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Build Your Own T-shirt Printing Press. Have a great idea for help, a t-shirt? Interested in customizing clothing or making your own prints? Here's how to info co uk make a press for making shirts similar to rubber stamping. Table or flat surface you can bolt into. LCD desk mount arm. Scrap wood or counter top. A Level Help! Double stick foam tape. Scrap booking letters.
Silk screening ink or specialized paint. Square, level, tape measure. Wood, acrylic, aluminum or cardboard to essay of animal testing put inside the shirt. Cloth to print on. This would best be done with a table that you don't really want to use for a level, anything other than crafts or projects. You'll want to mount the LCD arm as low and far back as possible (most should have a variety of essay of animal testing settings). You see that we put our arm on the corner so that the press can reach near or far depending on the thickness of the media pressed on the thickness of the object. The LCD arm will probably not press all the dt coursework help, way to the desktop so you may need to make a platform to raise the working area. If you have ever put in info a counter for a bathroom or kitchen you might have a nice piece of laminate kicking around that will work well. Scrap wood will work well too - you just need to lift the shirt (and the piece of a level cardboard, acrylic, aluminum, or whatever you put in the shirt to keep the coursework info co uk, ink from bleeding through to the back) enough to make full contact with the a level, press.
If you just want to college have text then one of the simplest ways is to use wooden letters instead of making your own. Since Michaels was a kind contributor to a level dt coursework help a prior contest we recommend their wooden letter sets. On the other hand, if you want to make a design or image then there is on personal development a lot more work (unless of dt coursework course, you own a laser cutter) to cut out a design. We decided to try an image of a 20 sided die along with the text High Roller ( Copyright Kevin Dean and Ryan McFarland! ) We experimented with materials that we had around the essay, workshop. Red cedar smells good when the Dremel is put to it but the wood soaked up the paint. Laminate counter top was tough to shape and a level, showed the blotting pattern because it was too smooth. Finally we tried using some foam from a set of alphabet foam letters that are used for a child's play mat. This was easy to cut with a hobby knife and hobby cooking, took the paint well. It also was forgiving when pressed against the cloth.
Use double stick foam pads to place your letters onto a board which is screwed to the LCD arm mount. We found that putting the letters on a level dt coursework, pieces for the foam allowed us to remove the entire word to position it or so you can ink different colors. You should be able to essay of animal remove a cowling from the last hinge on the arm (closest to the print) and loosen a screw or nut to allow that hinge to move more freely. Now you can easily flip the dt coursework help, press into position for inking and then rotate it back to parallel the shirt. Wow, that's pretty impressive.
The other option though is just to use a design tool like this one from BlueCotton: http://www.bluecotton.com/studio.html. Can you please tell me where to get the LCD desk mount arm. Here I have seen your ideas for making own T-shirt printing press and that is amazing, I like it. Here given tips I will definitely use for T-shirt printing time. does the print remain after a wash. Co Uk! Using enamel paint - it sure does! I like this idea a lot - I made my own screen print to do a one-colour design, but apart from the satisfaction of dt coursework building it, it was probably not worth it overall, whereas THIS makes it an college, absolute doddle, or doozy as them Yanks say. You have cheered me up, and for that, the t-shirt buying fans of my band salute you :) I just had a thort. a very productive thort. In Straya, they have what is a level dt coursework help called the $2 shop - or the info co uk, Reject shop. and they sell them rolls of a level dt coursework camping mattress - made of the same foam. usually about 1.8 meters by 0.6 meters. it's crap to sleep on.. Coursework Info Co Uk! but that's another story.
There is a type of printing press that has a rolling flat bed and a level help, it goes under a rotating drum. The diameter of the drum and hooks for essays about yourself, the surface speed of it, is linked on a 1:1 basis with the a level dt coursework help, bed. They are a manually operated device. well the one I am thinking of coursework info is. Thinking of a level dt coursework help a WWII soviet vintage kind of thing. Anyway. stick foam on presentation college sd, drum, paint, run T shirt through, recoat, run another shirt back through the other way. etc. A Level Help! Or run roller across T shirt. Please explain what a thort is. Thort = Short Thought ? lol. Would you please tell us where Straya is, somewhere in eastern Europe , is it ? It's a term for Australia, because of the distinctive accent. perhaps you are thinking of a mimeograph machine.
Nice idea - i may just have to give that a try. I was thinking of trying the camping mattress foam but all i have kicking around are the Therm-a-rest style. its a nice idee maybe this wil be my new building idea ^_^ gone print my own dragons on t-shirt maybe =) thx for hobby cooking, this posted instructabal its brings idea's. What are some silk screening inks? Speedball is a very common one.
Thanks and cool shirt. Dt Coursework! Is there any cheap foam easily available, and durable a 13 year could buy? Foamboard should work. Hooks For Essays! If not then you can buy huge pink sheets of foam at home depot/lowes/ace/any hardware construction store. Googling eva foam that Eric mentioned, it turns out the foam exercise mats walmart, and others sell are made from that material. Garage and yard sale season is nearly here, so you should find something affordable. Use your local free cucle, craigslist or other free venues to find some.
A young lady created an instructable about, how she made an instructables robot doll. A Level Dt Coursework Help! I doubt if the co uk, instructables management thought there was a copyright issue, they wouldn't have made her instructable available. I'm not an attorney, but I believe the problems would start, if you started making money from printing copyrighted material. Dt Coursework! Check your local thrift stores. I find this stuff at my local Salvation Army often. Presentation! where do you get silk screening ink? Look in a level your yellow pages under art supplies. That's the good hooks, best place to start. if i wanted to build this without the lcd arm what else could i use and how would i attach it/them? Cool idea, I would do the Instructables Robot but that's copyright or whatever.. great job! You can still do it, just be sure to put a copyright symbol somewhere.
Uh, no you can't. Not legally anyways. The whole point behind copyright is that you can't copy something without the a level dt coursework, creator's permission. You're effectively saying It's okay to copy that movie, just put a copyright symbol on it. or It's okay to photocopy that painting, just put a copyright symbol on it. And it doesn't matter if you don't plan on essay hobby cooking, selling it, that only comes into play when determining damages or fair use, and this is likely not fair use. With that in a level dt coursework mind, if you got permission from Instructables, you could print yourself the shirt legally. Or, if it's just for yourself, go ahead and do it anyways. I doubt anyone will notice or care.
Yes. I understand that it is illegal but people won't care. College Essay Metaphors! Buuut What about the hundreds of a level thousands of instructable robot instructables Showing not only what you have done but how to do it So clearly if they don't care about good college essay metaphors, them, go ahead, just show the dt coursework help, finished product PLEASE. I've always been of the opinion that the morality of the action should take precedence over coursework info co uk, its legality, and in this case I can't see that there would be anything wrong with it. You are promoting the dt coursework help, site, after all--creating a net gain on their part, theoretically. True, it would be better for the site if you paid for one of good essay metaphors their shirts, but since the whole philosophy of the site is dt coursework help doing things yourself to save money and they promote creative commons licenses, I think it's morally acceptable.
THey can, as long as they don't sell it for monetary gain. Nice tip on using EVA foam as a stamp. Is this how you guys make your shirts? No way - their shirts are made far better than this. This is a step below stenciling.
I like some really primitive technologies though. I knew that stuff had a better name. Great instructable. Really helped me out. Thanks. nice. but i tried something similar to this on essay, illustration board and it works like a charm. plus you get both the positives and negatives of the image. i think the a level dt coursework, white on blue looks good kinda distresed you know? though i got to be careful when cutting last time i did it i ended up bleeding all over my school. I just did one that is all white on a dark blue. It required a lot more paint but i really like the faded look that it has. You're right - it looks pre-distressed.
I'm am all about this instructable, I was looking for an easier way to print my own shirts, thank you so much. What is an LCD desk mount arm and where do I find one? It literally is an arm that mounts to a desk that you can attach an LCD monitor to. That frees up space on the desk and the monitor can be positioned to hobby better accommodate the a level help, user (height and distance from essay hobby cooking face). I bought mine at a thrift store not knowing what i would use it for. I looked on dt coursework, eBay for some and they are relatively cheap there. Essay Metaphors! You certainly don't need this piece. We experimented with door hinges at help, first. We wanted to be able to coursework info co uk open it and reapply the paint without moving the shirt or to change colors without waiting for it to dry. You could do the same thing by attaching your different design elements to a level pieces of plywood that you press down on info co uk, the shirt.
You have gave man the power to help make Chuck Norris t-shirts from home. With great power comes great responsibility :P. Very cool- My wife and I run a screen print shop and I've been doing it for a long time(and I still don't know what I'm doing half the essay, time) I really like seeing 'alternative' processes This is a level pretty similar to pad printing- the method used for printing pens, lighters, etc. Thanks for the plans--I'm going to try this next weekend. Hobby! My aunt and uncle own a custom t-shirt printing business. I should show them this.
I have seen them use theirs (they have two, one small (1 shirt), one large(8 shirts)). They are machines though. They look really fascinating, complicated, and cool in use. A Level Dt Coursework! I think they use multi-layer stencils. Essay Hobby! . and another thought. A Level Dt Coursework Help! we were able to do the two colors within just a few minutes of each other because the stamp only touched the coursework info co uk, shirt where contact was desired. Dt Coursework! No waiting for one color to dry! I should add that perk to the description.
I'm sure their shop is a pretty slick operation - this was really a down and dirty job. Not as nice of a product as silk screening but will work pretty well in a pinch! Let your inbox help you discover our best projects, classes, and for essays yourself, contests. Instructables will help you learn how to dt coursework make anything!
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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the a level dt coursework odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is essay hobby cooking where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section.
As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point. A Level Dt Coursework? Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is development interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in dt coursework help first place in on personal development the hot dog eating contest at the state fair.
An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for help, 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the presentation above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the a level dt coursework other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to coursework info co uk, the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isn’t directly related to help, management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in essay hobby cooking regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and dt coursework help, proficient in cooking French.
Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only a level dt coursework help listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to coursework info, keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French.
Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. A Level Dt Coursework? Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to sd, the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is very effective . Take a look at a level the sample resume for an applicant searching for sd, an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to dt coursework, have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the good college metaphors end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in a level its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are:
Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the essay metaphors most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to a level dt coursework help, attract their attention. Of Animal? However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. That’s why it is more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.”
The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to add to your resume: Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and effectively. Seek and actively learn new information to keep up to date with new skill requirements and technological innovations. Achieve high levels of dt coursework help, multi-tasking ability by reflective on personal development, remaining focused and goal oriented, completing several tasks simultaneously to reach desired targets.
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TOEFL Prep Online Guides and Tips. Writing English essays can be difficult for non-native speakers—especially on dt coursework help TOEFL Integrated Writing. For this task, you must compose a short essay comparing a lecture with a reading passage. And to get a high Integrated Writing score, you’ll need to know which resources to use as well as how to prepare effectively for the task. In this guide, we’ll explain what TOEFL Integrated Writing entails and go over the best resources you can use for quality TOEFL Integrated Writing topics and essay development, practice. In addition, we give you six key tips to help you get the dt coursework help Integrated Writing score you deserve. There are two Writing tasks on the TOEFL: an Integrated Writing task and an Independent Writing task. Good. The Integrated Writing task, which comes first, requires you to combine multiple skills. You must not only be able to write in English but also be able to read and help, listen to it. By contrast, the Independent Writing task only requires you to read a brief prompt and then write an essay explaining your opinion on the topic.
So what exactly does the Integrated Writing task entail? You’ll start by reading an academic passage. Hobby Cooking. This passage is about 300 words long, and you’ll have three minutes to read it. Next, you’ll listen to an audio clip of dt coursework, a professor giving a lecture on the same topic as that of the passage. This lecture will usually be about two minutes long and will either agree or disagree with points made in the passage.
Finally, you’ll have 20 minutes to plan and presentation college sd, compose a short essay of about 150-225 words. This essay must summarize the dt coursework help points made in the lecture and explain how they support or challenge what’s written in the passage. You will not write about your own opinion for this task (though you will for good hooks for essays about yourself the Independent Writing task). As you write, you’ll be able to look at the reading passage again if you need to. A Level. (You can also finish reading it during this time if you didn’t get to do so before.) However, you may not listen to the audio clip again. This is good why it’s best to take notes while you listen to the audio clip (we’ll talk more about how to dt coursework help do this later). By the way: we have created the essay on personal world's best online TOEFL course that automatically identifies and improves your weaknesses on the TOEFL. Want to get personal feedback on your Speaking?
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The Integrated Writing task—like the testing Independent Writing task—is scored on dt coursework a scale of 0-5. According to the official rubric, a 5 response “successfully selects the important information from the lecture and coherently and accurately presents this information in hobby cooking, relation to the relevant information presented in the reading.” On the other hand, a 1 response “provides little or no meaningful or relevant coherent content from the lecture.” (Note that a score of 0 means you did not fulfill the help prompt correctly—for example, you copied sentences from the essay passage, wrote in a foreign language, or didn’t write anything at all.) After, your Integrated and a level, Independent scores are combined and converted to a scaled Writing score on a scale of 0-30 (i.e., the same scale used for essay cooking all sections of the TOEFL). Read the following passage and the lecture which follows. In an actual test, you would have 3 minutes to read the help passage. Then, answer the question. In the test, you would have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words. Test takers with disabilities may request additional time to read the passage and write the response.
(Narrator) Now listen to part of a lecture on good about the topic you just read about. (Female professor) While traditional voting systems have some problems, it’s doubtful that computerized voting will make the situation any better. Dt Coursework Help. Computerized voting may seem easy for people who are used to computers. Presentation. But what about people who aren’t? People who can’t afford computers, people who don’t use them on a level help a regular basis—these people will have trouble using computerized voting machines.
These voters can easily cast the wrong vote or be discouraged from voting altogether because of fear of technology. Furthermore, it’s true that humans make mistakes when they count up ballots by hand. College Metaphors. But are we sure that computers will do a better job? After all, computers are programmed by humans, so “human error” can show up in mistakes in dt coursework, their programs. College Metaphors. And the a level dt coursework help errors caused by co uk, these defective programs may be far more serious. Dt Coursework Help. The worst a human official can do is miss a few ballots. But an error in a computer program can result in thousands of votes being miscounted or even permanently removed from the essay cooking record. And in many voting systems, there is no physical record of the votes, so a computer recount in dt coursework help, the case of a suspected error is good hooks yourself impossible! As for our trust of computer technology for banking and a level help, communications, remember one thing: these systems are used daily and they are used heavily. They didn’t work flawlessly when they were first introduced.
They had to be improved on and improved on until they got as reliable as they are today. But voting happens only once every two years nationally in the United States and not much more than twice a year in many local areas. Hooks. This is hardly sufficient for a level dt coursework us to develop confidence that computerized voting can be fully trusted. Question: Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they oppose specific points made in the reading passage. We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at getting your target TOEFL score. Download it for free now: 14 Resources for hobby TOEFL Integrated Writing Practice. Now that you understand what a TOEFL Integrated essay entails, let’s take a look at some of the best resources you can use for TOEFL Integrated Writing topics and a level, practice.
Note that most of these resources are geared toward the reflective on personal development entire TOEFL test and dt coursework, therefore will contain practice questions and tips for other TOEFL sections as well. Official resources (i.e., those created by ETS) are far and away the best resources to start with when you want to find quality TOEFL Integrated Writing practice questions. All official TOEFL resources offer authentic test questions and prompts similar to those you’ll see on test day. Reflective Essay Development. And the best part is that many of these resources are entirely free! By far the a level most authentic TOEFL Integrated Writing practice you can get is through official TPO tests. Hooks About Yourself. These full-length TOEFL practice tests are real, retired exams and thus offer a highly realistic TOEFL Integrated Writing test-taking experience.
Once you finish a test, your Integrated essay is immediately graded by a computer. A Level Dt Coursework Help. However, I’m not a huge fan of this scoring system since it isn’t clear why the computer grader assigns certain scores. By contrast, on hobby cooking the actual TOEFL, your Integrated Writing task will be graded by a combination of dt coursework help, human raters and a computer. Unfortunately, each TPO test is quite costly: 45.95 USD. So don’t buy one of essay cooking, these tests unless you’re 100 percent sure it’ll help you on the Integrated Writing task and a level, other sections of the exam as well. One of the best TOEFL practice resources you can use is the TOEFL Interactive Sampler.
This free, downloadable software contains an abbreviated TOEFL test, complete with a full Writing section. What’s especially great is that the Integrated Task comes with three sample responses: a high-level response, a mid-level response, and a low-level response. These are helpful in that they show you what kinds of details, structures, grammar, and vocabulary you’ll be expected to use in your own essay. There are a couple of downsides to good college essay metaphors this resource, though. For one, the dt coursework help sampler doesn’t work with Macs. Another issue is that you can’t write your essay directly in the program. Rather, once the prompt is shown, all you’re given are the coursework three sample responses. A Level Dt Coursework Help. But you can still complete the task by opening Microsoft Word or another writing program and typing your essay there. Once you’ve finished writing your essay, I suggest either using the good for essays yourself TOEFL Integrated Writing rubric to a level dt coursework help score your response or asking a native English speaker to grade your essay for hobby you.
This free set of four PDFs offers a ton of high-quality sample TOEFL questions, including two Integrated Writing tasks (in Volume 1 and Volume 3). Volume 1 provides you with a transcript of the lecture instead of an audio clip, so it’s not the most realistic test-taking experience you can get. But Volume 3’s TOEFL Integrated Writing task uses an MP3 for the lecture, making it far more similar to what you’ll get on dt coursework help the actual test. Since these volumes are both PDFs and not software programs, you’ll once again need to use a separate computer program to type out essay of animal testing, your responses. Want to improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We have the world's leading TOEFL course. Built by world-class instructors from Harvard and MIT, the program combines machine learning and human feedback to identify the fastest way to hit your target TOEFL score. Try our 5-day full access trial for free: TOEFL iBT Writing Sample Responses. Another free resource by ETS, this PDF presents a number of TOEFL Integrated Writing sample responses, from low- to high-scoring ones. With this resource, you’ll get one TOEFL Integrated Writing task with a passage and lecture transcript.
And as for sample essays, you’ll get: Two level-5 essays Three level-4 essays Three level-3 essays Three level-2 essays Two level-1 essays. What I particularly love about this PDF is that it includes detailed feedback on why certain essays received the scores they got. Therefore, I strongly suggest reading these explanations to a level dt coursework learn more about how ETS expects you to metaphors write and organize your Integrated essay on dt coursework test day. Another solid option is to buy an official TOEFL prep book. Official books are excellent, comprehensive resources for TOEFL Integrated Writing practice, as well as Reading, Listening, and Speaking practice. The Official Guide to the TOEFL Test is good college essay metaphors perhaps your best bet. Dt Coursework. This resource offers a CD-ROM with three full-length practice tests in addition to 600 practice questions.
However, its Integrated Writing information isn’t all new. For example, many of its sample scored responses are the same as those in the TOEFL iBT Writing Sample Responses PDF above. Moreover, its first practice test uses the same Integrated Writing prompt contained in the free TOEFL Interactive Sampler. Other official prep books include Official TOEFL iBT Tests Volumes 1 and 2. Each volume contains five unique full-length practice tests, giving you a grand total of 10 Integrated Writing tasks to practice with. Unlike The Official Guide, though, which offers several sample responses for each scoring level, each Writing task here comes with just one high-scoring sample response. Official TOEFL prep books are usually reasonably priced at around 25 USD a piece. This free, handy PDF is similar to info Quick Prep but contains far fewer practice questions.
With this resource, you get one Integrated Writing task (which we used above as an example). Unfortunately, this PDF doesn’t contain any audio files, so you’ll need to read a transcript for the lecture. This, along with the a level dt coursework help lack of additional TOEFL Integrated Writing practice questions, ultimately makes this resource less realistic and less useful than some of the other ones on this list. While official materials are hands down your best bet for quality TOEFL Integrated Writing practice, some unofficial resources offer a solid array of hooks about, TOEFL Integrated Writing practice questions as well. The problem, however, is that most unofficial TOEFL resources are low quality, so you’ll need to learn how to a level distinguish the ones that are worth using from the hobby ones that aren’t. Help. Generally speaking, a solid TOEFL resource is one that offers realistic practice questions, comprehensive answer explanations, and info co uk, useful test-taking strategies. Below are our top picks for the best unofficial resources for TOEFL Integrated Writing topics. A Level Dt Coursework Help. Like our list above, the for essays yourself majority of resources here are completely free to use! Want to improve your TOEFL score by 15+ points? Check out help, our bes online TOEFL course.
We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your TOEFL score by 15 points or more. Check out our 5-day free trial now: There are many high-quality unofficial TOEFL prep books available on the market. The key is to know which ones are worth buying—that is, which ones will offer you the on personal development most authentic TOEFL Integrated Writing tasks you can practice with. Our guide to the best TOEFL prep books includes three unofficial TOEFL prep books to consider incorporating into your prep.
As with any dense resource, unofficial TOEFL prep books come at help, a price. However, they’re not normally that expensive, with prices typically hovering around 10-30 USD. (That’s cheaper than one TPO test!) This website offers one free Integrated Writing task as well as several additional tasks you can only access if you are a paid member. Both the passage and testing, audio clip for the free task are extremely high quality, making it an help, ideal resource to include in coursework, your prep. Strangely, the dt coursework free Integrated task doesn’t include a prompt. For Essays. That said, you don’t actually need a prompt to help write an essay hobby, Integrated essay anyway, as the prompt is always the same: compare a lecture with a passage. Another convenient feature of this website is a box that you can type your essay in. Once you finish typing, though, ignore the “Submit My Essay” button below.
This feature only works for paid members, so nothing will happen if you click it. Like Strictly English, BestMyTest offers one free Integrated Writing task, though you can access many more Integrated Writing tasks with paid membership. A Level. The free task is hobby high quality and consists of a decent reading passage and a clear, easy-to-follow audio clip. One especially helpful feature is the timer, which makes it easier to help keep track of how much time you have left for each part of the task. A solid choice, Magoosh offers one TOEFL Integrated Writing task that’s fairly high quality. Good Hooks For Essays Yourself. The reading passage is help very similar to those on the TOEFL, especially in length, and the audio clip is crisp and presentation college, easy to help understand. While you won’t get a lecture transcript, you will get a sample level-5 essay with an in-depth analysis of what makes this essay strong. Always aim for a strong TOEFL essay! This free website offers one TOEFL Integrated Writing task with a passage, audio clip, and sample response.
You’ll also get a transcript of the lecture, which is reflective helpful if you’re struggling to understand any parts of it (though you won’t get a transcript on test day). There are two drawbacks to this website, however. First, the reading passage, though good quality, is quite short. Integrated Writing passages are generally around 300 words, but the passage here is dt coursework only about half that length, making it not as realistic as it could be. In addition, the good metaphors audio clip quality isn’t particularly good. The voice often sounds muffled, making it difficult to understand at help, times. At PrepScholar, we offer an original TOEFL Integrated Writing task, complete with a reading passage, lecture transcript, and prompt similar to what you’ll get on good essay metaphors test day. As with any TOEFL task, make sure to dt coursework help abide by coursework, the official time limits so that you’re getting as realistic practice as possible. For Integrated Writing, this means you’ll have: Three minutes to read the passage About two minutes to read the a level dt coursework lecture transcript 20 minutes to info co uk plan and write a response. After you finish typing your essay on a computer, use our analysis of two high-scoring essays to help grade your response and give yourself a rough idea as to sd how you can improve your spelling, grammar, organization, time management, and a level dt coursework help, overall writing skills for the test.
Study.com offers one TOEFL Integrated Writing task, which you can access (mostly) via a free lesson preview. Included is an entire reading passage and lecture transcript—but no prompt, as that’s where the preview gets cut off. In reality, though, you don’t actually need a prompt since all Integrated tasks require you to do the cooking same thing: compare a lecture with a passage. Nonetheless, if you’d like to see the full TOEFL Integrated Writing lesson, you can make an dt coursework, account by signing up for a free five-day trial. Though TOEFL Resources doesn’t offer any original Integrated Writing tasks for presentation you to practice with, it does contain a large assortment of sample Integrated Writing essays, which you can compare with your own responses to get a better understanding of what a high-scoring TOEFL essay looks like. Many of this website’s sample essays are based on Integrated tasks from popular TOEFL prep books, including The Official Guide and Official TOEFL iBT Tests, so if you’ve got any of these and want to see more high-scoring sample responses, this resource is definitely helpful! What’s more, all sample essays were written by native English speakers, so you can be sure they’re grammatical and structurally solid. How to Prepare for a level dt coursework help TOEFL Integrated Writing: 6 Tips.
So far, we’ve gone over college all of the a level help major resources you can use to strengthen your TOEFL Integrated Writing practice. Now, let’s take a look at our top six tips to help you get the hooks yourself Integrated Writing score you want. #1: Strengthen Your Reading Listening Skills. Since you must read a passage and listen to an audio clip for the TOEFL Integrated Writing task, it’s important to hone your reading and listening skills in addition to a level dt coursework help your writing skills. To get better at reading, make sure you have a broad knowledge of essay, English vocabulary, particularly academic vocabulary. I recommend reading real-life newspapers and magazines, such as The New York Times and a level help, The Atlantic. Additionally, try reading introductory notes and paragraphs in university-level textbooks. For more tips on what to sd read, take a look at our guide to dt coursework help TOEFL Reading resources. As for hooks yourself listening practice, take time to listen to spoken English by watching YouTube videos and English news channels or listening to a level dt coursework help English podcasts. Some free, helpful resources for English-listening practice include VOA Learning English and college essay metaphors, EnglishClass101.
To do well on TOEFL Integrated Writing, you need to be a good writer. And to be a good writer, you need to write! One great way to practice writing in English is to write in a journal (almost) every day. A Level Dt Coursework. This allows you to development consistently practice your writing skills and learn how to write more quickly and with better grammar. Because you’ll be typing your Integrated essay on a level a computer, I recommend keeping a digital journal.
You can do this online through a free website called Lang-8. On this website, users write diary entries and essay cooking, other notes in a level, their target languages. These entries are then posted and corrected by native speakers of the target language. I myself have used Lang-8 many times while studying Japanese. All in reflective development, all, it’s an incredibly fun and supportive resource that also offers a convenient way to connect with others studying English like you. The best writers are those who can effectively connect their thoughts to a level make their writing compelling.
And one of the easiest ways to do this is to use transitions. Transitions are words and short phrases that connect ideas in writing (as well as in speech). Essay. They often come at the beginning of paragraphs and sentences and can be used to: Link similar ideas Contrast different ideas Emphasize ideas. We’ve compiled an extensive list of 54 transitions to use in a level help, your Integrated and Independent Writing essays. Briefly, though, here are some of the of animal testing most common transitions you should know: You can’t expect to do well on TOEFL Integrated Writing unless you actually sit down and a level dt coursework help, practice. This is why you should use the resources above (particularly the official ones) to reflective carve out a level dt coursework, time to practice answering TOEFL Integrated Writing questions.
Each time you practice, time yourself using the official time limits for coursework co uk Integrated Writing. A Level Dt Coursework Help. In other words, give yourself: Three minutes to read the passage About two minutes to info co uk read the lecture transcript (if not available as an audio clip) 20 minutes to plan and type your response. Once you’ve finished reading the passage and listening to the audio clip, begin to type your response on a computer. Although you may write out your response on paper, a computer is dt coursework preferable, as it more accurately recreates the essay cooking TOEFL test-taking experience. A Level Help. After you’ve completed a task, use the coursework info official Integrated Writing rubric to score yourself and determine what you did well—and what you could improve. If your Integrated task comes with any sample essays, use these to help score your response. A Level Dt Coursework Help. High-scoring essays can help you understand what specific details to include in your essay and what stylistic or structural features ultimately make an essay more compelling. If possible, ask a native English speaker to offer feedback on your practice essays as well. This will give you a more objective view of the overall strength and quality of your writing.
You’ll have scratch paper to use throughout the exam, so make sure to use it wisely on the Integrated Writing task, too. Since you’ll only get to hear the audio clip once, use your scratch paper to take notes as you listen. (You can reread the presentation sd passage, so you don’t need to take notes on dt coursework it.) As you listen, write down the main point of the lecture and any important terms, concepts, steps, or examples the professor mentions. Then, once your writing time begins, spend the hooks about first three minutes or so outlining your essay on your scratch paper. Try to jot down the three main points you want to discuss as well as any key details or examples you can use to illustrate them. Don’t get too elaborate with your outline—just get the dt coursework main points down and let the rest of the sd details come naturally as you write. We cover more TOEFL note-taking tips in our in-depth guide (coming soon).
#6: Follow a TOEFL Writing Template. Finally, if you’re worried about your ability to a level dt coursework coherently structure an essay, consider practicing with a TOEFL Writing template. A template offers you a basic framework to start with, which you can then modify to suit any Integrated Writing prompt. The benefits of presentation college sd, a template are numerous. For one, you’ll always have a sentence opener or transition to fall back on a level help in case you’re unsure what to write next, giving you more confidence on test day. You’ll also have a clearer idea as to how to structure your thoughts and will therefore spend less time worrying about your essay’s organization and flow. Recap: What Is TOEFL Integrated Writing? The TOEFL Integrated Writing task is the essay testing first of two Writing tasks. For this task, you must combine your reading, listening, and writing skills to a level dt coursework produce a compelling essay that compares a passage with a lecture on the same topic. In order to get a high score on TOEFL Integrated Writing, try to practice with high-quality resources.
Several official resources are free and offer a broad assortment of Integrated Writing prompts. Essay Metaphors. Unofficial TOEFL resources, too, can be helpful, though you’ll need to be careful with what you choose since most unofficial materials are not as reliable as official ones. As you prepare for TOEFL Integrated Writing, be sure to do many timed writing exercises and get feedback on your practice essays. You should also: Strengthen your reading and help, listening skills Keep an English journal to further hone your writing skills Memorize transitional words you can use in your essays Use scratch paper to hobby take notes on the audio clip and to dt coursework help outline your essay Consider practicing with an Integrated Writing template to presentation college sd help you feel more prepared for test day. Aiming for a high TOEFL Writing score? Read our guide to learn what a good TOEFL Writing score is (coming soon), and then get a rundown of everything you need to a level know in order to ace the TOEFL Writing section. Looking for coursework co uk more general TOEFL tips? Learn how to prepare for the TOEFL with our eight expert tips. Ready to improve your TOEFL score by 15 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to dt coursework have a shot at improving your score.
Download it for essay on personal free now: Hannah graduated summa cum laude from the University of Southern California with a bachelor’s degree in a level, English and of animal testing, East Asian languages and a level dt coursework help, cultures. After graduation, she taught English in hooks for essays yourself, Japan for a level dt coursework help two years via the JET Program. She is info co uk passionate about education, writing, and travel. View all posts by a level dt coursework help, Hannah Muniz. Get FREE tips to start mastering the TOEFL today. Join our Facebook TOEFL Study Group! Read Our Top 10 Favorite TOEFL Guides. Applying to US Schools (6) English Language Learning (3) TOEFL General Info (26) TOEFL Listening (3) TOEFL Logistics (5) TOEFL Prep (18) TOEFL Reading (4) TOEFL Speaking (6) TOEFL Writing (7) © PrepScholar 2013-2017.
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analysis and essays How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the a level types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear?
W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). Good Essay. He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for a level, the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer.
You can breathe easy on that one. Presentation. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to help say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of essay development your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is dt coursework help a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an essay hobby overview of your response to the essay question. This is a level dt coursework a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to essay hobby the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of help wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is essay no better way to begin an essay than like this.
From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the a level dt coursework help author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of essay a good essay?
Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . A Level Help. The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and good college metaphors one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the help text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . Hooks For Essays. So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . A Level Dt Coursework Help. It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of coursework violence in Romeo and Juliet is a level shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. Essay Hobby Cooking. It's what the essay goes on a level help, to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and essay reasonable to hold . A Level. Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is co uk crucial to take on help, board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title.
There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to essay metaphors an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there#39;s no getting away from dt coursework that. Not least, this is essay of animal because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and a level dt coursework your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to presentation college sd write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is dt coursework sound . It is these early sentences that provide the essay metaphors major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction.
Importantly, you need to help set a confident tone early on info, in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is help everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of reflective essay on personal any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the a level help essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Good Hooks Yourself. Avoid this by opening each and a level dt coursework help every paragraph in reflective development a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in a level these body paragraphs. Essay Hobby. This is where you restate, in a level help a different form, your opening argument and hobby give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and a level help relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the presentation quotation's literary and linguistic content . A Level Dt Coursework Help. However, with a central and good essay guiding argument starting off and dt coursework flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points.
Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the of animal testing P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. Dt Coursework Help. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an coursework info co uk effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the dt coursework help reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. Hooks For Essays. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. A Level Dt Coursework Help. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the hobby cooking reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. Dt Coursework Help. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the hobby cooking essay on dt coursework, track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle!
What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is good about easier to dt coursework help generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and presentation college sd support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of what is a level dt coursework help called the body paragraphs of good hooks for essays about your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and a level dt coursework Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. College Sd. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is a level dt coursework help shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an presentation college effective essay but with luck, the help above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations.
The first is for essays yourself from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and help Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in presentation college complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the help Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the reflective essay on personal development essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. A Level Dt Coursework Help. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well.
You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . College. Many essay writers fail to a level dt coursework help create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about.
This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to essay metaphors be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to a level dt coursework support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to essay of animal testing try to use at help, least one quotation - or reference to the text - per coursework info co uk, paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to a level choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and college sd as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. Dt Coursework. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is essay of animal called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is help asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement.
2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and presentation sd quotations that can be used to a level help support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the college sd aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . Dt Coursework. 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. Essay Testing. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to a level help make clear your thesis statement - response to coursework info co uk the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of a level view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Info. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to a level dt coursework add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay.
This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an essay of animal testing overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the dt coursework text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the college essay metaphors essay question. Giving a succinct account of the dt coursework big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and info co uk digested the detail of three key aspects of the help essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the essay hobby best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into help, your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the presentation sd author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for a level dt coursework help, this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the hobby author's uses of the English language and literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of a level help context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to college essay metaphors introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author.
Saying that Shakespeare is help 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the presentation essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C.
For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the a level help text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is of animal testing developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action.
You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in a level the quotation; this means discussing, for presentation college sd, example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and a level the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of good for essays about yourself P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). Dt Coursework. 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. Essay Hobby Cooking. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an dt coursework help effective structure to their text - and loses marks!
6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to essay on personal an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the a level dt coursework help topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an presentation college sd idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to dt coursework sound convincing and authoritative . Essay. It's crucial to dt coursework help keep the hooks conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at dt coursework help, all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Of Animal Testing. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in help Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene.
It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the essay highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of a level dt coursework help it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the for essays yourself importance of form to a level dt coursework a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK.
Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the cooking way the writing is a level received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of good hooks form by writing in sentences and a level dt coursework help paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the hobby cooking effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the help use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in reflective essay development non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the a level dt coursework help use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of essay of animal testing a line, or by a level help rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by adding illustrations and photographs , and presentation college so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and a level help so on.
A playwright, of coursework course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. A Level Dt Coursework Help. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the coursework info co uk actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on a level dt coursework, - all potentially important formal aspects of the coursework info co uk play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to a level dt coursework the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . Good College Metaphors. This is its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the dt coursework author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'.
This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). Presentation. The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. A Level Help. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over presentation sd, the character's mind. In this way the a level darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Hooks About. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of dt coursework help which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to presentation hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing.
Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and dt coursework witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of good essay language. A Level Help. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the hobby reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of a level meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the development original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a level dt coursework help a key reading skill to be able to hobby cooking detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. A Level Help. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'.
This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in good for essays order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of dt coursework her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of coursework co uk writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on a level help, the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and presentation college sd language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to a level help one that is hobby more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of a level dt coursework help their own that is hobby cooking quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and help William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'.
Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. Essay Testing. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and dt coursework contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in hobby this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to a level dt coursework give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about presentation sd both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to dt coursework create a central argument , one in college essay metaphors which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point.
This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the a level two.
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A* GCSE Coursework Example 2 - SlideShare
essays of elias Norbert Elias: On the Monopoly Mechanism. By Frank W. Elwell. There is a parallel structural process at work that, beginning in the Middle Ages, led to a level help, the formation of states and the eventual monopoly of these states over the means of violence and taxation. The rise of the essay hobby state brings about a dramatic change in social structure that has far reaching consequences upon social life. Before the state, the individual had to be constantly fearful of physical attack, destruction, or confiscation of property. With the establishment of a stable monopoly of force and taxation, life becomes more predictable for the individual, more amenable to planning, deferred gratification, and rational conduct. Elias believes that it is the rise of the monetary economy that gives kings and princes a gradually growing advantage in their struggles to wrest power from petty feudal lords. And this gradual centralization, bringing more and a level dt coursework help more territory, wealth, and power to an increasing absolutist monarchy, eventually transforms the West, bringing about the rise of civilization (188).
Under feudal conditions, the upper class consisted of independent warrior knights on their own estates who owed but loose allegiance to any central authority. In the good college metaphors course of time, these independent warriors situated on manors and a level estates gradually lost their independence and were reduced to dependent courtiers. That this was a structural process and not the result of historical accident is attested to by the fact that it occurs across Europe at roughly the presentation college sd same time; that we speak of the “age of a level, absolutism” (188). Nor is it a coincidence, Elias says, that it roughly parallels the civilization process itself, which was closely “linked to good for essays about, the formation of the dt coursework hierarchical social order with the reflective essay on personal absolute ruler and, more broadly, his court at its head” (188). For the formation of the absolutist court demanded a change in the behavior, drives, and emotions of former warrior nobility; to retain standing, successful nobility had to civilize their behavior to a level help, come into line with their dependence on the central ruler.
How did this increased constraint and dependence come about? How was an upper class of relatively independent warriors or knights supplanted by a more or less pacified upper class of courtiers? Why was the influence of the estates progressively reduced in the course of the Middle Ages and the early modern period, and why, sooner or later, was the dictatorial “absolute” rule of a single figure, and with it the compulsion of presentation college sd, courtly etiquette, the pacification of large or smaller territories from a single centre, established for a greater or lesser period of time in all the a level help countries of Europe? The sociogenesis [social origin] of absolutism indeed occupies a key position in the overall process of civilization. The civilizing of conduct and the corresponding transformation of the structure of mental and emotional life cannot be understood without tracing the process of state-formation, and within it the advancing centralization of of animal testing, society which first found particularly visible expression in the absolutist form of rule (191). Like a true Weberian, Elias believes that there are a number of factors behind the rise of the state. First and foremost, he believes the a level dt coursework rise of the money economy at the expense of barter is the most important factor.
This weakened the essay of animal feudal lords who existed on fixed rents, and strengthened the middle class merchants and artisans who produced and traded wealth as well as the help central ruler whose tax system gave him a share in the growing economy (192). A second structural change that favors centralization concerns changes in military power. Under feudalism, you will recall, vassals (including the nobility) were obligated to give the central ruler military service in return for their estates. As the economy grew, central rulers had funds to reflective essay on personal development, raise, equip, and maintain armies, growing less and less dependent upon the services of their feudal warriors (192). At the same time, there were changes in military techniques that changed the character of warfare and further devalued the services of the help nobility. Presentation Sd. These techniques included the development of mass infantry which again was advantageous to the central ruler (192-193). The nobility, Elias reports, lost their monopoly on a level dt coursework weapons and soldiering, and this monopoly passed into the hands of a single ruler (193). In addition to these structural developments that promoted the rise of the state, there is one other that Elias believes is important enough to describe in some detail. This is the essay testing rise of the bourgeois classes. The wealth and power of these classes was also dependent upon the rise of the money economy.
There was constant tension between the help traditional nobility and these classes. Presentation College. While the tensions and conflicts varied between societies and over dt coursework help time, centralized rulers quickly learned to exploit these tensions and interest groups, supporting one for a time and then the other, to neutralize and prevent either from gaining too much power and becoming a true rival to essay of animal, the ruler and the absolute state (194). Finally, there were several developments in technology that also promoted centralization and a level the rise of the good yourself state. These technological changes included the slow development of a level dt coursework, firearms that gave massed infantry advantage over a few nobles fighting on horseback (192); advances in bureaucratic organization that enabled efficient rule (239); and advances in communication and transportation which allowed centralized authority to effectively rule over ever larger areas (238-239). Another way of looking at these technological and college structural factors that promoted the rise of the state is to look at them as factors that change the balance between the a level forces of centralization and decentralization. Good For Essays About Yourself. The rise of the monetary economy promotes centralization by replacing land ownership as the dt coursework help dominant form of wealth. As long as land is wealth, processes of centralization and decentralization (feudalization) alternate: military competition among small estates in a given region for dominance (more land, wealth, and power), eventual supremacy by one lord who then dominates many warriors, and then a wave of college essay metaphors, decentralization as that lord and dt coursework his descendants allocate estates to their supporters and warriors to start the process anew (313). The rise of metaphors, a monetary economy, and the creation of wealth from manufacture and trade, breaks this cycle. The development of firearms and mass armies, bureaucracy, transportation, and communication has a similar effect on the forces of centralization versus decentralization, allowing kingdoms and states to grow ever larger and more powerful. This is the heart of Elias’s theory—the engine of social change that has been operating throughout history but has been finally unleashed by this change in the balance of forces between centralization and decentralization: the monopoly mechanism.
The Monopoly Mechanism. In attempting to grasp the general monopoly mechanism, readers should keep in mind the discussion of state formation appearing above, or, alternatively, the formation of economic monopolies under capitalism. As previously stated, with the evolution of modernity, the nation state has achieved a monopoly on the tax monies and the use of force within a given area—in fact the modern state can be defined as just such a monopoly over a given area (268). The formation of the state with its monopoly on force makes possible restricted economic competition within its area of control, which makes the operation of the a level monopoly mechanism among economic units inevitable (277; 303-304). Though the resulting competition is constrained and excludes the use of college, force, the mechanism itself works the same. The mechanism of monopoly, according to Elias, operates whenever there are a number of a level dt coursework help, social units of roughly equal social power competing for of animal scarce resources—usually, Elias adds, the help means of production. In such a competitive situation, it is inevitable that there will eventually be winners and losers. The winners will then dominate more of these resources and continue to compete with other units that have won their struggles; the losers will be eliminated from the competition, eventually becoming dependent upon the ever-decreasing number of victors. Eventually as the struggle continues, there will be single winner or unit upon which all are dependent, a system of essay, free competition will have been replaced by a monopoly which then allocates all opportunities and resources (269). Now, Elias continues, in a level dt coursework help, the course of this movement, the monopoly mechanism transforms relatively independent social positions into highly dependent positions—free knights and warriors into courtiers, or independent merchants into employees [or in the case of info co uk, Wal-Mart, associates] (270). In this process, the personality and affect structure of these people—their emotions, drives, attitudes, and beliefs—are also transformed.  The attitudes, emotions, beliefs, skills, and a level dt coursework drives that make a knight successful in medieval society are far different from presentation college, those of a courtier.
Rather than physical strength and combat skills, his success is now dependent upon resources and opportunities to be dispensed from the prince; he must now practice restraint, and subordinate his own desires and needs to his lords’. “The means of struggle have been refined or sublimated. The restraint of the affects imposed on the individual by help, his dependence on the monopoly ruler has increased” (274). The civilizing process has been advanced. And this is true for those who dominate as well as those who have become dependent (270). For the coursework info co uk monopoly mechanism does not stop here. It is not the case that the monopoly evolves to help, a point of absolute rule by a single unit or individual and all change then ceases to operate. As the number of dependent individuals rises, their power vis--vis the monopolist increases.
This occurs both because of their sheer numbers and because the monopolist must employ people to help fully exploit their monopoly position. “The more comprehensive the monopolized power potential, the larger the web of functionaries administering it and the greater the division of labour among them; in short, the more people on whose work or function the good essay monopoly is in any way dependent, the a level help more strongly does this whole field controlled by about, the monopolist assert its own weight and its own inner regularities” (270-271). A Level Help. As the monopoly continues to develop over the centuries, there is a concurrent increase in the division of labor and the monopolist comes to coordinate the actions of many functionaries; he becomes almost as dependent on these other functionaries as they are on him. Over time, resources are increasingly distributed on a more egalitarian basis to these functionaries—first, say, to administrators, then to lower strata functionaries of the organization. Good Hooks For Essays. The private monopoly becomes one that serves a far broader social stratum (271). And this movement, Elias claims, “…is nothing other than a function of a level dt coursework help, social interdependence” (273). A monopoly with a high division of labor, he believes, will inevitably move toward a state of equilibrium in which income and advantages from the monopoly will have to be distributed on a more equitable basis than to just those at the top—even to the “advantage” of the about yourself whole figuration. Again, this is true of the state as well as economic monopolies; Elias does not detail any possible limits to the process.
Restricted conflict and dt coursework help competition over the distribution of resources within the monopoly occurs. College Sd. Sometimes the process is reversed for dt coursework help a time, but the long-term process is toward an equitable distribution of resources for all (273-274). This can be seen, Elias says, with the good hooks about yourself state and its passage from the rule of absolute monarchs to dt coursework help, democracy, as well as the evolution of single-owner economic concerns and their passage to corporate structures which allocate their resources now to numerous groups of stockholders, corporate officers, administrators, employed professionals, and eventually to skilled and unskilled workers. Within a monopoly, distribution changes from a private affair in good college essay, which the vast majority of resources of the figuration go to the monopolist, into a public monopoly in which resources are allocated to the figuration as a whole. This can only reach its full development, Elias adds, in societies with a high division of labor (276). Elias details some change in the institutions by which the a level dt coursework help civilizing process is accomplished. The civilizing process first occurs through the pressure of those of upper class rank on of animal their contemporaries and then on their inferiors. In this stage, the rules of basic conduct were often written in etiquette books or repeated in aphorisms and doggerel, becoming a more or less conscious part of court society.
The rules of conduct were transmitted from above to the classes below. With the rise of the middle classes, this courtly behavior lost some of its force, and some of the behavior patterns of the bourgeoisie (particularly those involving money and sex) were merged with courtly behavior codes to become the new standard (440). As the middle and a level dt coursework help industrial classes gained ascendancy, the civilization process was accomplished through gradual changes in the socialization of youth that would instill a sense of personal shame and embarrassment regarding socially proscribed behavior (116-117). It is not until this second stage, when the family becomes the dominant institution responsible for civilizing the essay metaphors child, that such rules of conduct are internalized at an early age, often thought of (if at all) as “second nature.” But it is not the case that the socialization process itself was changed, Elias states. The family was and remained the primary socialization agent for children, and the supervision of youth became no more rigorous as we approach modern times. Nor has the process itself been reconstituted along rational or more deliberative lines. It is still accomplished in the same haphazard manner, where the socially patterned habits and rules of the parents passed early on to the children, with only slight modification over the generations (159). But through the years, the civilized rules and behaviors instilled through the a level dt coursework help socialization of children incrementally changed to incorporate the new civilized standards of behavior, as well as the feelings of shame, embarrassment, satisfaction, and pleasure associated with these standards (109). Elias seems to be is coursework info co uk ignoring the a level dt coursework role of the school here. Arising in the Middle Ages, mass education has increasingly expanded its role in the socialization process, now including sex education, nutrition, driver education, and a host of attitudes and behaviors that used to be the exclusive province of the family.
As the family is a very conservative institution highly resistant to change, and the schools are very responsive to government regulation as well as other formal institutions that make up the structure of any society, one would expect the essay hobby civilizing process to advance rapidly as schools took over more and more of the socialization function. Elias remarks that because the a level dt coursework civilizing process is now accomplished through childhood socialization, a large gulf now exists between the behavior of adults and children. This gulf did not exist in medieval times. He points out that even though they were economically and socially dependent upon adults, children’s habits, dress, emotional life, and behavior were far closer to adult standards (and adult standards closer to the child’s). Further, adults did not attempt to protect children from the ways of the world to the same degree. In keeping with the state of the civilizing process itself, sex, violence, and intimacy were more freely expressed and thus more open for children to good college essay metaphors, see (147-148). Help. Consequently, as the civilizing process changes social structures, it becomes internalized in co uk, individuals through consequent socialization, and there is a growing gap between the behavior and affects (emotions) of adults and children through time, and there is an increasing segregation and a lengthening of childhood as well. Recognition of these changes is critical in understanding earlier personality structure as well as those in a level dt coursework help, our own time (148).
Individuals have not developed in the same manner through history; the socialization process varies across societies and through time (153-154). Postman picks up on this theme from Elias and cites his work approvingly. Unlike Elias, however, Postman attributes the increasing gulf between adults and essay hobby cooking children since Medieval society to the spread of dt coursework help, literacy, thus enabling adults to keep secrets from children—sexuality, violence, human deprivation—until they are old enough to master complex literacy skills. He also believes that television and other forms of graphic media are increasingly closing this gap (and consequently changing what it is to be an essay, adult as well). As we approach modernity, more and more of the civilizing process is given over to early childhood socialization. Consequently, children have to internalize the complex standards of behavior within a very short period of help, time. Essay Of Animal Testing. Their drives and urges must be channeled into the socially approved forms of expression; their behavior molded, shame and revulsion associated with their ability to uphold these standards (as well as the ability of a level dt coursework help, those around them) and made part of the self. “In this the parents are only the (often inadequate) instruments, the primary agents of conditioning; through them and co uk thousands of other instruments it is always society as a whole, the entire figuration of human beings, that exerts its pressure on the new generation, forming them more or less perfectly” (119). It is through this process that the help distance between the behavior of adults and children is increased, to coursework info co uk, the point that “only children were still allowed…to behave as adults did in the Middle Ages” (124). The primary mechanism for molding the child is fear. As the source of a level, fears within a society change, so changes the code of conduct demanded of presentation college, its members (441-442). The dominant fear in Western societies was of one person for a level another.
As the state gains a monopoly on physical violence, this fear diminishes and “indirect or internalized fears increase proportionately” (442). Not only does the type of presentation college, fear change, Elias claims, but also the frequency, oscillation, and intensity of that fear. Here as everywhere, the structure of fears and a level dt coursework help anxieties is nothing other than the coursework co uk psychological counterpart of the constraints which people exert on a level dt coursework help one another through the intertwining of their activities. Fears form one of the channels—and one of the college metaphors most important—through which the a level dt coursework help structure of society is transmitted to individual psychological functions. The driving force underlying the reflective essay development change in dt coursework help, drive economy, in the structure of fears and anxieties, is a very specific change in the social constraints acting on the individual, a specific transformation of the whole web of relationships, above all the organization of force (442). Again, these fears are not inborn; they are determined by the social structure and the individual’s role within that structure, by the web of testing, relationships in which the individual is entwined. As the social structure changes, social constraints change as does the individual. These fears are instilled within the child during the a level socialization process. They are indispensable in guiding human behavior; they are indispensable in becoming human.
Once instilled in childhood they are internalized and function automatically (442-443). Children come into the world as malleable, and their personalities and behaviors are molded through fear to coursework info co uk, conform with prevailing social standards. “And human-made fears and anxieties from within or without finally hold even the adult in help, their power. Shame, fear of war and fear of God, guilt, fear of punishment or of loss of social prestige, man’s fear of himself, of being overcome by college, his own affective impulses, all these are directly or indirectly induced in a level dt coursework, a person by other people. Their strength, their form and the role they play in the individual’s personality depend on the structure of his society and his or her fate within it” (443). The civilizing process is ongoing, the direction set by state formation, economic concentration, and the consequent division of labor. With the formation of the state, a monopoly on violence and taxation is gained, thus setting the stage for economic competition free from raw aggression and confiscation. Presentation College Sd. Economic competition, of course, leads to concentration and eventual monopoly, causing the masses to become dependent upon huge organizations for their livelihoods, and the skills, attitudes, and a level dt coursework help behavior needed to hobby, become successful become refined and restrained.
Economic and political monopoly leads to the growth in the division of labor and a greater dependence of individuals upon a level dt coursework, one another. Cooking. “As more and more people must attune their conduct to that of others, the web of action must be organized more and more strictly and accurately, if each individual action is to fulfill its social function. Individuals are compelled to regulate their conduct in an increasingly differentiated, more even and more stable manner” (367). For this reason, social control becomes internalized, surrounded by shame and help fear (367-368). The structural changes of political and economic concentration combine to essay testing, cause a comprehensive change in the character of the men and women who inhabit the society, a change in drive structure and affect, a change in the whole personality. The competition among states and economic units within states continues to a level help, fuel the monopoly mechanism, with the essay hobby division of labor a consequence of dt coursework, organizational growth. Elias is emphatic that one cannot reduce the process to “economic” or “political” motivation alone.
Rather, monopolies of political and economic power are intertwined, sometimes explicitly coordinated, sometimes not. Essay Development. Elias rejects the Marxist interpretation that all can be reduced to an economic infrastructure, but he does not believe it is purely political either. It is the same monopoly mechanism that is dt coursework help transforming economic and political organizations; it is the growth of these monopolies that are transforming social structures and thus social life (437). Merchants and corporations are driven to expand their enterprise both for economic gain and fear that competing firms will grow larger and eventually put them out of business. Good Hooks Yourself. In the same manner, Elias claims, competing states are driven to expand their power and influence, despite the good will and dt coursework help yearnings for peace of many individuals (437). “The competitive tension between states, given the pressures which our social structure brings with it, can be resolved only after a long series of violent or non-violent trials of strength have established monopolies of force, and central organizations for larger dominions, within which many smaller ones, ‘states’, can grow together in college metaphors, a more balanced unit. Here, indeed, the compelling forces of social interweaving have led the transformation of Western society in one and the same direction from the a level dt coursework help time of utmost feudal disintegration to the present” (438).
And it shows no sign of stopping in essay testing, the foreseeable future. But recall, the a level dt coursework monopoly mechanism does not stop with the establishment of the monopoly. While the monopoly begins by granting all benefits to a few based on hereditary connections, this allocation of resources creates tensions and pressures for essay a more equitable redistribution of monopoly benefits. Monopolies also bring in dt coursework help, their wake a more refined division of labor; functionaries and professionals are needed to administer and coordinate the activities. As the division of labor increases, societies become much more sensitive to these inequalities, and the functionaries become more numerous and more powerful. Tension and eventually conflict between the college essay monopolist and the many continue to grow. Ultimately, these tensions can only be resolved by breaking the control of the monopolist in the name of the many (439). And this, according to Elias, is true for both political (states) and economic monopolies. Monopoly formation will continue well into the foreseeable future. States will continue to engage in wars in the struggle to establish monopolies of force over ever larger areas of the earth (445).
The process will necessarily continue until the struggle is for the establishment of a global monopoly of force, a single world government (445-446). And then the process continues, as the struggle for state monopoly benefits shift from the arena of physical force to the more controlled and refined competition of the civilized. And the a level dt coursework help same holds true for the economic order as well. Economic monopolies will continue to enlarge and centralize; struggles for their benefits will escalate between functionaries within these organizations, as well as between the rest of society and reflective the organization itself. A Level Dt Coursework Help. In both economic and political spheres, the monopoly mechanism is inexorable, moving toward expansion and centralization, and then toward consolidation, democracy, and equality. “What cannot be decided in advance, however, is how long the ensuing struggle will take” (439).
 Mills also makes this point regarding the transition of professionals and independent merchants to employees quite forcefully ( 1973, x-xiii). For a more extensive discussion of Elias’s theories refer to Macro Social Theory by good essay, Frank W. Elwell. Also see Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change to learn how his insights contribute to a more complete understanding of modern societies. Elias, N. Help. (1968/2000). Postscript. In N. Elias, The Civilizing Process (pp. 449-483).
Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1939/2000). The Civilizing Process. (E. Dunning, J. Goudsblom, S. Mennel, Eds., E. Jephcott, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1998). The Norbert Elias Reader. (J. Goudsblom, S. Mennell, Eds., E. Hobby. Jephcott, R. van Krieken, J. Goudsblom, S. Mennel, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1970/1978). What is Sociology? New York: Columbia University. Elwell, F. W. 2009.
Macrosociology: The Study of dt coursework help, Sociocultural Systems . Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. Elwell, F. W. 2006. Macrosociology: Four Modern Theorists. Testing. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers. Elwell, F. W. 2013. Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change.
Alberta: Athabasca University Press. To reference The Sociology of Norbert Elias you should use the following format: