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Ray birdwhistell kinesics and context essays on body motion communication

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Kinesics and Context: Essays on Body Motion Communication

Army Enlisted Job (MOS) Descriptions. The Army calls their enlisted jobs MOSs, or #34;Military Occupation Specialties.#34; The Army has around 190 MOSs available for essays on body enlisted Soldiers. Similar specialties are divided into #34;branches#34; or #34;fields.#34; Below are the power thesis statements, Army enlisted job fields. Click on each field so see a list of essays communication MOS#39;s that fall under that branch, as well as links to complete information about that MOS (job). Field 09 -- Native Language Speaker. Field 09 -- Native Language Speaker, includes only one MOS (09L), Interpreter/Translator. These Soldiers are those the Army recruited for their native language ability, and perform translation and interpreter duties. Text. The Infantry Field includes four Army enlisted jobs (MOS#39;s).

Infantry is the oldest and largest branch in the US Army combat arms. Essays On Body Communication. There are 22 enlisted MOS#39;s included in the Corps of Engineer branch. Mobile Essay. Soldiers in this branch help the kinesics and context, Army and the Nation in essay, building structures, developing civil works program, working with natural resources as well as providing combat support on the battlefield. More. The Field Artillery Field consists of 8 MOSs.

The Army#39;s Field Artillery Branch is responsible for neutralizing or suppressing the enemy by cannon, rocket, and missile fire and to help integrate all fire support assets into combined arms operations. Air Defense includes seven Army enlisted MOSs. Kinesics On Body. Soldiers in this field implement tactics, techniques and procedures for the employment of air defense systems. There are 21 Army enlisted MOSs included in the Aviation Field. Famously known as the #34;Green Beret,#34; Army Special Forces Soldiers are the essay, elite of Army Special Operations. There are seven Army enlisted MOSs included in this branch.

The Army#39;s Armor Branch is responsible for all the tank and ray birdwhistell and context essays on body motion communication, cavalry/forward reconnaissance operations on the battlefield. There are three Army enlisted MOS#39;s included in this field. More. 16 enlisted MOS#39;s make up the Army Signals branch. The Army#39;s Signal Corps is responsible for power all systems of communication for the entire Army. On every mission, communications and ray birdwhistell essays on body communication, data management (handled by the Signal Corps) have become increasingly critical for the Army and its continued success. More. Self Discipline Best Kind Essay. Field 27 -- Judge Advocate General's Corps. There is only one Army enlisted MOS under this field, MOS 27D - Paralegal Specialist. Kinesics Essays Motion. They assist judges, Army lawyers and unit commanders with legal matters and judicial work.

In the essay on realism and idealism, Electronic Warfare field, Cyberspace, and the broader electromagnetic spectrum (EMS), are optimized by soldiers and leaders who understand both the operational and ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body motion communication, technical dimensions of this segment of the power thesis statements, operational environment. Soldiers and leaders are outfitted with cyber-electronic capabilities that enable a broad range of ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body communication joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational activities during Full Spectrum Operations while concurrently reducing risk to the force. The Military Police field includes four Army enlisted MOS#39;s. The Army#39;s Military Police can be utilized during offensive operations, defensive operations, stability operations, and civil support operations. Self Is The Kind Essay. The Intelligence Branch includes thirteen Army enlisted MOSs, responsible for all intelligence (information) gathered or learned during Army missions. More.

The Finance field includes only one enlisted MOS, 36B - Financial Management Technician. Soldiers in this MOS are responsible for receiving and posting funding, commitment, and obligations documents to accounting and budget systems. Field 37 -- Psychological Operations. Field 37 includes 37F - Psychological Operations Specialist. A Psychological Operations Specialist is an information and media specialist who can assess the information needs of a target population and develop and deliver the right message at the right time and ray birdwhistell kinesics on body motion communication, place to create the intended result. The Civil Affairs field includes MOS 38B - Civil Affairs Specialist. Nuclear Thesis. Civil Affairs specialists identify critical requirements needed by local citizens in combat or crisis situations. Field 42 -- Adjutant General's Corps. Ray Birdwhistell And Context Motion. There are three Army enlisted MOSs included in the Adjutant General#39;s Corps, including band members and human resources specialists.

There are three Army enlisted MOS#39;s included in the Public Affairs field. The Army Public Affairs Specialist participates in essay format, and assists with the ray birdwhistell kinesics on body motion, supervision and administration of Army public affairs programs primarily through news releases, newspaper articles, Web-based material and photographs for use in military and civilian news media. There is mobile one MOS in the Field of Acquisition Corps. 51C NCOs serve as contingency contracting officers in support of a headquarters, principal assistant responsible for contracting, contracting support brigades, contingency contracting battalions, and/or installation contracting offices for training and mission support. Chaplain Assistants (the only enlisted MOS assigned to this field) provide much-needed support to the Chaplains during missions and everyday activities. And Context Motion. A Chaplain Assistant primarily provides support for the Unit Ministry Team programs and worship services. The 24 enlisted MOSs in the Medical field provide medical care to members of the self kind, US Military and their family members.

The CW field includes MOS 74D - Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Specialist. CBRN Specialists plan, employ, and coordinate CBRN defense systems in support of joint and combined arms operations including CBRN reconnaissance systems, biological agent detection systems (BIDS), obscurant systems, CBRN decontamination systems, and and context on body motion communication, other CBRN hazard detection and warning systems. Field 79 -- Recruiting and Retention. Rajesh Balan Dissertation. The four MOS#39;s in the Recruiting and Retention field are responsible for attracting and keeping high-quality enlisted Soldiers in the active Duty Army, Army Reserves, and ?Army National Guard. Ray Birdwhistell Kinesics Motion. There are nine enlisted MOS#39;s in the Transportation Field.

The Transportation Corps is responsible for moving supplies, troops and equipment anywhere on speech from text, the globe. More. There are three enlisted MOS#39;s assigned to the Ammunition Field. Ammunition, explosives, their components, and weapons are known within the Army as #39;ordnance#39; and require proper care when dealing with them. The Mechanical Maintenance field includes the motion communication, 16 MOSs that are responsible for mechanical maintenance on Army vehicles and equipment. Rajesh. There are 10 Army enlisted jobs in the Supply and Logistics field.

They are responsible for making sure equipment, materials and systems are available and kinesics and context on body, functioning for missions. More. Self Discipline Best Of Discipline. Field 94 -- Electronic/Missile Maintenance. Kinesics And Context Essays. There are 16 Army enlisted jobs in discipline of discipline, the Electronic/Missile Maintenance field that are responsible for direct and general support (DS/GS) level maintenance on all electronic maintenance operations. More. Complete List of Army Enlisted MOS's. A complete listing of Army jobs (MOS#39;s) available for enlisted Soldiers.


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Personality Test, Profiling and Bad Judgment. Personality Test, Profiling and Bad Judgment. A Personality Test Won’t Prove You’re a Thief. When the average American applied for a job back in the 1900’s you fill out an application or walk-in to talk to the employer. Now you sit at a computer, fill out your info and take a psychological test. Kinesics And Context On Body Motion! This psychological testing is a set of questions and you are given a A,B,C, or D answer set. These questions are easy to understand but what about the answers?

The answers are not your own they are made up to describe you from which one you choose and tell the employer if you are a good worker or not to be trusted. 1.The widespread use of personality tests as a means of determining. which employees to hire raises a number of issues, ranging from the. validity and reliability of the text tests to concerns about invasion of ray birdwhistell essays motion, privacy. and discrimination against speech from, minorities. These issues raise the question.

whether the benefits of personality tests outweigh the costs of employing. Most employers don’t understand how to use the kinesics essays testing to text tell if the applicant is worth the hire. There are four different test types aptitude, personality, skills, and job knowledge. The aptitude and the personality test are the two of the four that are not accurate but the other two skills and job knowledge are fine. Skills and job knowledge are based on physical actions and actual knowledge learned. 2.Personality and aptitude are guessing games from person to person that is very inaccurate in nature especially when answers are limited and implied and only one answer will provide a high enough score to on body motion get a interview. These tests are not evaluated by professionals but by mobile culture essay, a person that may not have no more of a psychological degree than you do. . Assignment #3 Reginald Smith March 2, 2013 Criminal Investigation Dr. Levin Introduction This proposal was selected to analyze profiling psychologically, geographically, and racially.

Profiling has its benefits and problem just like any other perceptional judgment. Society tends to be inclined to profiling due to cognitive learning, but profiling was originally intended to help drug couriers attempting to on body motion communication enter the country. (Schmalleger, 2004) U.S Customs Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration developed personal indicators that perceived an increased likelihood of a violation of law. Then in the late 1900's racial profiling received national recognition. Racial profiling referred to Driving While Black. (Schmalleger, 2004) Literature review Advantages and Disadvantages Psychological We understand today that it is a cruel and ignorance practice to torture men and women whose mental disturbance expresses itself in the form of religious or other eccentricities, but we are still too deep in the darkness to realize that the same true of those whose quirks show themselves in criminality. (Howe, 2012) One form of profiling is the psychological process of criminals. Usually, if investigators think like criminals he or she will caught a law violator. Psychologically profiling suspected criminals is an effective benefit for criminologist; unfortunately, using psychological profiling can't provide solid evidence. During the 1950's. Words: 1275 - Pages: 6.

Personality Test, Profiling and Bad Judgment. . Running Head: Personality Test, Profiling and Bad Judgment 3 Personality Test, Profiling and Bad Judgment A Personality Test Won’t Prove You’re a Thief When the average American applied for a job back in the 1900’s you fill out an application or walk-in to power talk to the employer. Now you sit at a computer, fill out your info and take a psychological test. This psychological testing is a set of questions and you are given a A,B,C, or D answer set. These questions are easy to understand but what about the answers? The answers are not your own they are made up to describe you from which one you choose and tell the employer if you are a good worker or not to be trusted. 1.The widespread use of personality tests as a means of determining which employees to kinesics essays communication hire raises a number of issues, ranging from the validity and reliability of the rajesh dissertation tests to ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body concerns about balan dissertation, invasion of privacy and discrimination against minorities. Kinesics And Context On Body Communication! These issues raise the question whether the benefits of personality tests outweigh the costs of employing them. Most employers don’t understand how to use the testing to tell if the applicant is worth the speech from hire.

There are four different test types aptitude, personality, skills, and job knowledge. The aptitude and the personality test are the two of the four that are not accurate but the other two skills and on body motion communication, job knowledge are fine. Skills and job knowledge are based on power thesis statements, physical. Words: 563 - Pages: 3. . Question 1 Let’s see the pros and cons of Personality Test. Pros: 1. Inexpensive method to help managers make important hiring decision. 2. Good Personality Tests are reliable in behavior and performance predictions than interview and resumes. 3. Provide quantitative data that ease the differentiation of individual candidate performance.

Cons: 1. Poor Personality Tests are not reliable and can be faked. Ray Birdwhistell And Context On Body Motion Communication! 2. Rajesh! Employers may face lawsuits if Personality Tests are used inappropriately, i.e : if the test qualified as a medical exam, whereby there is Act prohibiting the need of and context on body motion communication, medical examinations before hiring. 3. Regional differences are causing difficulties for Personality Tests to differential individual candidate performance accurately. I don’t think it is a wise decision for Mark to drop the use of Personality Test. Personality test is power statements very important for kinesics and context essays motion us to understand the text behavior of the candidate in front of us. The personality of the worker and managers will affect day-to-day success of the organization. Actually a good Personality Test with proper usage is really will help Mark to better assessing individual candidate behavior and theirs performance before making the hiring decision. Ray Birdwhistell On Body Motion Communication! By understanding individual candidate behavior, Mark can achieve the nuclear power goal of ‘right fit for the right job’. The key point is he must use a good quality Personality Test and use it properly, but not giving up on it. Personality Test is ray birdwhistell kinesics and context on body motion just. Words: 733 - Pages: 3. . when you start reflecting on your personal characteristics and on your behavioral tendencies.

In the nuclear power statements past year I had opportunities to talk more about this subject in my company and was able to on body motion take personality tests with my colleagues and I became very interesting in this subject. Essay! I recognize that before I thought such tests were a waste of time but once I started taking them and reflecting on the results I started to see the ray birdwhistell on body communication importance of kind of discipline essay, self-knowledge for my personal and professional life. Of course you need to be honest with yourself when answering the questions knowing that there are no right or wrong answers and the results needs to be understood and criticized by yourself in order to understand what they really mean. Ray Birdwhistell And Context Essays Communication! A few months ago a small team of managers from supply chain department took the Myers-Briggs type indicator test (MBTI). Discipline Kind Essay! The goal was to find more about ray birdwhistell and context essays on body, ourselves and reflect on how our colleagues’ behavior made sense when you look at rajesh balan dissertation their results. I had some very interesting and revealing results. My personality test indicated the E (extroversion), N (intuition), F (feeling) and P (perception) result. Ray Birdwhistell Kinesics And Context On Body! ENFPs are enthusiastic, innovators, and in speech from text constant search for new possibilities. They like team work are friendly, independent and curious. When I reflect on my results and on ray birdwhistell kinesics essays motion, my behavior at work I see some characteristics of my professional life that perfectly match the results indicated in the test.

Some of my characteristics at work are to. Words: 1243 - Pages: 5. . Kyle Schade 2/27/14 M: 5:00-7:50 Baek-Kyoo Joo The Big Five Personality Test Society always strives for the “American Dream”, which is in the back of every human’s mind no matter what they say. Everyone is wired in the world to say yes to be rich or wealthy because there is a lot more fun and things you can do with more money than with less, that’s just common knowledge. Of Discipline! But for and context communication me my American Dream is not just a job, but a lifestyle that I want to strive for. My “American Dream” would be to essay have a very beneficially paying job and a supportive/loving family.

A lot of people now-a-days think that money is the communication end all be all, when I reality it’s what you do with your time and money that make people better off. Specifically for me, I would love to essay work at a place like Google. The reason why is because Google was voted the most enjoyable place to work. The movie the “Internship” shows just exactly how well employees get treated and how much fun of an environment it is to be around. I feel like the happier and the more stimulated the and context on body environment is the harder the employees work. Google however is not my dream job. If I had to pick a job for life I would pick working at Apple’s Headquarters.

Apple is a very successful company and I have heard nothing but good things about rajesh balan, Apple products. The products they provide are everywhere you look. You could not walk into a college classroom without seeing one IPod, IPad, IPhone, or Apple computer. I picked that as my dream job. Words: 657 - Pages: 3. . Kinesics And Context Essays Motion! Personality test results 2.1 'Emotional stability' This personality trait pertains to the extent to rajesh which a person is ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body sensitive to essay on realism stimuli in the environment and needs to have certainty and stability. Your score on this trait is average.

This means that you are normally relatively calm. Your emotional response primarily depends on the situation. You only feel stressed or out of and context on body motion, balance when put under pressure or forced to deal with setbacks. It is not very difficult to get you riled, and in general you may feel bad about losing, but this does not keep you awake at night. It is relatively easy for you to get past feelings, such as shame. You certainly have your doubts and worries, but these do not dominate your thinking.

Most of the time you can think rationally and put emotions into their proper perspective. 2.2 'Extraversion' This personality trait pertains to nuclear power the need for social stimuli. It sketches the ray birdwhistell and context essays on body communication extent to which a person goes looking for is the action and others, for the place where things are happening, or tends to avoid disturbances. Your score on this trait is below average. With others, your attitude is somewhat reserved or formal. Your need for kinesics and context motion external stimuli varies, and you sometimes like being alone. This does not mean that you are anti-social at all.

You simply do not always feel the need to be heard or to voice your opinion unasked. You can appear to be reserved and are sometimes less outspoken with others. You may prefer to take things slowly, and you. Words: 1383 - Pages: 6. User Profiling Based Adaptive Test Generation. . User Profiling based Adaptive Test Generation Assessment in discipline is the best of discipline E – Learning System Manan Jadhav Department of ray birdwhistell kinesics communication, Computer Technology, VJTI Mumbai, India Shagufta Rizwan Department of Master of Computer Application, VJTI Mumbai, India Aditi Nehete Department of Computer Technology, VJTI Mumbai, India Abstract — In this paper, we describe a User profiling based ELearning System with Adaptive Test Generation and balan, Assessment. This system uses rule-based Intelligence Technique and implicit User Profiling to judge the proficiency level of the ray birdwhistell essays student and generates tests for them accordingly. More specifically it’s a Test Generation, Assessment and essay and idealism, Remedial System where the student can give a test after he has completed studying a particular concept where the difficulty level of the essays on body test will be decided by the expert system engine. Balan! After the ray birdwhistell essays on body motion communication completion of the test, the system helps the student in improving the proficiency of the concept either if it is expected by the concept or if he faces difficulty in understanding the concept.

Based on the type of thesis statements, errors made in the test, the Test Remedial System will help the ray birdwhistell and context on body motion communication student to improve in that domain of understanding of the is the kind of discipline essay concept. Every phase transition is rule-based which considers the user’s profile and the concept importance to make sure that he does well where it is required. Preliminary Experimental Implementations show that with User Profiling we can reduce the. Words: 4578 - Pages: 19. . Personality Test ISFJ – Introverted Sensing Feeling Judging – “ The Nurturer” According to the Myers-Briggs Personality Test, the “Nurturer” is ray birdwhistell and context essays on body motion communication a quiet and kind introvert that is dependable and sensitive towards others. Format! The test described the ISFJ personality as one who is considerate and hard working, but at the same time, is ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body motion flawed with stubbornness and inflexibility in their opinions.

An ISFJ has a very clear idea of how things should be and will often be rigid unless proven with concrete evidence. While in essay certain situation, the test allowed me to better understand a portion of my character, the and context on body communication results seem to provide a narrow description of only certain characteristics. The personality test was able to articulate the explanations behind my actions and interaction with other people. Nuclear Power! It is true that I learn best by doing, rather than reading about it. I’ve always been a very visual person who performs a task best through practical applications. ISFJ’s are very dependable. When working in a group, I can be counted on kinesics essays motion, to complete my part of a task and often would indirectly guide others to rajesh balan dissertation perform to the best of their abilities. I often don’t take full control, or establish dominant leadership within a group setting, but would guide others from behind the scenes. For example, if I believed that my version of an answer would be more accurate, I would offer it as a suggestion, rather than telling others that they are wrong.

By providing others with a reasonable. Words: 586 - Pages: 3. . My personality type is ISFP. ISFP stands for: Introvert, sensing, feeling and perceivers. A couple of my personality characteristics are observant, organized, independent, resourceful and practical. I am very independent. I’m always on my own, even if I’m at ray birdwhistell kinesics and context motion home I like to shut myself from others. Not physically, but block them out of essay, my mind. However I do get along with people. But if I’m at social events for too long I get exhausted.

I usually have to recharge myself by spending days, a whole week, or maybe even a month away from friends. There are rare times when I actually want to hang out with people, but when I do I’m a very social person. I do very well with a one to one conversation. Ray Birdwhistell On Body Motion! But in a group, I don’t do so well. Speech Text! When I don’t know people, I don’t know what to talk to them about. So I just sit and listen to everyone talk. To improve on this, I want to kinesics essays communication get more involved with others. Share my opinions and allows people to see who I really am.

However observe for mobile a bit, get to know others and what they are talking about and join in the conversation. I am very organized. I like to keep things nice so I can locate where everything is. Ray Birdwhistell On Body Motion! When in school, I like to write down a checklist for my homework assignments. It helps set goals for discipline kind essay me so I can finish things on time. Ray Birdwhistell And Context Essays Motion Communication! And since I’m idealistic, setting goals and completing it makes me feel good about myself. I like to make deadlines, but sometimes I don’t get it done. To help with this problem.

Words: 616 - Pages: 3. . authority and using race as the only determining factor but ignoring race is not an opinion. ‘In New York City, blacks make up a quarter of the population, yet they represent 78 percent of all shooting suspect almost all of culture essay, them young men.” Racially profiling is acceptable under certain circumstances when a variety of factors are used to ray birdwhistell kinesics motion deem someone suspicious. The topic of racial profiling was heavily discussed during the Trayvon Martin case some strongly claiming that George Zimmerman used wrongful judgment resulting in the death of the 17 year old Trayvon Martin. Zimmerman was made a “neighborhood watch”, his job titled did not call for him to engage some he believes is suspicious but to pass information and avoid confrontations. Speech Text! This was a perfect example of how racial profiling was followed by ray birdwhistell and context essays on body motion, a series of mistakes and misperceptions. Zimmerman was not a law enforcement agent. He was a civilian operating other legal standards that applied to the police. However others claim this was the exact reason why Zimmerman was not guilty, “hence, although Zimmerman was possibly negligent, irresponsible and exercised poor judgment, it was not illegal for him to follow Martin, carry gun when doing so or even ignore the opinion the opinion of the civilian 911 dispatcher when advised, regarding his following Martin, “OK we don’t need you to do that”. Is The Essay! Racial profiling forces individuals who have engaged in no wrongdoing to endure the burdens of law enforcement in ray birdwhistell kinesics and context essays on body communication order to prove. Words: 893 - Pages: 4. . Is The Kind! Write a 3+ page, double-spaced essay regarding: Compare and contrast the Big Five Theory of Personality with Myers Briggs MBTI Why is essays on body motion communication it important to understand personality types What other personality assessments may be important (example: DISC)? Should companies base their hiring practices on personality assessments?

Why or why not? Write in APA format. Include an self discipline of discipline essay, introduction, body and conclusion. Cite consistently throughout your work in APA format. Paraphrase rather than directly quote citations. Write in third person.

Include a title and reference page. Kinesics On Body Motion! For an example of self discipline best kind of discipline, a paper in APA format, please see: Personality Profiling Name Institution Course Date Personality Profiling The two personality profiling techniques or approaches, the and context on body motion Big Five and mobile, the Myers Briggs MBTI have several similarities and differences. Essays Motion! The Big Five taxonomy was created with a major role to cover as many personality aspects as was possible. As the name suggests, big five has five different character traits desired in rajesh a successful individual. It is less focused on the mental values and beliefs. Instead, it is concerned about the physical behavior of an kinesics and context on body motion, individual. Rajesh! Briggs MBTI on the other hand is a theory that was coined to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the personality types. It measures the personality of an individual based on ray birdwhistell on body motion, the attitudes that they portray towards their surroundings. The theories can be.

Words: 1079 - Pages: 5. . THESIS: Although The Summoning of on realism and idealism, Everyman is a morality play of a secular’s life, the ray birdwhistell and context essays on body communication play presents surprising events in one’s perception of death and is relevant to one’s faith at their time of judgment and on realism, therefore serves God’s purposes. I. Ray Birdwhistell! INTRODUCTION: II. BODY A. Speech From Text! Characters: 1. Messenger, God, Death: Scenes I and II 2. Death approaches Everyman, Death forces Everyman to go to his reckoning with God: Scene III 3. Everyman meets Fellowship, Kindred and Cousin, Good: Scenes IV -VI 4. Everyman talks with God, Everyman meets Good Deed, Good Deeds forsake Everyman and Good Deeds gets her sister Knowledge to go on Everyman journey, Knowledge leads Everyman to Confession: Scenes VII - X 5. a. Everyman prays to God and Mary for kinesics essays on body motion mercy, Good Deeds rise and walk towards Everyman to speech accompany on his journey, Everyman clears his reckoning, Everyman calls forth Discretion, Strength, Beauty, and kinesics and context essays, his Five-wits: Scenes XI-XII b. Everyman goes to the Priest and honors the seven Sacraments and receives the sacraments, Beauty, Strength, Discretion, and Five Wits deserts Everyman at the grave, Everyman has an epiphany; he understands he can take nothing with him when he dies, In the from company of Knowledge and Good Deeds, Everyman commits his spirit in the hand of the Lord; an angel receives Everyman into Heaven: Scenes XI-XII 6. Relevant Character overview B. Author’s Perception of kinesics and context motion, Death and the treatment of standard, death 1. Everyman’s journey compared to Man’s journey in. Words: 2056 - Pages: 9. . ABSTRACT As of ray birdwhistell and context essays on body, today, we have reached the dissertation era of modernization. New technology have been created, one of this discovery is the computer.

The technology has changed the different phase of our lives. Nowadays, with the ray birdwhistell kinesics on body motion communication help of computer, the use of robots and AI (Artificial Intelligence) inclined the field of industry and causes economy and education more spare time. Computer promotes our way of nuclear thesis, living in upgrade, an ease to almost everything. Kinesics And Context Essays On Body Communication! In recent years, the increased flexibility and essay standard, user-friendliness of computer databases make these systems a crucial business component. In fact, some universities are now using Computer Database Management System for a faster and kinesics motion communication, safer manifestation of mobile, data. However, the ray birdwhistell kinesics and context essays motion communication Office of Community Improvement Division (CID) with their City College Scholarship Program (CCSP) of City Hall Cagayan de Oro City encounters a problem of maintaining and recovering scholar profiles using the manual data processing. Manual processing is known for its accurate results but it is only good when the number of data to self is the best kind essay be process is less. In updating of scholar records, it takes time in retrieving their records. For safekeeping and and context motion communication, fast data processing, development of a Computerized Profiling System should be in hand.

This study is designed to achieve effectively in collecting and essay, retrieving of scholar records. The Office of the Community Improvement Division (CID) has not yet established a Computerized Profiling System. Thus the researchers propose a. Words: 1288 - Pages: 6. . Racial Profiling Police in Canada Secondary Research Abskortski, Milen. The Pluralism Project at Harvard University. Harvard University. Web.

2 Dec. 2015. Definition: * racial profiling refers to the discriminatory practise of kinesics and context on body, law enforcement that is designed to target individuals for suspicion of crime based on his or her race, ethnicity, beliefs, religion or national origin History of Racial Profiling Police in Canada Policing over the Past 40 Years * extends from systematic issues debated in court processes to prison practises and routine aspects of policing outside of legal institutions * aallegations that the Canadian criminal justice system is racially biased, were made at various junctures by different groups over the past several decades * Since the early 1900’s, racial profiling by the police has been highly dominant. Essay Format Standard! Public complaints, legal actions, empirical research and a number of high-profile incidents had brought several police practices to the forefront of the debates on racial bias of policing in and context on body Canada Stereotypes Associated with Racial Profiling Stereotyping becomes a particular concern when people act on their stereotypical views in a way that affects others. This is power thesis what leads to profiling. Although anyone can experience profiling, racialized persons are primarily affected. Typically, but not always, profiling is ray birdwhistell and context motion communication carried out by people in positions of on realism, authority, and can occur in many contexts. Words: 1798 - Pages: 8. . Profiling in our Society Today Have you ever felt targeted by police officials and looked at ray birdwhistell kinesics motion communication as a criminal? To be accused of speech text, a crime but not because you have done something wrong, but because of your ethnicity or religion. To be discriminated against ray birdwhistell and context essays on body motion communication, not just by citizens with in our society but the security officials and by the government we as citizens are supposed to confide in and feel protected by.

If you can relate to this question, then from one aspect you understand the emotional feeling tied to mobile essay being profiled. In the article “Ethnic and Religious Profiling Violates Civil Liberties” the author Lee’s purpose is to provide valid arguments of how the events of kinesics motion communication, 911 have fueled the speech text increased acceptance of ethnic and religious profiling against motion, Arab and Muslim immigrants. The author strongly articulates her point and uses several sources as arguments, but her use of circular reasoning fails to culture essay persuade her reader. The authors evidence and reasoning is ray birdwhistell kinesics essays motion communication much stronger when pervasive pattern is balan summarized, well informed evidence bringing to light the issues we face towards profiling is not going away. Reading Lee’s essay there was flow that was evident from the introduction and throughout the body to the conclusion because the author keeps to ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body communication the same idea in the introduction as in the conclusion that immigrants faced injustice and were profiled for essay terrorism because they were Arab or Muslim.

The author executed clear topic sentences that goes hand in hand with the overall.

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Kinesics and Context | Ray L Birdwhistell - University of Pennsylvania

20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by the job search site, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by ray birdwhistell kinesics, using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out essay, from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and ray birdwhistell kinesics on body, here#8217;s where you go in culture essay Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the ray birdwhistell and context essays on body communication, most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list.

So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. Culture? A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is ray birdwhistell kinesics and context essays, a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by format, lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in ray birdwhistell kinesics England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is self kind of discipline, both classic and modern.

It’s used widely in kinesics motion the UK (across the essay format, British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is on body motion, very similar to speech, the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the ray birdwhistell essays motion communication, design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the format standard, ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to essays on body motion, perform well on computer monitors.

The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to from, its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for communication that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of format a two-page resume. Our third and kinesics and context on body motion communication, last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in and idealism both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for essays on body motion communication corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. Format Standard? The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and kinesics and context essays on body motion communication, “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for download (free for speech text both personal and commercial use) and for ray birdwhistell kinesics and context essays on body communication web use on Google Fonts.

Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of nuclear power thesis statements its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to kinesics on body, be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for essay format headings rather than body copy. Kinesics On Body Communication? Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by nuclear, many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film.

Thanks to ray birdwhistell kinesics and context, its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to discipline, New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to ray birdwhistell kinesics and context motion communication, read even at small sizes.

Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on speech text any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the ray birdwhistell and context essays motion communication, “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to speech from, improve the ray birdwhistell kinesics motion, font’s on-screen display capabilities. Balan? Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Ray Birdwhistell Kinesics And Context Essays On Body? Surprised this one is on the list?

There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Essay? Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to and context on body communication, read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in culture essay the 1920s. Kinesics Essays Communication? Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Essay? Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is and context essays on body motion, somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into self discipline kind of discipline your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of ray birdwhistell kinesics and context on body Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial.

Designed to essay and idealism, replicate the kinesics on body, look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. From Text? Plus, because this is ray birdwhistell kinesics on body communication, a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for self discipline is the of discipline essay whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to ray birdwhistell communication, give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in rajesh balan doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to ray birdwhistell kinesics motion, replicate the look of mobile comic book speech bubbles, and kinesics motion communication, that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen.

Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Discipline Is The Kind? Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if you’re tempted to ray birdwhistell kinesics, give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist.

This font is essay standard, so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body motion communication headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. Balan Dissertation? That’s because the ray birdwhistell on body motion communication, typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the nuclear power thesis, same name. The font only has capital letters and motion communication, small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for rajesh balan dissertation typing out readable sentences on ray birdwhistell kinesics and context essays on body motion your resume. Rajesh? So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of ray birdwhistell kinesics essays communication 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and self discipline best of discipline essay, formatting.

That’s why it’s a good idea to ray birdwhistell motion communication, always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the power thesis, original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . Ray Birdwhistell Essays On Body Motion? 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to kind essay, Your Design.

60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015.

100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to kinesics and context on body, Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . Text? 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp. Free Stock Photos: 73 Best Sites To Find Awesome Free I. And Context On Body? You're almost there! You’ll receive an email soon to confirm your subscription.

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Kinesics and Context: Essays on Body Motion Communication - Ray L

control essay gun ( Kan. J.L. Pub. Pol'y , Winter 1995, at and context on body communication, 17) Clayton E. Cramer. The historical record provides compelling evidence that racism underlies gun control laws #151; and not in any subtle way. Throughout much of American history, governments openly stated that gun control laws were useful for keeping blacks and Hispanics in their place and for quieting the racial fears of whites. Racist arms laws predate the discipline is the best kind, establishment of the United States.

This is ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body motion not surprising. Blacks in the New World were often slaves, and revolts against slave owners often degenerated into less selective forms of racial warfare. The perception that free blacks were sympathetic to nuclear power the plight of kinesics essays motion their enslaved brothers and the dangerous example that blacks could actually handle freedom often led New World governments to disarm all blacks, both slave and free. Starting in 1751, the French Black Code required Louisiana colonists to stop any blacks and, if necessary, beat any black carrying any potential weapon, such as a cane. (1) If a black refused to stop on demand and was on horseback, the colonist was authorized to shoot to kill. (2) In Louisiana, the fear of Indian attack and culture essay, the importance of hunting to the colonial economy necessitated that slaves sometimes possess firearms. The colonists had to balance their fear of the Indians against their fear of their slaves. As a result, French Louisiana passed laws that allowed slaves and free blacks to possess firearms only under very controlled conditions. (3) Similarly, in the sixteenth century the colony of New Spain, terrified of ray birdwhistell kinesics communication black slave revolts, prohibited all blacks, free and slave, from carrying arms. (4) Often the relationship between racism and gun control was direct and obvious.

On other occasions the rajesh balan dissertation, connection was more complex. One example of a complex relationship between economic struggle, slavery, and possession of arms can be found in seventeenth-century Virginia. Ray Birdwhistell Kinesics Essays Motion? The aristocratic power structure of colonial Virginia confronted a political challenge from lower class whites. These poor whites resented how the men who controlled the government used that power to concentrate wealth into a small number of hands. These wealthy feeders at the government trough would have disarmed poor whites, but the threat of both Indian and pirate attack made this impractical; all white men were armed and had to be armed. (5) Instead of empowering poor whites, blacks, who had occupied a poorly defined status between indentured servant and rajesh balan, slave, were reduced to hereditary chattel slavery.

In this way poor whites could be economically advantaged without the upper class having to kinesics and context motion give up its privileges. (6) In the Haitian Revolution of the 1790s, the slave population successfully threw off their French masters. As the Revolution degenerated into a race war, existing fears increased in the French Louisiana colony and essay standard, among whites in the American slave states. Kinesics And Context Essays On Body Communication? (7) When the first U.S. Rajesh Balan? official arrived in New Orleans in 1803 to take charge of the new American possession, the and context on body motion communication, planters sought to have the existing free black militia disarmed and otherwise exclude free blacks from positions in which they were required to bear arms. Essay Format Standard? This exclusion included such nonmilitary functions as slave-catching crews. (8) The New Orleans city government also stopped whites from ray birdwhistell essays communication, teaching fencing to free blacks, and then, when free blacks sought to teach fencing, the city similarly prohibited their efforts as well. (9) Restrictions on slave possession of arms in the North American English colonies go back a very long way as well. Arms restrictions on text, free blacks in slave states, while present, at least allowed free blacks to obtain a license to possess a gun in their homes, or with good reason, to even carry a gun. Kinesics And Context Essays On Body Motion Communication? Whites were not similarly restricted. Arms restrictions on free blacks increased dramatically after Nat Turner's Rebellion in 1831 caused the South to become increasingly irrational in its fears. On Realism? (10) In response to Turners Rebellion, the Virginia Legislature made it illegal for free blacks to and context essays motion communication keep or carry any firelock of any kind, any military weapon, or any powder or lead. (11) In addition, the existing law under which free blacks were occasionally licensed to possess or carry arms was repealed, thus making arms possession completely illegal for essay format, free blacks. (12) But even before this action by the Virginia Legislature, in the aftermath of Turner's Rebellion, the discovery that a free black family possessed lead shot for ray birdwhistell kinesics and context on body, use as scale weights, but did not have powder or a weapon in which to essay fire it, was considered sufficient reason for a frenzied mob to discuss summary execution of the owner. (13) The fear of ray birdwhistell kinesics and context motion armed blacks had become so extreme that dogs were considered weapons.

Maryland prohibited free blacks from owning dogs without a license and speech from text, authorized any white to ray birdwhistell and context motion communication kill an unlicensed dog owned by a free black. (14) Mississippi went further and prohibited any ownership of a dog by a black person, without even a provision for licensed ownership. (15) Provisions in self discipline is the kind of discipline the 1834 Tennessee Constitution further reveal whites' increasing fear of armed blacks. Article XI, Section 26 of the 1796 Tennessee Constitution read: That the freemen of this State have a right to keep and to bear arms for and context motion, their common defence. (16) The 1834 constitution was revised to: That the free white men of this State have a right to keep and to from text bear arms for their common defence. (17) It is not clear what else could have motivated this change other than Turner's bloody insurrection. The year before the essays on body motion, new constitution was adopted, the Tennessee Supreme Court had recognized the right to bear arms as an individual guarantee, but there is no evidence that this decision caused the change. Essay? (18) Other court decisions during the antebellum period were unambiguous about the ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body communication, importance of race. From Text? In State v. Huntly, the North Carolina Supreme Court recognized that the North Carolina Constitution guaranteed a right to carry arms, as long as such arms were carried in a manner not likely to frighten people. (19) The following year the North Carolina Supreme Court decided State v. Newsom.

The full significance of the Newsom decision would not be apparent until after the Civil War and passage of the Fourteenth Amendment. An 1840 statute provided: That if any free negro, mulatto, or free person of color, shall wear or carry about his or her person, or keep in his or her house, any shot gun, musket, rifle, pistol, sword, dagger or bowie-knife, unless he or she shall have obtained a licence therefor from the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions of his or her county, within one year preceding the ray birdwhistell kinesics and context motion communication, wearing, keeping or carrying thereof, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and may be indicted therefor. Speech From? (20) Elijah Newsom, a free person of color, was indicted under the Statute in kinesics essays on body motion Cumberland County in June of 1843 for carrying a shotgun without a license #151; at from, the very time the North Carolina Supreme Court was deciding Huntly . (21) A jury convicted Newsom, but the trial judge directed a not guilty verdict, and the state appealed to the North Carolina Supreme Court. On Body Motion Communication? (22) Newsom's attorney argued that the Statute, which required free blacks to obtain a license to keep and bear arms, violated both the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the North Carolina Constitution's similar guarantee. (23) The North Carolina Supreme Court refused to accept that the self discipline best essay, Second Amendment was a limitation on state laws. The court, however, also had to deal with the problem of its own state constitutional guarantees, which had been used in deciding the Huntly decision the year before. Article seventeen of the ray birdwhistell kinesics and context essays communication, 1776 North Carolina Constitution declared: That the people have a right to essay format standard bear arms, for the defence of the State; and, as standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the ray birdwhistell kinesics, military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power. (24) The Newsom court asserted that: We cannot see that the act of 1840 is in conflict with it. . Nuclear Power Thesis? . . The defendant is not indicted for carrying arms in defence of the State, nor does the act of 1840 prohibit him from so doing. (25) But in Huntly , the court had acknowledged that the seemingly restrictive language for the defence of the State included an ray birdwhistell kinesics individual right. (26) The Newsom court then attempted to justify the self discipline essay, necessity of this law: Its only ray birdwhistell kinesics and context, object is to preserve the peace and safety of the community from being disturbed by an indiscriminate use, on ordinary occasions, by free men of color, of fire arms or other arms of an power thesis offensive character. Self preservation is the first law of nations, as it is of individuals. (27)

The North Carolina Supreme Court also sought to repudiate the idea that North Carolina's Bill of Rights protected free blacks by pointing out ray birdwhistell kinesics motion communication that it excluded free blacks from voting. Therefore, the court reasoned, free blacks were not citizens. Essay On Realism? But unlike a number of ray birdwhistell motion other state constitutions that limit the right to keep and bear arms to citizens , (28) Article seventeen of the North Carolina Bill of Rights guaranteed this right to the people (29) #151; and try as hard as they might, it was difficult to argue that a free person of color, in essay the words of the court, was not one of the people. It is one of the ray birdwhistell on body motion communication, great ironies that, in much the balan, same way that the North Carolina Supreme Court recognized a right to bear arms in 1843 #151; then a year later declared that free blacks were not included #151; the Georgia Supreme Court did likewise before the close of the decade. The Georgia Supreme Court found in Nunn v. State that a statute prohibiting the sale of ray birdwhistell kinesics and context essays concealable handguns, sword-canes, and daggers violated the Second Amendment: The right of the whole people, old and young, men, women and boys, and not militia only, to keep and bear arms of every description, and not such merely as are used by the militia , shall not be infringed , curtailed, or broken in upon, in essay and idealism the smallest degree; and all this for the important end to be attained: the rearing up and qualifying a well-regulated militia, so vitally necessary to the security of a free State. Our opinion is, that any law, State or Federal, is repugnant to ray birdwhistell and context essays communication the Constitution, and nuclear, void, which contravenes this right , originally belonging to our forefathers, trampled under foot by Charles I. and his two wicked sons and successors, reestablished by the revolution of 1688, conveyed to this land of liberty by the colonists, and finally incorporated conspicuously in ray birdwhistell and context essays motion communication our own Magna Charta! And Lexington, Concord, Camden, River Raisin, Sandusky, and the laurel-crowned field of New Orleans, plead eloquently for dissertation, this interpretation! (30)

Finally, after this paean to liberty #151; in a state where much of the population remained enslaved and forbidden by law to possess arms of any sort #151; the court defined the valid limits of laws restricting the bearing of arms: We are of the opinion, then, that so far as the act of 1837 seeks to suppress the practice of carrying certain weapons secretly , that it is valid, inasmuch as it does not deprive the citizen of his natural right of self-defence, or of his constitutional right to keep and ray birdwhistell and context essays motion communication, bear arms. Nuclear Power? But that so much of it, as contains a prohibition against bearing arms openly , is in ray birdwhistell kinesics and context motion conflict with the Constitution, and void . . . Is The Kind? . Ray Birdwhistell Kinesics Motion Communication? (31) Citizen? Within a single page, the court had gone from right of the whole people, old and young, men, women and boys to the much more narrow right of essay a citizen. The motivation for motion communication, this sudden narrowing of the right #151; that blacks were not citizens #151; appeared two years later. Cooper and Worsham v. Mayor of mobile Savannah was not principally a right to keep and bear arms case. In 1839, the city of Savannah, Georgia, in an admitted effort to prevent the increase of free persons of color in our city, had established a one hundred dollar per year tax on free blacks moving into Savannah from other parts of Georgia. Ray Birdwhistell Essays Communication? Samuel Cooper and Hamilton Worsham, two free persons of color, were convicted of failing to pay the tax and were jailed. (32) On appeal, counsel for Cooper and on realism and idealism, Worsham argued that the ray birdwhistell kinesics and context on body, ordinance establishing the tax was deficient in a number of technical areas. (33) Of most interest to us is nuclear statements counsel's assertion that [i]n Georgia, free persons of color have constitutional rights. . Communication? . Discipline Best Of Discipline? . Ray Birdwhistell On Body Motion Communication? (34) Cooper and on realism and idealism, Worsham's counsel argued that these included the right to writ of habeas corpus, the right to own real estate, the right to be subject to taxation, and the right to sue and ray birdwhistell kinesics and context motion, be sued. Their counsel cited a number of precedents under Georgia law in defense of their position. Nuclear Thesis? (35) Justice Warner delivered the court's opinion.

One portion of the opinion shows the fundamental relationship between citizenship, arms, and elections, and ray birdwhistell and context essays on body, why gun control laws were an essential part of defining blacks as non-citizens: Free persons of color have never been recognized here as citizens; they are not entitled to bear arms, vote for rajesh, members of the legislature, or to hold any civil office. Kinesics Communication? (36) The Georgia Supreme Court did agree that the essay standard, ordinance jailing Cooper and Worsham for nonpayment was illegal and ordered their release, (37) but the comments of the court make it clear that their brave words in Nunn v. State about the right of the people really only meant white people. (38) Finally, in the infamous Dred Scott decision, the U.S. Kinesics And Context? Supreme Court showed that it shared this understanding that citizenship excluded blacks and explained the discipline is the best kind of discipline essay, relationship between citizenship and the carrying of arms: It would give to persons of the negro race, who were recognized as citizens in and context on body any one State of the Union, the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, singly or in companies, without pass or passport, and without obstruction, to on realism sojourn there as long as they pleased, to go where they pleased at every hour of the day or night without molestation, unless they committed some violation of law for which a white man would be punished; and it would give them the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon kinesics and context essays on body all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to keep and essay, carry arms wherever they went . And all of this would be done in the face of the subject race of the same color, both free and slaves, inevitably producing discontent and insubordination among them, and ray birdwhistell essays motion communication, endangering the peace and safety of the State. (39) While settled parts of the South were in great fear of armed blacks, concerns about essay, Indian attack often forced relaxation of kinesics and context motion communication these rules on rajesh dissertation, the frontier. The 1798 Kentucky Comprehensive Act allowed slaves and free blacks on frontier plantations to kinesics and context on body communication keep and nuclear power thesis statements, use guns, powder, shot, and ray birdwhistell and context essays motion, weapons, offensive and defensive. (40) Unlike whites, however, free blacks and slaves were required to have a license to carry weapons. (41)

Blacks needed to carry arms for self-defense not only against criminal attacks that any person, white or black, might worry about, but they also needed arms for mobile essay, protection against the additional hazard of ray birdwhistell essays being kidnapped and sold into slavery. (42) A number of states, including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, passed laws specifically to prohibit kidnapping of free blacks. These states were concerned that the Federal Fugitive Slave Laws would be used as cover for re-enslavement. (43) The end of slavery in 1865 did not eliminate the problems of racist gun control laws. The various Black Codes adopted after the Civil War required blacks to obtain a license before carrying or possessing firearms or bowie knives. These Codes are sufficiently well-known that any reasonably complete history of the Reconstruction period mentions them. These restrictive gun laws played a part in provoking Republican efforts to get the Fourteenth Amendment passed. (44) Republicans in Congress apparently believed that it would be difficult for night riders to provoke terror in freedmen who were returning fire. It appears that the power thesis, Fourteenth Amendments requirement to treat blacks and whites equally before the law led to essays on body motion the adoption of restrictive firearms laws in the South that were equal in essay format standard the letter of the law, but unequally enforced.

It is clear that the vagrancy statutes adopted in 1866, the same year the arms control laws were adopted, were intended to motion be used against blacks, even though the language was race-neutral. (45) The former states of the Confederacy, many of which had recognized the right to carry arms openly before the power, Civil War, developed a greater willingness to qualify that right after the passage of the ray birdwhistell kinesics motion, Fourteenth Amendment. One especially absurd example of how far a state was willing to essay on realism go to qualify the right to bear arms, and ray birdwhistell kinesics on body motion, one that includes strong evidence of the racist intentions behind gun control laws, is balan a decision made in kinesics and context motion Texas. In 1859 in Cockrum v. State, the Texas Supreme Court recognized that there was a right to thesis carry defensive arms and that this right was protected under both the Second Amendment and Section Thirteen of the ray birdwhistell kinesics and context, Texas Bill of Rights. (46) The outer limit of the balan dissertation, state's authority (in this case, attempting to and context essays on body motion discourage the carrying of bowie knives) was that it could provide an on realism enhanced penalty for manslaughters committed with bowie knives, but could not prohibit their being carried. (47) Yet, by 1872 in ray birdwhistell essays English v. Power Thesis? State, the Texas Supreme Court denied that there was any right to carry any weapon for individual self-defense under either the and context communication, state or federal constitutions. (48) Rather than explaining or justifying why the Cockrum decision was no longer valid, the court merely explained that the issue of the right to bear arms was not fairly before the court in Cockrum . (49) What caused the dramatic change?

The following excerpt from the English decision reveals how racism permeated legal thinking: We will not say to what extent the speech from, early customs and habits of the people of kinesics essays this state should be respected and accommodated, where they may come in conflict with the ideas of intelligent and well-meaning legislators. Essay Format? A portion of our system of laws, as well as our public morality, is derived from ray birdwhistell kinesics, a people the most peculiar perhaps of any other in the history and derivation of its own system . Spain, at different periods of the world, was dominated over by the Carthagenians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Snovi, the Allani, the Visigoths, and Arabs; and to this day there are found in the Spanish codes traces of the laws and customs of each of these nations blended together in a system by no means to be compared with the sound philosophy and format, pure morality of the common law. (50) Throughout the South during the post-war period, the existing precedents that recognized a right to ray birdwhistell motion communication openly carry arms under state constitutional provisions and the Second Amendment were being narrowly construed or simply ignored. Essay On Realism? (51) The apparent goal of the ray birdwhistell kinesics on body motion communication, gun control and vagrancy laws was to intimidate the essay on realism and idealism, freedmen into an economically subservient position. By making the freedmen defenseless, employers could be more confident that intimidation would keep their hired hands in line. Nor was the intent that led to these laws lost on judges in the North. In 1920, the Ohio Supreme Court upheld the conviction of a Mexican for carrying a concealed handgun #151; while he was asleep in on body motion communication his own bed. (52) Justice Wanamaker's scathing dissent criticized the precedents cited by the majority in defense of this absurdity: I desire to give some special attention to speech from some of the authorities cited, supreme court decisions from Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas, Kentucky, and one or two inferior court decisions from and context essays, New York, which are given in mobile support of the doctrines upheld by this court. The southern states have very largely furnished the precedents. It is kinesics and context on body motion communication only necessary to observe that the race issue there has extremely intensified a decisive purpose to entirely disarm the negro, and this policy is evident upon reading the opinions . Format Standard? (53) There are other examples of remarkable honesty from the state supreme courts on this subject.

The finest is probably Florida Supreme Court Justice Buford's concurring opinion in Watson v. Stone. In Watson , a conviction for carrying a handgun without a permit was overturned because the handgun was in the glove compartment of a car. (54) Justice Buford wrote: I know something of the history of this legislation. The original Act of 1893 was passed when there was a great influx of negro laborers in this State drawn here for the purpose of working in ray birdwhistell kinesics and context on body motion turpentine and lumber camps. The same condition existed when the Act was amended in 1901 and the Act was passed for the purpose of dissertation disarming the negro laborers and to thereby reduce the unlawful homicides that were prevalent in turpentine and saw-mill camps and to kinesics and context on body communication give the white citizens in sparsely settled areas a better feeling of security. The statute was never intended to be applied to the white population and in practice has never been so applied. (55) There is a shortage of such forthright statements of racist intent behind modern gun control laws. But has the on realism and idealism, racist intent disappeared, or simply been recast into a more acceptable form? Robert Sherrill, at one time a correspondent for and context on body communication, The Nation and a supporter of restrictive gun control laws, argued in his book The Saturday Night Special that fear of armed blacks was the major provocation of the Gun Control Act of 1968. He argues:

The Gun Control Act of 1968 was passed not to control guns to but control blacks, and inasmuch as a majority of Congress did not want to text do the former but were ashamed to show that their goal was the latter, the ray birdwhistell essays motion communication, result was that they did neither. Indeed, this law, the first gun-control law passed by Congress in mobile thirty years, was one of the grand jokes of our time. Ray Birdwhistell Kinesics On Body Motion Communication? (56) Sherrill failed to rajesh balan dissertation provide smoking gun evidence for his claim, but there is no shortage of evidence of the level of fear that gripped white America in ray birdwhistell and context essays on body the late 1960s. The California Legislature adopted a major new arms law in 1967, for the first time prohibiting the open carrying of nuclear statements firearms in cities. (57) This law easily passed after the Black Panthers demonstrated against it #151; by walking into the Assembly Chamber carrying pistols, rifles, [and] at least one sawed-off shotgun. (58) This demonstration of course pushed the kinesics essays on body communication, law through, in essay format spite of significant opposition from conservative Republicans such as State Senator John G. Schmitz. (59) Another piece of evidence that corroborates Sherrills belief that both liberals and conservatives intended the Gun Control Act of 1968 as race control more than gun control has recently been found. Ray Birdwhistell Kinesics And Context Essays? There are strong similarities between the mobile culture, Gun Control Act of 1968 and the 1938 weapons law adopted by Nazi Germany. (60) This similarity is kinesics and context no coincidence; one of the principal authors of the Gun Control Act of dissertation 1968 was Senator Thomas Dodd of Connecticut. After World War II, Dodd was assistant to the chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg war crime trials. Ray Birdwhistell Kinesics And Context Communication? (61) Shortly before the Gun Control Act of thesis 1968 was written, Dodd asked the Library of Congress to translate the 1938 German weapons law into English. Dodd supplied the German text. (62) Dodd was not a Nazi; he had a reputation as an aggressive federal prosecutor of civil rights violations. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that any sort of ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body communication American Holocaust was intended.

Nonetheless, it would not be surprising if Dodd found it convenient to adapt a law that had already proven its efficacy at disarming a minority group. Today is not 1968. When proponents of restrictive gun control insist that their motivations are color-blind, there is a possibility that they are telling the truth. Nonetheless, there are some rather interesting questions that should be asked today. The most obvious is, Why should a police chief or sheriff have any discretion in mobile essay issuing a concealed handgun permit?

Here in California even the state legislature's research arm #151; hardly a nest of pro-gunners #151; has admitted that the vast majority of permits to carry concealed handguns in California are issued to white males. (63) Even if overt racism is not an issue, an official may simply have more empathy with an applicant of a similar cultural background and consequently more closely relate to ray birdwhistell kinesics and context on body communication the applicant's concerns. As my wife pointedly reminded a police official when we applied for thesis statements, concealed weapon permits, If more police chiefs were women, a lot more women would get permits, and would be able to defend themselves from rapists. The warrantless searches of ray birdwhistell essays motion communication private residences for guns in essay standard Chicago housing projects in kinesics motion early 1994 is another reminder of essay format how racism and ray birdwhistell and context motion, gun control remain intertwined. (If there are white people living in these projects, they are remarkably invisible in news media coverage). While these warrantless searches were finally blocked by rajesh a judge, the popular press was remarkably neutral in its coverage of the Clinton administrations advocacy of such an obvious violation of the Fourth Amendments protections against unreasonable searches. President Clinton, after his warrantless search policy was struck down, explained his goals: Finally, we're going to work with residents in high-crime areas to permit the full range of searches that the Constitution does allow in ray birdwhistell motion communication common areas, in vacant apartments, and in culture circumstances where residents are in immediate danger. We'll encourage more weapons frisks of suspicious persons, and we'll ask tenant associations to put clauses in their leases allowing searches when crime conditions make it necessary. (64) The frisks of suspicious persons are a longstanding tradition used against black Americans.

Requiring housing project tenants to give up their constitutional protections against ray birdwhistell and context on body motion warrantless searches is astounding. Can you imagine the is the best kind essay, reaction if tenants were required to give up their right to ray birdwhistell kinesics on body motion free speech when crime conditions make it necessary? It is hard to imagine the government attempting something similar in a white suburb #151; at least until the courts first find it constitutional in a black ghetto. The case might be made that the government attempted to mobile culture essay make the tenants safe by unconstitutional means #151; that the on body motion communication, intentions were good even if the methods were wrong. But even for the special case of housing projects, there are profound inconsistencies in self discipline is the best kind essay the policy. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Henry Cisneros in kinesics essays motion a press conference on February 4, 1994, attempted to justify the warrantless searches as protecting the tenants of these crime-ridden projects. Cisneros, however, admitted that [c]rime statistics . . . Speech Text? show that public housing residents are not to blame for the reign of kinesics essays motion terror. (65) A large majority of those arrested in housing projects were nonresidents. Balan? (66) It is therefore all the more amazing that the residents , who would presumably have much to fear from ray birdwhistell kinesics and context on body motion, these armed nonresident criminals, are the ones that the Clinton administration seeks to disarm. If we examine these Clinton administration policies as a pragmatic response to crime, we must ask: why disarm the likely victims of the criminals?

But if we consider these inexplicable policies as the text, latest symptom of racist attitudes about violence, then these policies make much more sense. Gun control advocates today are not so foolish as to promote openly racist laws, but it is important to consider the relevance of racist gun control laws of the past. My concern is that past motivations for disarming blacks are really not so different from the motivations behind disarming law-abiding citizens today. In the ray birdwhistell kinesics essays communication, last century, the rhetoric in support of such laws was that they (i.e., blacks) were too violent and mobile culture, too untrustworthy to be allowed weapons. Today, the same elitist rhetoric regards law-abiding Americans the same way, as children in need of guidance from the ray birdwhistell kinesics essays communication, government. While never openly admitted, one of the goals of disarming blacks was to make them more willing to accept various forms of economic oppression, such as the sharecropping system, in which free blacks were kept in an economic state not dramatically superior to essay on realism slavery. Even today, with open racism unacceptable in ray birdwhistell and context on body motion communication the mainstream of American politics, gun control still looks suspiciously concerned with issues of race.

The Crime Bill of 1994, passed after a bruising fight in discipline best kind of discipline Congress, was opposed by an unlikely coalition in the House: most Republicans, some conservative Democrats, and many black Democrats. The primary concern of the first two factions appears to have been the assault weapon ban. Black Democrats were concerned that the death penalty provisions would disproportionately affect blacks. The assault weapon ban provisions of the ray birdwhistell kinesics and context, Crime Bill certainly reflected a widespread fear of armed inner-city blacks. And Idealism? Much of its rhetoric was devoted to the dangers of these guns in the hands of gang members and other code phrases for poor blacks. But as a number of careful studies have found, assault weapons are seldomly misused criminally. (67) A Wall Street Journal editorial chided Congress for ray birdwhistell and context on body communication, passage of a ban that, under the most charitable assumptions, would reduce murder and other violent crimes by culture a tiny fraction of 1%. (68) The Trenton, New Jersey assistant chief of ray birdwhistell and context essays police testified before Congress that his officers were more likely to confront an escaped tiger than a criminal with an assault weapon. (69) Crime control was not the motivation for the assault weapon ban. Supporters of the ban continually emphasized that hunting rifles would not be affected by the ban. Was this a subtle way of saying that the sort of balan dissertation guns owned by white Americans would not be affected? Hunting is a heavily rural activity in America, and not surprisingly, black hunters are relatively rare. Similarly, an argument advanced by some pro-ban members of the Congress (notably Senator Campbell of Colorado) was that the law would only affect new manufacturing #151; existing owners could keep their guns.

If the effect of a similar 1986 ban on new machine gun manufacturing is any indication, the net effect of such an assault weapon ban will be to dramatically increase the price of existing weapons. A price increase further removes assault weapons from the financial reach of the poor, who are disproportionately black. What are the policy implications of restrictive gun control today? Increasingly, they are not aimed just at black people, or at the poor, but at the middle class. Ray Birdwhistell Kinesics On Body Communication? The forces that push for gun control are heavily (though not exclusively) allied with political factions that are committed to dramatic increases in taxation on the middle class. While it would be hyperbole to compare higher taxes on the middle class to the suffering and deprivation of sharecropping or slavery, the analogy of self disarming those whom you wish to economically disadvantage has a certain worrisome validity to ray birdwhistell motion it. Another point to consider is that under the American legal system certain classifications of power thesis statements governmental discrimination are considered constitutionally suspect, and these suspect classifications are subject to a strong presumption of and context communication invalidity ( e.g ., a law that made distinctions based on from, race, even if the distinction was nominally race-neutral in its effect). (70) These classifications are suspect because there is a long history of governmental discrimination based on them, and because laws based on these classifications often impinge on ray birdwhistell kinesics and context motion, fundamental rights. (71) In much the same way, gun control historically has been a tool of racism and thesis statements, associated with racist attitudes about black violence. Similarly, many gun control laws impinge on that most fundamental of rights: self-defense. Racism is so intimately tied to the history of essays communication gun control in self is the America that we should regard gun control aimed at law-abiding people as a suspect idea and require that the courts use the ray birdwhistell kinesics and context on body, same demanding standards when reviewing the constitutionality of a gun control law that they use with respect to a law that discriminates based on race. Throughout the history of the United States, our courts have often avoided directly answering questions about the constitutional limits of gun control.

As we have seen, this was sometimes done by insisting that the right of the text, people didn't include black people. Another strategy popular in the slave states was to claim that as long as openly carrying a firearm was legal, then the state could prohibit or regulate concealed carrying of a firearm. Yet another strategy was to dispute what arms were protected. Ray Birdwhistell Motion? The New York courts upheld the Sullivan Act, which licensed the possession of handguns at home, on the basis that handguns were not a constitutionally protected arm #151; unlike a rifle or a shotgun. Self? Such decisions have usually insisted that only kinesics on body motion communication, arms of the soldier are protected by nuclear the Second Amendment, or the state constitutions equivalent provision. In United States v. Cruikshank (a decision that emasculated the Ku Klux Klan Act), the U.S.

Supreme Court decided that the Second Amendment is a limitation on the federal government only, not on the state governments. (72) This argument has been accepted by most (but not all) state supreme courts. (73) These sorts of question-begging approaches will not be available to the U.S. Supreme Court in the cases that will come before it shortly. Kinesics And Context Essays Communication? The assault weapon ban in the 1994 Crime Bill prohibits new manufacture of a category of weapons that is more clearly protected by original intent and existing precedents than any other category of common privately owned arm: arms with a primarily military function and appearance. Unlike Morton Groves handgun ban, (74) or California's Roberti-Roos Assault Weapons Control Act, (75) this law is federal, not state. Fourteenth Amendment incorporation is not necessary for the Crime Bills ban to be contrary to the Second Amendment. Similarly, the Administrations gun control policies with respect to public housing will create differential treatment between whites and is the best essay, blacks, simply because blacks are so overwhelmingly the residents of ray birdwhistell kinesics essays urban public housing projects. Will the Supreme Court apply the culture essay, same reasoning to the Second Amendment that they have with the First Amendment? Or will they continue a tradition of winking at the Second Amendment because the kinesics and context essays motion, underlying policy of gun control is based on racist assumptions? 1. Thomas N. Ingersoll, Free Blacks in a Slave Society: New Orleans, 1718-1812 , 48 Wm.

Mary Q. 173, 178-79 (1991). 3. Daniel H. Usner, Jr., Indians, Settlers, Slaves in a Frontier Exchange Economy: The Lower Mississippi Valley Before 1783, 165, 187 (1992). 4. Michael C. Meyer William L. Sherman, The Course of Mexican History 216 (4th ed. 1991). 5. Edmund S. Morgan, Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox , in Colonial America: Essays in Politics and Social Development 280 (Stanley N. Katz et al. Speech Text? eds., 4th ed. 1993) 7. Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the Making of America 81 (3rd ed. 1987).

8. Ingersoll, supra note 1, at 198-200. 10. Stanley Elkins, Slavery 220 (3rd ed. 1976). 11. Nat Turner 115 (Eric Foner ed., 1971). 13. Harriet Jacobs [Linda Brant], Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861), in The Classic Slave Narratives 333, 395-96 (Henry Louis Gates, Jr. ed., 1987). 14. Theodore Brantner Wilson, The Black Codes of the South 30 (1965).

16. 6 The Federal and kinesics motion communication, State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and power thesis statements, Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies Now or Heretofore Forming The United States of America, 3424 (Francis Newton Thorpe, ed., 1909) [hereinafter The Federal and State Constitutions]. 17. Id . at 3428 (emphasis added). 18. Simpson v. State, 13 Tenn. 292, 295 (5 Yer.) (1833).

19. State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 20. Kinesics And Context? State v. Newsom, 27 N.C. 203, 203 note (5 Ired.) (1844). 24. 5 The Federal and thesis, State Constitutions, supra note 16, at 2788. 25.

State v. Newsom, 27 N.C. 203, 206 (5 Ired.) (1844). 26. State v. Huntly, 25 N.C. 311, 314 (3 Ired.) (1843). 27. Ray Birdwhistell And Context Essays On Body Communication? Newsom , 27 N.C. at 206. 28. 1 The Federal and State Constitutions, supra note 16, at 538 (1818 Connecticut, Art.

I, Sec. 17); 3 Id . at 1275 (1792 Kentucky, Art. XII, Sec. 23) and at 1290 (1799, Art. IX, Sec. 23); 3 Id . at 1648 (1819 Maine, Art. I, Sec. 16); 4 Id . at 2034 (1817 Mississippi, Art. I, Sec. On Realism And Idealism? 23); 5 Id . at 3101 (1790 Pennsylvania, Art.

IX, Sec. 21, but see 5 Id . at 3083, 1776 Constitution, That the people have a right to kinesics and context bear arms. . Speech From Text? . .); 6 Id . at 3543 (1836 Republic of Texas Declaration of Rights, Sec. 14) and at 3548 (1845 Texas Constitution, Art. I, Sec. 13). 30.

Nunn v. State, 1 Ga. 243, 251 (1846). 32. Cooper v. Mayor of Savannah, 4 Ga. 68, 68 (1848). 38. 1 Ga. 243, 251 (1846) (upholding the ray birdwhistell kinesics essays on body, right to bear arms). 39. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S.

393, 417 (19 How.) (1857) (emphasis added). 40. Juliet E. Power Thesis? K. Walker, Free Frank: A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier 21 (1983) (quoting the statute). This is an inspiring biography of a slave who, through hard work moonlighting in the production of saltpeter and land surveying, saved enough money to buy his wife, himself, and eventually all of his children and grandchildren out of ray birdwhistell kinesics essays motion slavery #151; while fighting against oppressive laws and vigorous racism. Most impressive of all, is that he did it without ever learning to read or write. 42. See id . at 73 (describing precautions free black families took to protect themselves from kidnappers).

43. Stephen Middleton, The Black Laws in nuclear power the Old Northwest: A Documentary History, 27-32, 227-40, 309-14, 353-7, 403-4 (1993) (quoting statutes from Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin). 44. Michael Les Benedict, The Fruits of Victory: Alternatives to Restoring the kinesics motion communication, Union, 1865-1877, 87 (1975) (quoting Louisiana statute); Francis L. Broderick, Reconstruction and the American Negro, 1865-1900, 36-37 (1969); Dan T. Carter, When The War Was Over: The Failure of Self-Reconstruction in the South, 1865-1867, 219-21 (1985) (describing confiscation of arms from blacks after the Civil War); Eric Foner, Reconstruction 258-9 (1988). 45. See Foner, supra note 44, at 198-201. 46.

24 Tex. 394, 401-02 (1859). 48. Essay Format? 35 Tex. 473, 476-77, 478 (1872). 49. Id . at ray birdwhistell kinesics and context on body motion communication, 476 (citing Cochrane [sic.] v. The State, 24 Tex. 394.) 50. Id . at is the kind of discipline, 479-80 (emphasis added). 52.

State v. Nieto, 130 N.E. 663, 663, 665 (1920). 53. And Context On Body Communication? Id . at 669 (emphasis added). 54. 4 So. 2d 700, 702-03 (1941). 56. Robert Sherrill, The Saturday Night Special 280 (1973). 57. Assembly Office of Research, Smoking Gun: The Case For Concealed Weapon Permit Reform, 6 (1986).

58. Capitol Is Invaded , Sacramento Bee, May 2, 1967, A1, A10. 59. Bill Barring Loaded Weapons In Public Clears Senate 29-7 , Sacramento Bee, July 27, 1967, A6. 60. Jim Simkin Aaron Zelman, Gun Control: Gateway to Tyranny 83 (1992) (providing the full text in German and English of the various weapons laws and regulations adopted by on realism the Weimar Republic and the Nazis from 1928 to 1938 and comparing them to ray birdwhistell kinesics and context motion communication the Gun Control Act of is the best kind of discipline essay 1968).

61. Sherrill, supra note 56, at kinesics and context motion communication, 67. 62. Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership, The War on Gun Ownership Still Goes On! , Guns Ammo, May 1993, at 30-31. 63.

Assembly Office of Research, supra note 57, at 5. 64. The President's Radio Address of format Apr. 16, 1994, 30 Weekly Comp. Pres. Doc. 823 (Apr. 16, 1994). 65.

The Vice President, Secretary Henry Cisneros, Secretary Lloyd Bentsen, Attorney General Janet Reno and Director of Drug Policy Lee Brown, Press Briefing (Feb. Ray Birdwhistell On Body Communication? 4, 1994) (transcript available from the White House Office of the Press Secretary). 67. Gary Kleck, Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America 75 (1991). 68. What Is an standard Assault Weapon? , Wall St. J., Aug. 25, 1994, at A12. 70. Thomas G. Walker, Suspect Classifications , in Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States 848 (Kermit L. Hall et al. Ray Birdwhistell On Body? eds., 1992). 72.

92 U.S. Rajesh Balan? 542, 553 (1875). 73. See generally Clayton E. Cramer, For The Defense of Themselves And The State: The Original Intent Judicial Interpretation of the Right To Keep And Bear Arms 221-67 (1994) (surveying a number of state court decisions where gun restrictions were reviewed). 74.

Morton Grove, Ill., Ordinance 81-11 (June 8, 1981). 75. Cal. Penal Code §§ 12275-90 (West 1992 Supp. 1994).

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