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Essay/Term paper: The count of monte cristo: revenge. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the 2013 guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on World Literature: The Count Of Monte Cristo: Revenge , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. The Story of Edmond Dantes, the essay my sons arthur miller Sailor, who Becomes the Rich Powerful Count of. Monte Cristo and Takes Revenge on all his Enemies. relation to their specific ambitions. Edmond is sent to jail due to no essay 2013, his. enemies' jealousy. After he escapes he becomes rich and powerful and gets back.
at them. Before I relate to research conference, you how Dantes gets back at his enemies I would. like to familiarize you with the story. No Essay 2013? The story describes the can torture be justified life of its main character Edmond Dantes. He is. Scholarships 2013? promoted to captain of his ship. Advances? This promotion ignites the jealousy of his. No Essay 2013? fellow shipmate Danglars.
Dantes is then falsely accused of being a Bonapartist. This means he sides with Napoleon Bonaparte and advances conservation research conference is committing treason against. his own king. He is sent to a prison called the Chateau d'If. The Chateau d'If. No Essay Scholarships? was surrounded by water and was known as a place of no return. When Dantes. escapes, he takes revenge against his four enemies who conspired against him to. send him to prison, in the manner of an eye for and eye.
These four. conspirators are Danglars, Caderousse, Fernand Mondago, and Villefort. In order. to take revenge on his four enemies, Dantes uses a variety of names and. disguises. The main new identity he uses for himself is The Count of penalty research, Monte. Danglars, as mentioned above, was the Count's shipmate when his name was. still Edmond Dantes. No Essay Scholarships? When Edmond went to jail, Danglars ran away and essay on all my sons arthur miller became. very rich. Caderousse was a tailor. He was also the no essay 2013 Count's father's landlord. and once the count was sent to prison, Caderousse allowed Dantes' father to. starve to death. Fernand Mondago was in a general resume love with the count's fiancee Merc?des.
When the Count was sent to jail Fernand married her on the pretext that the. count would not return. These three enemies all got together one night and were. all responsible for writing an incriminating letter about the Count to no essay scholarships 2013, his. fourth enemy, Monsieur De Villefort, who was the city's temporary prosecutor at. the time. He was responsible for the actual sending of the on all arthur miller Count to prison. After the Count escaped from prison, he discovered that all his enemies. No Essay Scholarships? had moved to Paris. Writing Cover Letter For A? He became acquainted with people from that city and. eventually moved there so that he could have his revenge.
The revenge taken on. Danglars matches the crime which he committed toward the Count. When Danglars. wrote the incriminating letter about the Count, calling him a Bonapartist, his. intention was to get the Count's position as Captain of the ship for scholarships, himself. This shows how power hungry he was. In order for the Count to take proper. revenge on this man, he recalled Danglars's great lust for power and decided to. gradually diminish Danglars' wealth. This in turn made Danglars lose his. reputation as a good banker.
As a result, Danglars had to run away from the. embarrassment of losing all of his power and high stature. We see the same concept of 'an eye for death penalty research, and eye' played out in the Count's. revenge toward Caderousse. When the Count escaped from jail he remembered what. a love for money Caderousse had. Therefore he brought Caderousse a diamond. When an appraiser came to Caderousse's house, he paid for the diamond and then. stayed for 2013, the night. In middle of the night Caderousse killed the appraiser. and took both the diamond and the money paid for it.
He was caught and. sentenced to hard labor in prison. The Count chose this form of revenge because. he knew that Caderousse could not resist the temptation of extra money. The. Count punished him in poor this fashion because Caderousse took away all the money. that Dantes left for his father. This loss of money caused Dantes' father to. starve to death.
The Count understood Caderousse's greed and scholarships punished him. The Count took revenge on Fernand Mondego by causing his wife Merc?des and. son Albert to leave home. To do this, the Count introduced Albert to. Danglars's daughter. The couple became engaged. Poor? A few days before the wedding. was to take place, Danglars asked the Count for information about Fernand. The. Count told him to send a letter to where Fernand worked as guard for the Ali. Pasha.
When Danglars received a reply to his letter, the news spread quickly. that Fernand was a traitor and let the scholarships enemy become victorious. The Pasha. entrusted Fernand with his wife and daughter. Poor Parenting? Fernand sold them indirectly to. the Count. The main point of this punishment was to make Merc?des and Albert. leave Fernand. This punishment relates to Fernand's ambitions because the scholarships Count. Essay My Sons Miller? thought about how back in Marseilles Fernand took away his family (Merc?des and. his father). In getting his revenge, the Count causes Fernand to lose his. No Essay? Villefort was a loyalist, His father was a Bonapartist. He was always. trying to get the in paper conservation conference favor of the King so that he could get an even higher position. One way to accomplish this task was to find Bonapartists and put them in jail. Villefort sent the Count to jail only because the latter knew that Villefort's. father was a Bonapartist. When he sent the Count to prison he thought he was. covering up his secret about his father for 2013, good by burying the Count in the Cha. teau d'If.
Then the Count reappeared. In his revenge toward Villefort, the. Count uncovered a secret which Villefort thought was literally buried many years. ago. The Count discovered the letter resume secret of an no essay, illegitimate child which had been. born of writing a general for a resume, a union between Villefort and Madame Danglars. Villefort had buried the. child alive, but someone had rescued him.
The Count of Monte Cristo disgraced. Villefort by revealing the secret of his illegitimate child to no essay scholarships, the public. This. method of revenge was symbolic. Villefort thought he had buried the disgrace of. his dead son forever. He also thought he had buried the secret of his father, the Bonapartist, by sending Edmond Dantes, the one who knew his secret, to the. Chateau d'If. Edmond came back from the dead as did Villefort's son. We see from this story that it is not wise to take revenge. It is up to G- d to decide what each person deserves. In our story, a man named Edmond Dantes. On All My Sons Arthur? thought it wise to take revenge on his enemies.
He took revenge on each person. in a way that related to the way they originally conspired against him. However, at the end, instead of feeling good about no essay 2013, himself, he felt confused. On the one. hand he got back at his enemies, but on thesis of i the other hand, he lost the affection of. Merc?des, whom he loved. He then recognized that if a person does take revenge. into his own hands, G-d now has a way of punishing him.
Edmond Dantes ruined. everyone who hurt him and in the process, he ruined himself.
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overeating essay All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. In the past, the rate of obesity was low. However, currently, the rate of obesity has increased worldwide. This increase in obesity is attributed to change of lifestyles among people. People want to live a very comfortable life. No Essay. This has made them change their diets; most people opting for fast foods and junk foods that contain a lot of poor, calories. Furthermore, they are over-engaged with work, which hinder them to participate in physical exercise. Television and other forms of media have played a big role in spreading propaganda about fast foods, which has increased their level of consumption. The government and other stakeholders have a responsibility of ensuring that the effects brought about by these ads are mitigated.
The costs incurred through treatment of obesity is enormous and therefore a burden to providers and the government. Many people have lost their lives due to obesity. Various conditions and diseases have emerged because of the changing lifestyle of scholarships, people. Penalty. Obesity/overweight is one of the health complications that many people are facing. Obesity is a health condition where excess body fats accumulate in no essay the body of an death paper, individual. This accumulation of body fats has adverse effects on no essay scholarships, health and may shorten the thesis of i, life expectancy of an individual. An individual is considered obese when the body mass index is above 30kg/m2 (Centers for 2013 disease control and prevention para. 2).
Body mass index is measured by dividing the weight of an individual in terms of kilograms with the height of the person in meters. Obesity is one of the preventive diseases and one of the leading causes of deaths in adults as well as children in thesis am charlotte the 21st century. No Essay Scholarships 2013. It has also caused most serious public health issues in my sons arthur the world. The diseases prevalence is scholarships 2013 increasing because of the changing lifestyles among the people. For instance, it is estimated that more than one-third of the American citizens averaging to of i am charlotte simmons 35.7 percent suffer from obese (Centers for scholarships 2013 disease control and prevention para. 2). Thesis Simmons. Obesity causes diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke and other cancer related diseases. The cost associated with treatment of cancer is high and in 2008, the medical costs associated with treatments of obesity averaged 147 US billion dollars (Centers for disease control and prevention para. 4). Obesity is also associated with people coming from high socio-economic status.
The high-income families have different eating habits. They mostly consume fatty foods, which are rich in high levels of cholesterol, which causes them to become obese. Obesity has become a big challenge in the society. The reason for my decision to discuss about no essay 2013 obesity is its health implication to the society. The disease is preventive but it kills many people. There is need for society to take their own initiatives to ensure that they prevent diseases resulting from obese. Furthermore, my personal experience and encounter with individuals suffering from these health problems has increased my interest to study the area and find out more about it. I also wanted to educate and inform the society on the best approaches to prevent the disease.
Society has the responsibility of ensuring that their health status is good. Many people are ignorant on causes of obesity, which is a great factor that has contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. Overeating and consumption of junk food is high and people like such food because of easy accessibility. I am contended that this topic will interest the readers. The audience the paper targets include parents and children from different social economic backgrounds. On All My Sons. The problem of obese is becoming a challenge in the society and therefore, there is need for all people in the society to be aware of the causes and no essay scholarships the ways of preventing such disease.
Even though obese was confused with healthy and wealthy, this was a misconception because the health of a person is not determined on the weights or body mass of the be justified, individual. Therefore, this discussion is aimed at scholarships 2013 countering these misconceptions, cultural beliefs that misinformed the society on the actual causes of obesity. Therefore, this discussion will play a vital role in transforming the behaviors of the society in terms of their choice of food and many other areas that may put their health in jeopardy due to obesity (Centers for essay on all arthur disease control and prevention para. 3). Overeating/obesity is no essay caused by overeating and feeding on foods rich in high contents of cholesterol and fats. Various researches have established many likely causes of obesity. The most prominent cause of obesity is eating/consuming a lot of foods that are rich in cholesterol and calories. Intake of foods rich in fatty or cholesterol plays a very high role in increased prevalence of obesity. Many cases of obesity were associated with developed nations but this has spread to the developing countries.
People in developing countries are emulating eating habits of people from the West. Mass media and technology has contributed in changing of lifestyle of people and especially in eating habits. Junk food and fast food are on high demand. Most parents, especially those with high income and those in middle-income levels, are fond of buying these foods for their children and even themselves. Thesis Am Charlotte Simmons. Amidst intensive awareness on the effects of these foods, people have clinched on them in the euphoria of changing to new living styles. They continue to overeat and buy these foods. For instance, in 1984, 14% of the US population was obese compared to the current 35.7 percent. The number of people becoming obese is increasing on daily basis.
The rate of consumption of calories among women in the U.S increased from 1542 per day in no essay 2013 1971 to 1877 by 2004, while in men, it increased from 2450 in 1971 to 2618 in the year 2004. The increase in the number of obese people is not always attributed to the high intake of fats as many people think. Most people in the U.S who became obese had high intake of carbohydrates and parenting essays sugary foods such as sweets and drinks as well as fast foods. In the case of the U.S, increased consumption of carbohydrates and sweets due to high commercial advertisements that run on various medias is a contribution factor that has caused rapid increase in obesity cases. These commercial ads appeal to many people; and especially children who develop interest in fast foods and 2013 sweets (New Statesman 6). I have also discovered that sedimentary lifestyles that people lead contribute to in paper research conference the increasing rates of obesity. People are gaining weights without their knowledge. The invention of no essay scholarships 2013, technology and improved living standards has contributed to increase in weight in individuals (New Statesman 6).
The arrival of parenting essays, videogames, television computers, remote controls, dishwashers, washing machines and other machines have changed the way people live. The way people are living currently is different from the way our parents and grand parents used to live. This has made people lazy and because of not engaging their body in exercises, their bodies cannot burn calories. No Essay 2013. This makes them become overweight. Parenting. Nowadays shopping has also changed. People can order goods and get the delivered at the comfort of their home.
They do not have to walk to the shops to purchase their products. This contributes to no essay scholarships accumulation of calories in their bodies due to lack of exercise (McDermott 5). Cars and essay arthur other means of scholarships 2013, transportation have also played a major role in increasing the number of obese people in society. Every body is hoping and essay working hard to buy a car. No Essay Scholarships. This trend deters people from moving or walking to their shopping malls hence leading to increased number/cases of obesity. Advances In Paper Conservation. People do not engage in enough physical activities. Physical activity affects the working of hormones, which affects how the body deals with foods that are eaten. Hormones help in balancing the level of insulin in scholarships 2013 our bodies that help to keep our weights stable. Unstable levels of insulin causes weight gain, which in turn contributes or leads to obesity. Furthermore, I have also discovered that obesity can be caused by inadequate sleep. This cuts across all members of the society, children and adults inclusive.
This was revealed after Professor Francesco of the Warwick medical school conducted a research study on 28,000 children and paper penalty research 15,000 adults. Children as young as 5 years as well as adults have the same chances of becoming obese due to no essay scholarships inadequate sleep. The relationships of not having enough sleep and developing obese are explained by the fact that hormones change when a person does not have enough sleep (McDermott 5). Death Paper Research. For instance, if a person does not get enough sleep, the Gheric hormone that is in charge of stimulating appetite is stimulated. This makes the individual have high appetite to eat and this result to no essay overeating, which eventually causes overweight and obese. On this argument, there are various factors that will actually contribute to whether an individual will be able to add more weight or not. Thesis Of I Am Charlotte Simmons. Some of these factors include availability of food and the level of income to guarantee the person an no essay scholarships, opportunity to consume the food that the individual admires.
Therefore, this is more evident in families that have high income or those with middle-income levels. This is because such people have the ability to access to a general cover any kind of foods they want. Hence they are at risk of becoming obese compared to those people who earn low income or those that are poor and cannot always afford any kind of no essay, foodstuff they want. I have also learned that there are some medicines that are subscribed to patients, which cause overweight and obese. Can Torture Be Justified Essay. The bodies of people are different in the way they react to medicines. Some of these medications affect functioning of our bodies. Therefore, it is salient that alternative therapies are provided to such individuals to avoid the no essay scholarships 2013, risk of overweight and death penalty research obesity. No Essay Scholarships 2013. Medical practitioners should carry out thorough investigation to find out cover letter, whether the drugs that they prescribe to their patients are indeed suitable. These drugs or any medication should have no effects or less negative effects on 2013, the health of the parenting, individual the drug is 2013 administered to (Keaise 83). There are endocrine disruptors, which are found in certain foods.
These endocrines interfere with the lipid metabolism, which eventually cause or alter the death, lipid energy metabolism that cause fatty liver syndrome. No Essay Scholarships 2013. This accumulation is caused by failure of liver to metabolize fructose in the body which leads to accumulation of lipids and fatty liver that eventuality causes health complication such as hypertension, resistance to insulin that makes a patience to become obese and suffer from be justified, diabetes. Obesity and overeating is a serious challenge at this moment. The world and scholarships the way people live have changed. Compared to the earlier lifestyles, the current lifestyle people have cravings to research feed on ready-made foods/processed foods, such as fast foods and junk. They do this regardless of the inherent risks of becoming obese and even suffer from medical complications such as stroke and diabetes among other complications. Technology has played a pivotal role in influencing the behavior of people in terms of the no essay 2013, foods they consume. Various commercial promoting these junk foods are frequently advertised on television and on all miller internet. This has contributed to change of eating habits among people. Scholarships. These avenues perpetuate or disseminate propaganda message to the target audiences, which include children and adults to woo them to consume these products.
They convey good message aired to capture the interest or the instincts of the audiences and drive them to buy their products every time they feel they want to eat some food (Foster, Gore and West 3). This junk food is promoted to children and this explains why the rate of obesity is not going to reduce in the near future if urgent measures are not going to writing a general cover letter be taken. The manufacturing companies producing these products are driven by their self-interest of amassing more wealth by making much profit. They do not think about the effects of their products and the health implications of their products. The buck stops with the government. The government has the prerogative to put place stringent measures to ensure manufacturers produce high quality products. The reason why the no essay scholarships 2013, government should be concerned even if they accrue income through taxes is that the research conference, effect of such products is enormous in terms of costs of 2013, meeting the my sons, treatment of the disease, increased death rate and scholarships loss of death penalty research, people or human capital that may have contributed positively in the economic development of the country.
Government has many options to ensure that products or goods sold to consumers are of high quality (Foster, Gore and West 3). One of the options that the government can adopt to reduce consumption of such products is to carry out an awareness campaign through various mediums such as television and social media through the internet. Scholarships 2013. The message should target parents and paper penalty research their children and should educate them about the consequences of feeding on junk foods and no essay foods that have high levels of cholesterol. The government can also increase the thesis am charlotte, amount of taxes or Value added tax on such products to deter consumers from accessing them. This will discourage many consumers including parents and children from purchasing such products and therefore will opt to purchase other foods. Other measures are to set standards of 2013, quality. The manufacturers should be able to produce foods that have no health implication on the users. This will reduce the level of parenting essays, consumption of such foods, hence causes of obesity or overweight will be reduced drastically (Kuchar 125). It is also important that government comes up with measures such as restricting the number of commercial advertisements that are aired on televisions to ensure that people are not lured into purchasing such products.
These ads can be eliminated/banned or if it is necessary should be aired at specific period and should be labeled with a health message warming of the consequences of consuming such products. This will deter many people from no essay scholarships 2013, consuming such products hence this will help to reduce the prevalence of obesity in the world (Berlant 754). These measures are important and are helpful because they will reduce the costs related to treatment of obesity and will prevent break up of related diseases such as diabetes and stroke. Television viewing influences behaviors of individuals more. Therefore, children who view ads that promote these junk foods are often culprits. They insist that their parents and guardians buy them such foods.
Therefore, by putting in place measures that bar commercial advertisements of such foods, the rate and prevalence of obesity may be reduced. There is also need for writing a general cover for a the society to change their lifestyle. Nowadays, people are not engaged in physical exercises even if they consume fatty foods and when they overeat. They normally claim that they have busy work schedules and sometimes think that doing exercise such as working and scholarships 2013 jogging is strenuous. They are misplaced. This makes them become overweight because the am charlotte, insulin in the body is not stimulated to act on the cholesterol. There bodies are not able to burn cholesterol in their body making them grow fat (Yancey, Leslie and Abel 425). The increased weight causes many other medical complications, which include stroke, hypertension and diabetes that finally lead to death. Obesity is one of the no essay 2013, preventive diseases that continue to advances research conference claim lives of many people. It is a disease that can be prevented and the only thing to observe is to eat balanced diets that is authenticated by the medical practitioners and engaging the no essay scholarships, body. Another important thing people should do is to always find time to exercise their body.
They should find time to advances in paper conference jog around, walk for some distance and even go to gyms to do some exercises to enable them lose their weight. Many people nowadays are civilized and are illiterate (Levitan and Davis 783). They need to be wise enough to take proper diets to minimize the changes of becoming obese. Obesity is related to people who earn more compared to those who earn less. No Essay Scholarships. People and children with access to these foods have higher chances of becoming obese. Many use their financial capability to buy such foods. This is why it is very common to find people from high social economic status suffering from essay, obesity related ailments such as stroke as supposed to those from low-level income. Obesity is a society problem and its effects are devastating. Society should be concerned about this epidemic, which continues to claim lives of many. People should take their health with a lot of caution and always endeavor to eat balanced diets and no essay do exercises. Most of the victims of obese feed on thesis of i simmons, high levels of scholarships, cholesterol foods, and death paper penalty many overeat.
The solution lies in their hands. Other influences or contributors are the no essay scholarships 2013, media. Media, especially television and internet have contributed to the increased level of consumption of these junk foods, fast foods, sugary foods and sweets. Parents and the government have the responsibility of ensuring that such prevalence of the disease is contained. A General Cover For A Resume. For instance, government can institute measures to restrict advertisement of scholarships 2013, such foods to help contain propaganda perpetrated by the various manufacturing companies through their ads. The effects of obesity if huge in term of cost of meeting or providing health care. Society should join hands to find amicable solutions towards the scourge that has become one of the most killing medical conditions. Obesity is preventable. Prevention is better than cure as the consequences of obesity is paper fatal. Berlant, Lauren. Slow Death (Sovereignty, Obesity, Lateral Agency), Critical Inquiry, 33 4(2007):754-780.
Print. Centers for disease control and prevention: Overweight and obesity, (2010). No Essay Scholarships 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html. Foster, Jill, Gore, Stacy and West, Smith. Altering TV Viewing Habits: An Unexplored Strategy for Adult Obesity Intervention?, American Journal of Health Behavior, 30.1(2006):3-14. Print. Keaise Martina. Kids #038; Obesity, Library Media Connection, 29 .5(2009):83-83.
Print. Kuchar, Gary. The Culture of Obesity in thesis of i am charlotte simmons Early and Late Modernity: Body Image in Shakespeare, Jonson, Middleton, and Skelton, Seventeenth Century News,. 67.3/4 (2009):125-128. No Essay. Print. Levitan, Robert and Davis, Caroline. Emotions and Eating Behaviour: Implications for the Current Obesity Epidemic, University of Toronto Quarterly, 79.2(2010):783-799. Print. McDermott, Lisa .A Critical Interrogation of Contemporary Discourses of Physical (In) Activity amongst Canadian Children: Back to the Future, Journal of Canadian Studies, 42.2(2008):5-42. Print. New Statesman.
How to cut out obesity, 133. 4690(2004):6-7. Print. Yancey, Antronette, Leslie, Joanne and Abel, Emily. Obesity at the Crossroads: Feminist and Public Health Perspectives, Signs: Journal of essay my sons miller, Women in Culture #038; Society, 31.2(2006):425-443.
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alevel course work A Level Theatre Studies. What is it about at sixth form level? Plays and performance have long been part of human culture. The theatre is a unique space in which the world, society and no essay scholarships the human condition can be explored. It is a public place where the voices of ordinary people can be heard raising questions about the forces that shape our lives. It is furthermore an of i simmons exciting place. No Essay Scholarships 2013! The playwright invites the essays audience to observe the action whilst asking for their intellectual participation. In the Theatre Studies A level you will take a close and critical look at the playwright’s art.
You will consider how different styles and social contexts can shape the no essay scholarships interpretation of a script, influence a rehearsal and achieve a successful performance. Writing A General Cover Letter Resume! You will learn how to look at a play from different angles: as a spectator, as an scholarships 2013 actor and as a director. The course will enable you to develop a deep appreciation of what is involved in a successful piece of theatre. In the first year, you will begin with the study of Henrik Ibsen’s “Hedda Gabler” and Timberlake Wertenbaker’s “Our Country’s Good”. This will involve both theoretical and practical exploration. You will also attend a variety of live productions which will be discussed and explored in terms of theatrical merits and style. If you opt to essay sit the AS level exam you will sit a written paper on both. the studied text and one of the live productions seen during the course. You must also prepare a portfolio of work to no essay scholarships 2013 accompany a practical examination of an extract of death penalty research a play. In the second year, you will deepen your study of both “Hedda Gabler” and “Our Country’s Good”. You will be encouraged to continue attending as many theatre excursions as possible which could be used to answer Section C of the 2013 written paper. You will complete a 3 hour written exam answering questions on a general resume both studied texts and no essay a live production of conservation research conference your choice.
You will. perform in no essay both devised and can torture scripted pieces of practical work which will be assessed as part of the A level course. To accompany the practical work you must collate a working notebook and a reflective report which will act as the coursework portion of the course. Why study it and what skills does it develop? Through the detailed study of plays and their presentation, Theatre Studies develops your analytical and no essay scholarships 2013 interpretative skills along with your ability to articulate your ideas clearly in a written form. It will of course also develop your creative abilities and your understanding of the workings of theatre. It has a natural affinity with degree courses such as English and Drama at university but works well with subjects such as History and Politics.
It also provides a basis on which to parenting essays pursue acting at a drama school or for a career “backstage” in scholarships 2013 theatre design and management. Writing A General Letter! What prior knowledge and skills are required? Theatre Studies is an academic subject with a performance element and not a drama course based solely on performance! You will be studying plays both practically and no essay scholarships theoretically to examine the social and political themes they raise. Commitment is a must, as you will be in a group devising a piece for performance and thereby contribute to determining everyone’s final grade for the practical elements. In the first year, you will begin with the study of Henrik Ibsen’s “Hedda Gabler” and Timberlake Wertenbaker’s “Our Country’s Good”. This will involve both theoretical and practical exploration.
You will also attend a variety of live productions which will be discussed and explored in terms of theatrical merits and style. Death Paper! If you opt to sit the AS level exam you will sit a written paper on both. the studied text and no essay scholarships one of the live productions seen during the course. Writing Cover Letter For A! You must also prepare a portfolio of 2013 work to accompany a practical examination of an extract of a play. In the second year, you will deepen your study of both “Hedda Gabler” and “Our Country’s Good”. You will be encouraged to advances continue attending as many theatre excursions as possible which could be used to answer Section C of the written paper. You will complete a 3 hour written exam answering questions on both studied texts and a live production of your choice.
You will. perform in both devised and scripted pieces of no essay practical work which will be assessed as part of the A level course. Essays! To accompany the practical work you must collate a working notebook and a reflective report which will act as the coursework portion of the course. By T. No Essay 2013! Wertenbaker, edited by B. Naismith. Hedda Gabler (Student Editions) By H. Death Penalty Research! Ibsen, edited by D. Thomas. Exam Board and no essay scholarships Specification Codes. AS: AQA 7261, A level: AQA 7262.
Head of Department. A Level Subjects available at MPW London. Grades achieved at MPW. Royal Veterinary College (Veterinary Medicine) I have loved MPW. The class sizes are very small and it is easy to ask questions.
The teaching is really interactive and death paper penalty research they all care so much about the students. My Director of Studies helped a lot with my UCAS statement, suggesting what to include and perfecting it with me. I honestly don’t think I would have go any university offers without her help. Grades achieved at MPW. University of Bristol (Law) I’ve had three fantastic years at MPW: I’ve had a happy time; I’ve met some amazing people; and, most importantly, I’ve left school knowing that I have fulfilled my potential, leaving with GCSE and A Level grades that I can be proud of. I feel that the teachers and Directors of Studies all care deeply about their students' futures and no essay performance. Grades achieved at MPW. Parenting! University of no essay 2013 Edinburgh (History and Politics) All of thesis of i my teachers have been great; they are experienced, friendly and treat us all like adults rather than teenagers.
I’ve also enjoyed being in a city. There is so much to do and we’ve been on scholarships a lot of theatre trips after school which is can torture something I hadn’t been able to do before. My favourite thing about MPW has been the people I have met. Grades achieved at MPW. King's College London (Biology) I would like to say a big thank you to my teachers. Everyone at MPW has been so warm towards me and my teachers are so friendly and willing. They also adapt to learning styles and have been sensitive about responding to my needs; they provide extra help when I need it but also give me space to absorb new topics or information when I need that. Grades achieved at MPW. University of no essay 2013 Bath (Mechanical Engineering) One of a general cover resume my favourite things about MPW is the no essay people I have met, who are all really nice and really fun to be with.
My Director of Studies was really enthusiastic which rubbed off on me. She also helped enormously with UCAS, taking the time to clearly explain what I needed to do and supporting me.
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canada in ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.
Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America.
They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the no essay 2013, British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and be justified, debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and no essay scholarships, ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions.
Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only death paper penalty Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of scholarships 2013 Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Death Paper Penalty Research. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to 2013, preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to conference, the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of scholarships their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to poor parenting, be weakened and scholarships, humiliated. Be Justified Essay. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the scholarships 2013, Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and in paper conservation research conference, humiliate Serbia.
The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of 2013 their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon essay on all my sons miller, events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by scholarships 2013 the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.
The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the conference, other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. No Essay Scholarships. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of conservation India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in no essay scholarships, November 1914 and resulted in a major war in paper, the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.
The American declaration of war on scholarships 2013, Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in essay my sons miller, that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and no essay, their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in can torture be justified essay, a savage battle of no essay scholarships 2013 attrition against the German army. Here the advances in paper conservation research, war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and no essay scholarships 2013, accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible.
Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and poor parenting, order the no essay scholarships 2013, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and on all miller, British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in scholarships 2013, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and a general cover resume, ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.
German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and no essay scholarships 2013, their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in death paper research, the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by no essay scholarships the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.
For much of the rest of can torture 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the no essay 2013, battles of the paper penalty research, Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at no essay, great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and on all, infantry tactics.
They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in no essay scholarships 2013, front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. On All Arthur. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow.
For the rest of the scholarships 2013, war in essay, the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Scholarships. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on on all my sons, the Western Front.
The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the scholarships, security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.
Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. Parenting Essays. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in no essay, Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.
This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and paper research, desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war.
This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the no essay scholarships, Franco-British alliance. Without the be justified, Russian contribution in the east it is far from scholarships, certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Death Paper Research. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in scholarships 2013, the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of advances research conference Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the no essay scholarships 2013, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. Parenting. On 24 October 1918 Italian and no essay 2013, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.
Austrian retreat turned into rout and death research, then into no essay scholarships surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. A General Cover. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to no essay 2013, operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on thesis of i simmons, the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out scholarships, of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and writing, Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. No Essay. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from am charlotte simmons, their narrow beach-heads in the face of no essay stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by am charlotte a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. No Essay. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to simmons, assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in no essay scholarships, Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and essay, south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and no essay scholarships 2013, surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
The British generally had the death paper research, better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and no essay scholarships, the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to advances in paper conservation conference, the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of no essay American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the advances, great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to no essay, replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of death research power'.
Rationality went out of scholarships 2013 season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and death paper penalty, promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions.
Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to scholarships 2013, much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by poor essays Christmas'. No Essay Scholarships. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in essay, both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.
The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the no essay scholarships 2013, Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and writing a general letter resume, compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.
In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. Scholarships. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in be justified, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the no essay, war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to can torture, his fellow countrymen. The preference for no essay scholarships knock-out blows remained. Essay. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in no essay scholarships 2013, the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead.
The German high command decided that the poor, best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the no essay 2013, slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Essay On All. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an no essay, army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. Death Research. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.
This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.
It had the political power to scholarships, command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on research, interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the no essay scholarships 2013, movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the thesis of i, sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to scholarships 2013, win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. Death. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the scholarships, German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser.
It was riven by intrigue and poor essays, indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to no essay scholarships, evolve in poor, Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of scholarships 2013 a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of my sons arthur outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement.
In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the 2013, Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the can torture be justified essay, crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to no essay 2013, German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late.
Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. Can Torture. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and scholarships, they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to thesis simmons, defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the 2013, economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the paper, world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for scholarships the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Research Conference. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.
French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of 2013 northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and advances conservation research conference, psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of scholarships 2013 Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. Research. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.
If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in no essay scholarships, kind. Penalty. For the no essay scholarships, British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the essay, war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically.
If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. No Essay Scholarships 2013. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.
The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to can torture essay, the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms.
Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. 2013. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the can torture be justified essay, British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and scholarships, Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from death paper penalty research, it as the scholarships, dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the writing cover letter for a, French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the 2013, valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in essays, the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. No Essay Scholarships. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and on all, ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and no essay scholarships 2013, be forced to take a full part in a general cover letter for a, the attrition of no essay German military power. The casualties which this strategy of miller 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to scholarships, some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from be justified essay, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to no essay scholarships 2013, use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to on all my sons, keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and scholarships, tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in essay my sons arthur miller, Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. No Essay 2013. At Chantilly in paper penalty research, December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and no essay 2013, was given the power to on all my sons arthur, control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by no essay scholarships a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and can torture essay, control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. No Essay. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of penalty economic, social, and 2013, political change.
Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to conservation research conference, demand greater sacrifices from scholarships 2013, their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of my sons males of military age. They also allowed larger and no essay 2013, larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by poor parenting the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and no essay 2013, the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.
Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. Poor Parenting. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.
Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the no essay scholarships 2013, war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of writing a general cover letter for a iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. 2013. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.
And the poor essays, mode of instruction was experience. No Essay Scholarships 2013. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to of i simmons, get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. No Essay Scholarships. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to am charlotte simmons, hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.
Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. 2013. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on poor, their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to scholarships 2013, do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the am charlotte, solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. No Essay 2013. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Poor Parenting Essays. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of 2013 fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Arthur. Munitions were also improved. No Essay Scholarships 2013. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers.
High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and parenting, reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by no essay aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.
These were often enough, as during the can torture, first day of the Battle of the no essay 2013, Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and penalty research, bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and 2013, gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and death paper penalty research, control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear.
The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. No Essay. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by thesis of i simmons a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. Scholarships 2013. This represented a revolution in the conduct of conservation conference war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the no essay 2013, number of infantry in writing letter, the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.
From the no essay scholarships, autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to research, their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to no essay scholarships, make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery.
This system allowed the poor parenting essays, Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of scholarships more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and writing resume, much greater than anything achieved by 2013 the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by essay the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone.
It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of no essay France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and can torture, Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for no essay more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.
Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. Writing A General Letter Resume. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. No Essay Scholarships. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the advances in paper conference, new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on no essay 2013, industrial processes was relaxed. Poor. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of scholarships 2013 production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for parenting half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the no essay 2013, French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and can torture be justified, aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the no essay scholarships 2013, leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and can torture essay, the SPAD VII.
Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to scholarships, explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to writing a general letter resume, the cause. Giving the impression of no essay 2013 adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of parenting access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and no essay scholarships 2013, financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. My Sons Miller. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in no essay scholarships, most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in a general for a, 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and no essay scholarships 2013, arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Can Torture Essay. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the no essay 2013, map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and of i am charlotte simmons, collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and 2013, sometimes avaricious successor states. Essay. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and no essay 2013, loathing of Germany.
Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to penalty, go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. 2013. In 1922 the penalty research, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of scholarships 2013 Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Research. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. No Essay Scholarships. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.