHD (Braun et al.
2006; Konofal and compare contrast Cortese 2007; Millichap 2008; Nigg et al. 2008). Lead is one of the they carried well-established environmental poisons, and write compare contrast its general toxic effects, particularly in children, continue to be a major public health issue worldwide [American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2005; Lidsky and Schneider 2003; Needleman 2004]. It is well known that lead can cause cognitive impairment and correlate with decreased IQ scores and impaired attention (Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004), and report increased BLLs were associated with higher distractibility and impulsiveness scores in write thesis contrast the affected children (Needleman 1993). Cohort Study! The World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S.
Centers for thesis papers Disease Control and composition Prevention (CDC) recommended that child blood lead levels (BLLs) not exceed 10 #x003bc;g/dL (CDC 1991; WHO 1995). As a result of rapid industrialization in write compare papers China, it is estimated that tens of millions of children 1#x02013;18 years of essays on siegfried sassoon, age have BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Huo et al. 2007; Ren et al. 2006; Wang and contrast papers Zhang 2006). Furthermore, several recent studies have shown that cognitive deficits and behavioral problems in children still exist even with BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Binns et al. 2007; Braun et al.
2006; Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004). Early studies have documented an case advantages association between dentine lead, whole-tooth lead, hair lead, and symptoms of inattention (Bellinger et al. Write Thesis Compare Contrast! 1994a, 1994b; Fergusson et al. 1993; Needleman and Leviton 1979; Needleman et al. 1979; Tuthill 1996), and subsequent studies showed that lead exposure can cause attention deficit disorder and impulsivity (Brockel and Cory-Slechta 1998; Burns et al. 1999; Eppright et al. 1997; Kahn et al. On Siegfried Sassoon! 1995; Minder et al.
1994; Silva et al. 1988; Thomson et al. 1989; Wasserman et al. 1998, 2001). However, these studies may not be conclusive. Write Thesis Compare Contrast Papers! First, few studies have investigated the effect of argumentative essay, lead exposure on ADHD formally diagnosed with the established criteria in International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) (WHO 2007) or in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of write compare contrast papers, Mental Disorders, 4th ed., revised (DSM-IV-R; APA 2000) (Burns et al. They Carried Introduction! 1999; Eppright et al. Write Thesis Papers! 1997; Silva et al. Essays Sassoon! 1988). Write Contrast Papers! Second, most studies were limited by small sample size, and some studies lacked sufficient control of confounding factors (Bellinger et al. Argumentative Essay Of Today! 1994b; Minder et al.
1994). Third, early studies involved children who had higher BLLs than the levels seen in contemporary children (Needleman and Leviton 1979; Wasserman et al. 1998) and thus may not be directly relevant to children with lower levels of lead exposure. In addition, there is no investigation of lead exposure and ADHD in Chinese children. Therefore, in an effort to evaluate the association between BLLs and the risk for ADHD in Chinese children, we performed a case#x02013;control study involving large samples of children 4#x02013;12 years of age. We also considered known potential variables in the etiology of write contrast papers, ADHD, such as delivery characteristics, perinatal factors, parental psychosocial factors, and prenatal exposure to dissertation tobacco and alcohol. This study was designed as a pair-matching case#x02013;control study. ADHD subjects were consecutively recruited from children coming for initial or follow-up assessment from October 2003 to August 2007 in compare contrast two pediatric clinics at the Anhui Provincial Children#x02019;s Hospital and the Institute of the things carried essay introduction, Anhui Traditional Chinese Medicine in thesis compare contrast Anhui Province, People#x02019;s Republic of China.
The two major hospitals served the same local population in Anhui province and accepted referrals from reflective essay all administrative districts within the contrast papers province. All ADHD (ICD-10 codes F90, 208#x02013;210) subjects were children of Chinese Han nationality 4#x02013;12 years of age at the time of investigation and composition had a lifetime medical history that fully met the write contrast DSM-IV-R criteria (APA 2000; Su et al. 2001) for ADHD. The DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria had been previously translated into report Chinese, and the reliability for the ADHD diagnosis was previously assessed (Su et al. 2001).
The diagnoses of ADHD were derived from a structured diagnostic interview based on Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for contrast papers School-Age Children (K-SADS-E) (Ambrosini 2000), which was modified to dissertation assess DSM-IV-R criteria and incorporate parents#x02019; and teachers#x02019; reports of write, behavioral symptoms, clinical observation of behavior, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (Aman and essays sassoon Singh 1986), and tests of attention such as the Conners#x02019; Continuous Performance Test (Homack and Riccio 2006). The interviews were performed in our outpatient clinic and administered by raters (trained research assistants) to children, one of their parents, and their teachers. Contrast Papers! All the raters, from two involved pediatric clinics, have postgraduate degrees in psychology and had been trained to high levels of interrater reliability. We computed #x003ba; coefficients of agreement between all the raters and essays on siegfried three experienced board-certified child psychiatrists who listened to audio taped interviews made by the raters. Based on 120 interviews, the median #x003ba; was 0.87; #x003ba; was 0.95 for ADHD. Write Thesis! Children with identifiable perinatal insults, autism, Asperger syndrome, other pervasive developmental disorders (ICD-10 codes F84.0#x02013;F84.9, 308.0), and mental retardation (ICD-10 codes F70#x02013;F79, 312#x02013;315) were excluded.
The non-ADHD controls were randomly selected from computerized lists of outpatients admitted for acute upper respiratory infection at the same two pediatric medical clinics during the daytime and during the same study period. By the pair-matched design, each ADHD case and introduction control set had the same sex, the write compare same age (difference between birthdays within 6 months), and almost the same level of socioeconomic status (SES). The controls were given the same full diagnostic assessment as the ADHD cases and screened only for the absence of ADHD without exclusion of essays, any other diagnosis except for the same exclusion criteria applied to cases. SES is measured by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), and PIR is the ratio of family income to thesis compare contrast the poverty threshold for the year of the interview. Essays On Siegfried Sassoon! Low SES was defined as having PIR values #x0003c; 1 in our analysis and high SES as having PIR #x0003e; 3. The others were regarded as middle SES. The study was approved by our institutional review boards and write thesis papers complied with all applicable requirements of the United States. The parents of all the children in this study provided written informed consent at enrollment. Blood samples (2 mL/child) were collected in heparinized syringes. Lead concentrations were measured by anodic stripping voltametry through a blood lead analysis instrument (3010B; ESA Laboratories, Inc., Chelmsford, MA, USA) after the blood samples were digested with an organic tissue solubilizer. The limit of detection was 1.0 #x003bc;g/dL. No detectable values were given values of 0.70 (1.0 divided by report the square root of write thesis compare, 2).
Lead values were calculated as the means of four analyses of each sample. Epidemiologic studies have shown that male sex, low SES, and young age are associated with a raised prevalence of ADHD. Moreover, its prevalence falls with age (Biederman and Faraone 2004; Doyle 2004; Scahill and Schwab-Stone 2000). To address these important confounding factors, we employed a pair-match design on age, sex, and SES; thus, the stratified control subjects were at risk at the same sex, age, and SES. In addition, we considered multiple covariates and potential confounders for the association of lead exposure and ADHD in our study. Essays! They were based on established predictors of child behavioral problems and thesis those widely used in reflective development studies of pediatric lead exposure (Banerjee et al.
2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Linnet et al. 2003; Mick et al. 2002; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004; Swanson et al. 2007; Wasserman et al. 2001).
The following variables were used: family history of ADHD (ADHD in parents and siblings, diagnosed by thesis compare papers psychiatrists, obtained from clinical reports), household composition (normal: child lives with biological parents; single: child lives with only one parent; or recombined: child lives in remarried family), maternal tobacco use during pregnancy (at least one cigarette per day during the last trimester), maternal drinking during pregnancy (at least two glasses per week during the entire pregnancy), labor complications, cesarean delivery, perinatal distress [low birth weight and admission to the things carried introduction a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as markers], parents#x02019; age at childbirth, and parents#x02019; education. Because all the cases recruited were of Chinese Han nationality, the variable of thesis contrast papers, ethnic origin could not be used in our analysis. Composition Book! These variables were obtained from clinical records or questionnaires completed by direct interview of the parents. Study factors were defined as binary variables or categorical variables. For example, maternal smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy were recorded as binary variables#x02014;that is, drinker or nondrinker, cigarette smoker or nonsmoker.
We analyzed some continuous potential risk factors as categorical variables according to cut points suggested by the literature. Write Thesis Compare Contrast! For example, low birth weight is typically defined as #x0003c; 2,500 g (St Sauver et al. 2004). Maternal and paternal age were analyzed as three categories (St Sauver et al. Argumentative On Youth! 2004): #x0003c; 20 years, 20#x02013;30 years, and #x0003e; 30 years of age. Write Thesis Compare Contrast! Maternal and paternal education were analyzed as #x02264; 9 years of compulsory education, high school education (9#x02013;12 years), or some college or advanced training (#x02265; 12 years). The association between BLLs and ADHD was evaluated using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t -test for dissertation continuous data. We also performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with a binary outcome of write papers, ADHD in relation to BLLs, adjusting for other potential confounding factors (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000).
In the argumentative on youth of today regression model, BLLs were analyzed as an ordered categorical variable and recorded as three categories: #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL, and #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. We then performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise procedures based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates to thesis compare papers construct a final best-fit logistic regression models to identify predictors of risk for ADHD among known risk factors and BLLs. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for differing levels of exposure. All statistical tests were considered to be significant at an alpha level of 0.05 on a two-tailed test and sassoon performed with the statistical software SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The analysis included 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD control subjects matched by age, sex, and SES.
There were 434 sets of thesis compare contrast papers, boys and 196 sets of girls. The average ages were 7.9 #x000b1; 2.1 years. Report Dissertation! The mean BLLs were 8.77 #x000b1; 3.89 #x003bc;g/dL in the ADHD group and 5.76 #x000b1; 3.39 #x003bc;g/dL in the control group. Write Thesis Compare! The ADHD group had higher BLLs ( p #x0003c; 0.05, see Table 1 ). On Siegfried Sassoon! There was no significant difference in write thesis compare BLLs between males and females. Figure 1 shows BLL distribution and cumulative distribution of ADHD children and controls. Sassoon! Only 10.1% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas this percentage increased significantly to write thesis 24.4% in ADHD children. Argumentative Essay! (#x003c7; 2 = 237, p #x0003c; 0.01). In addition, 49.8% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas of the write thesis compare contrast papers ADHD cases, 74.7% had BLLS #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL (#x003c7; 2 = 116, p #x0003c; 0.01). Additional information in report dissertation demographic and the distribution of risk factors are shown in Table 2 . We performed a conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis with all variables (BLLs and all risk factors) simultaneously included in write thesis papers the same model to adjust for each other. We found that the ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs (OR = 5.19, p #x0003c; 0.01 for children with BLLs 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 7.15, p #x0003c; 0.01 for with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, using the sample with BLLs #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL as referent) and family history of ADHD (OR = 4.54, p #x0003c; 0.01, compared with the sample without familial ADHD history). The risk for ADHD decreased as the study advantages mother#x02019;s education level increased (OR = 0.69, p = 0.017, using the sample of #x02264; 9 years maternal education as referent). The analysis also found an association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy, but the p- value is near the significant threshold (OR = 4.04, p = 0.047).
The remaining confounding variables in our analysis were not associated with ADHD status ( Table 2 ). To eliminate multivariable interaction and multicollinearity, we then performed a backward stepwise logistic regression based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates. In the final best-fit model, the association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy was excluded, but ORs for the associations between ADHD and family history of ADHD, maternal education levels, and BLLs were largely unchanged from estimates obtained in the original model used in Table 2 ( Table 3 ). We also performed a conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis stratified by sex and age. As with the total sample, ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs than the thesis contrast papers lower BLLs in all subdefinitions ( Table 4 ), which indicates that increased risk for argumentative essay ADHD associated with BLLs is not modified by age and sex. We examined the effect of write thesis, BLLs in ADHD cases and the things introduction non-ADHD controls with adjustment for most other known risk factors in Chinese children 4#x02013;12 years of age.
We found ADHD cases were more likely to contrast papers have been exposed to lead. The children with BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL had 4.1- to carried essay introduction 8.7-fold higher risk for thesis contrast papers ADHD. Even when their BLLs were under the recommended level but #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, the risk also showed a 3.5- to 7.0-fold increase. Carried Introduction! Family history of ADHD was another positive high-risk factor. Decreased risk for ADHD was associated with higher maternal education. Lead may play important roles in compare contrast the etiology of ADHD.
Recently, Braun et al. (2006) analyzed data from a U.S population-based sample and essays sassoon concluded that prenatal tobacco exposure and environmental lead are risk factors for ADHD; they found 4.1-fold increased odds of ADHD with increased BLLs. Our work confirmed this finding in the referred sample that relied on the DSM-IV-R criteria. In addition, Nigg et al. (2008) reported that low-level lead exposure was associated with formal clinical diagnostic ADHD by DSM-IV-R criteria in a community sample in the United States, where regulations have reduced the incidence of write compare contrast, lead poisoning and the current population average of lead levels is relatively lower. This is consistent with our finding that the risk of composition book essay, ADHD was associated with low lead exposures (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL) in Chinese children. Some studies documented varying behavioral effects of lead exposure in males and females (Burns et al. 1999; Ris et al. 2004).
However, in our study, sex and age did not modify the relationship between BLLs and ADHD. Further studies investigating how neurobehavioral outcome varies with sex and write age may be required. In our study, the absence of composition, a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and ADHD was unexpected, in write thesis compare contrast to previous reports (Braun et al. 2006; Linnet et al. 2003; Swanson et al. 2007). The reason might be that, in China, few women smoke during pregnancy and throughout life, which limits the dissertation statistical power in detecting a significant difference. Another reason might be that smoking and drinking variables of the mother were recorded as a dichotomy in our study, and the threshold to define the variables may underreport in utero smoke and alcohol exposure. This potential misclassification might underestimate the true association between pregnancy smoking and ADHD. Our study found higher maternal education was associated with decreased risk for ADHD.
This result is consistent with previous work, which indicated that low maternal education, low SES, and single parenthood are important adverse factors for ADHD (Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004). Apart from environmental risk factors for write thesis compare papers ADHD, our current report indicated that children with a family history of ADHD were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. It is introduction, also consistent with previous work, which showed that ADHD is transmitted in families (Biederman and Faraone 2002, 2005; Millichap 2008). Although our study showed the association between lead and ADHD, we cannot explain clearly the thesis contrast mechanism that underlies the report relationship. Thesis Contrast! As for the etiology of ADHD, dopamine system dysfunction has important effects (Biederman and Faraone 2002; Swanson et al. 2007). There is extensive evidence that lead alters midbrain/striatal dopamine functioning as well as gene expression in they carried essay introduction the striatum (Cory-Slechta 1995; Kala and Jadhav 1995; Szczerbak et al.
2007), so the neurotoxic effect of write thesis compare, lead on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system may be implicated in the pathway to ADHD. Lead exposure could represent a hidden major effect on on personal, ADHD incidence via genotype by environmental interaction (Swanson et al. 2007). The strengths of this study are as follows: a ) Our sample size was the largest to date in case#x02013;control studies to investigate BLLs and write thesis compare contrast papers ADHD. Essay! b ) The ADHD diagnosis was made through an extensive clinical evaluation based on the DSM-IV-R diagnostic instrument and performed by child and adolescent psychiatrists. c ) The investigators matched the cases and controls on potentially important aspects such as age, sex, or SES. This is important because lead levels are highest among younger children compared with adolescents, and compare papers ADHD is of higher prevalence among children of elementary and middle-school age. This study suggests that there is a link between ADHD and BLLs, and the results reinforced findings from previous studies (Braun et al. 2006; Nigg et al. 2008).
If on further inquiry these associations are found to be causal, lead exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for this common psychiatric condition of childhood. Considering that ADHD typically starts in early childhood and that lead poisoning is one of the the things they essay most common and entirely preventable pediatric problems (AAP 2005; CDC 1991), strategies in public health must focus on practicing primary and secondary prevention of lead exposure in children. For example, clinicians should alert parents to potential adverse outcomes of lead associated with this disorder. Thesis Compare Contrast Papers! In addition, routine screening for lead exposure may be needed so that if ADHD symptoms emerge, they can be managed at an early stage. Moreover, BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL also indicated a risk factor. This may suggest that the lower standard may effectively protect children from the harmful effects of lead, which is case study, consistent with previous investigations (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003; Surkan et al. 2007). Some studies (Ruff et al.
1993; Tong et al. Write Thesis Compare Contrast Papers! 1998) found an book essay association between declining BLLs and improved cognitive test scores, independent of write contrast, whether iron or chelation therapy was administered. However, other works (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003) indicated that the damage caused by blood lead exposure is they carried essay introduction, irreversible. Further epidemiologic studies and rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether chelation therapy or removal of possible lead exposure sources might help children with ADHD. This study has several limitations. Write Contrast Papers! First, temporality between high BLLs and book ADHD could not be ascertained definitely in this case#x02013;control design. Thesis! It is book, possible that hyperactive children ingest more lead rather than that lead causes hyperactivity. Therefore, further studies with serial lead measurements, even from the write compare antenatal to reflective essay the postnatal period, and more continuous measures of ADHD symptoms or of specific underlying neurobehavioral domains may be required to write thesis document the temporal relationship between lead exposure and development of ADHD.
Second, some might argue that concurrent blood lead tests are not an adequate biomarker of a child#x02019;s lifetime exposure. However, recent studies indicate that concurrent BLLs are a stronger predictor of lead-associated IQ decrements than blood lead measured during early childhood (Lanphear et al. 2005). Third, recall bias is one of the problems of the case#x02013;control study. In this study, the main variable of interest was the BLLs, which were objectively measured. However, other variables such as in utero tobacco and alcohol exposure may be susceptible to recall bias. Fourth, the case study advantages cohort was not a random population sample, so potential selection biases cannot be fully ruled out. In addition, because all our sample was Chinese Han, no children living in foster families were included, and none of the write compare sample had health insurance, our results may not generalize to children with different socioeconomic or ethnic backgrounds. Finally, it is interesting that Nigg et al. (2008) found a significant relationship between combined-type ADHD and low-level lead exposure but not predominantly inattentive type and case lead exposure.
However, we were unable to do analogous analyses by subtype because of the constraints of the study matching scheme. This hospital-based case#x02013;control study suggests a strong relationship exists between ADHD and lead exposure, even low-level lead exposure (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL BLL), in Chinese children. Write Compare Contrast Papers! If this finding is confirmed in future studies, the potential to prevent ADHD by reducing childhood lead exposure should be considered.