Great expectations coursework
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Great Expectations GCSE Coursework - John D Clare
no logo klein essay Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies. NEW BRANDED WORLD. As a private person, I have a passion for landscape, and I have never seen one improved by a billboard. Where every prospect pleases, man is at his vilest when he erects a billboard. When I retire from Madison Avenue, I am going to start a secret society of masked vigilantes who will travel around the world on silent motor bicycles, chopping down posters at the dark of the moon.
How many juries will convict us when we are caught in these acts of beneficent citizenship? #151; David Ogilvy, founder of the Ogilvy Mather advertising agency, in Confessions of an Advertising Man , 1963. The astronomical growth in the wealth and cultural influence of multinational corporations over the last fifteen years can arguably be traced back to a single, seemingly innocuous idea developed by management theorists in the mid-1980s: that successful corporations must primarily produce brands, as opposed to great products. Until that time, although it was understood in the corporate world that bolstering one's brand name was important, the primary concern of attention getters essay, every solid manufacturer was the production of goods. This idea was the very gospel of the machine age. An editorial that appeared in Fortune magazine in 1938, for instance, argued that the reason the American economy had yet to recover from the Depression was that America had lost sight of the importance of great expectations, making things : This is the proposition that the basic and irreversible function of an on facebook addiction, industrial economy is the making of things ; that the more things it makes the bigger will be the income, whether dollar or real; and expectations coursework hence that the key to those lost recuperative powers lies . in research papers the factory where the lathes and the drills and the fires and the hammers are. It is in the factory and on the land and under the land that purchasing power originates [italics theirs]. And for the longest time, the making of things remained, at least in principle, the heart of all industrialized economies.
But by the eighties, pushed along by that decade's recession, some of the most powerful manufacturers in the world had begun to falter. A consensus emerged that corporations were bloated, oversized; they owned too much, employed too many people, and were weighed down with too many things . Coursework? The very process of producing -- running one's own factories, being responsible for tens of thousands of full-time, permanent employees #151; began to look less like the route to success and more like a clunky liability. At around this same time a new kind of corporation began to rival the traditional all-American manufacturers for essay addiction, market share; these were the coursework Nikes and Microsofts, and later, the Tommy Hilfigers and Intels. Online? These pioneers made the great coursework bold claim that producing goods was only an incidental part of their operations, and have a thesis that thanks to expectations recent victories in trade liberalization and latest on wireless communication labor-law reform, they were able to have their products made for them by contractors, many of them overseas. Great Expectations Coursework? What these companies produced primarily were not things, they said, but images of their brands. Their real work lay not in good manufacturing but in marketing. This formula, needless to say, has proved enormously profitable, and its success has companies competing in great coursework a race toward weightlessness: whoever owns the least, has the fewest employees on the payroll and produces the cover page essay most powerful images, as opposed to products, wins the expectations race. And so the wave of mergers in latest papers on wireless the corporate world over the last few years is a deceptive phenomenon: it only looks as if the great expectations giants, by joining forces, are getting bigger and bigger. The true key to understanding these shifts is to realize that in several crucial ways #151; not their profits, of make cover page mla format, course #151; these merged companies are actually shrinking. Great Expectations? Their apparent bigness is artwork essay, simply the most effective route toward their real goal: divestment of the world of great, things. Attention For An? Since many of today's best-known manufacturers no longer produce products and advertise them, but rather buy products and brand them, these companies are forever on the prowl for creative new ways to build and strengthen their brand images.
Manufacturing products may require drills, furnaces, hammers and the like, but creating a brand calls for a completely different set of tools and materials. It requires an endless parade of expectations coursework, brand extensions, continuously renewed imagery for marketing and, most of all, fresh new spaces to disseminate the brand's idea of latest on wireless communication, itself. Great Expectations Coursework? In this section of the book, I'll look at how, in ways both insidious and overt, this corporate obsession with brand identity is waging a war on public and individual space: on public institutions such as schools, on youthful identities, on the concept of nationality and on addiction, the possibilities for unmarketed space. The Beginning of the Brand. It's helpful to great expectations coursework go back briefly and look at essay, where the idea of branding first began. Coursework? Though the cover mla format words are often used interchangeably, branding and advertising are not the same process. Advertising any given product is expectations coursework, only one part of branding's grand plan, as are sponsorship and logo licensing. Think of the brand as the essay on facebook addiction core meaning of the modern corporation, and of the advertisement as one vehicle used to convey that meaning to the world.
The first mass-marketing campaigns, starting in the second half of the nineteenth century, had more to do with advertising than with branding as we understand it today. Faced with a range of recently invented products #151; the radio, phonograph, car, light bulb and expectations coursework so on artwork essay, #151; advertisers had more pressing tasks than creating a brand identity for expectations coursework, any given corporation; first, they had to change the way people lived their lives. Ads had to inform consumers about the existence of on facebook addiction, some new invention, then convince them that their lives would be better if they used, for expectations coursework, example, cars instead of wagons, telephones instead of mail and electric light instead of buy nursing essays online, oil lamps. Many of these new products bore brand names #151; some of which are still around today #151; but these were almost incidental. Great Coursework? These products were themselves news; that was almost advertisement enough.
The first brand-based products appeared at around the same time as the invention-based ads, largely because of another relatively recent innovation: the stories have a thesis factory. When goods began to be produced in factories, not only were entirely new products being introduced but old products #151; even basic staples #151; were appearing in strikingly new forms. What made early branding efforts different from more straightforward salesmanship was that the market was now being flooded with uniform mass-produced products that were virtually indistinguishable from one another. Competitive branding became a necessity of the machine age #151; within a context of manufactured sameness, image-based difference had to be manufactured along with the product. So the expectations role of advertising changed from delivering product news bulletins to building an image around a particular brand-name version of a product. The first task of branding was to do short have a thesis bestow proper names on great coursework, generic goods such as sugar, flour, soap and cereal, which had previously been scooped out of on wireless, barrels by local shopkeepers. In the 1880s, corporate logos were introduced to mass-produced products like Campbell's Soup, H.J. Heinz pickles and Quaker Oats cereal. As design historians and theorists Ellen Lupton and J. Great Expectations Coursework? Abbott Miller note, logos were tailored to evoke familiarity and folksiness (see Aunt Jemima, page 2), in an effort to counteract the new and unsettling anonymity of packaged goods. Familiar personalities such as Dr. Brown, Uncle Ben, Aunt Jemima, and Old Grand-Dad came to replace the have shopkeeper, who was traditionally responsible for measuring bulk foods for customers and acting as an advocate for products . a nationwide vocabulary of brand names replaced the small local shopkeeper as the interface between consumer and product.
After the great expectations product names and characters had been established, advertising gave them a venue to speak directly to would-be consumers. The corporate personality, uniquely named, packaged and advertised, had arrived. For the most part, the ad campaigns at the end of the nineteenth century and the start of the twentieth used a set of rigid, pseudoscientific formulas: rivals were never mentioned, ad copy used declarative statements only and make headlines had to great be large, with lots of white space #151; according to one turn-of-the-century adman, an advertisement should be big enough to good attention getters for an make an impression but not any bigger than the thing advertised. But there were those in the industry who understood that advertising wasn't just scientific; it was also spiritual. Brands could conjure a feeling #151; think of Aunt Jemima's comforting presence #151; but not only expectations coursework, that, entire corporations could themselves embody a meaning of their own. In the early twenties, legendary adman Bruce Barton turned General Motors into a metaphor for the American family, something personal, warm and human, while GE was not so much the buy nursing name of the faceless General Electric Company as, in Barton's words, the initials of a friend. In 1923 Barton said that the role of coursework, advertising was to help corporations find their soul. The son of a preacher, he drew on his religious upbringing for buy nursing online, uplifting messages: I like to think of expectations, advertising as something big, something splendid, something which goes deep down into an institution and gets hold of the soul of it.
Institutions have souls, just as men and nations have souls, he told GM president Pierre du Pont. General Motors ads began to tell stories about the people who drove its cars #151; the preacher, the pharmacist or the country doctor who, thanks to his trusty GM, arrived at the bedside of a dying child just in time to bring it back to life. By the end of the 1940s, there was a burgeoning awareness that a brand wasn't just a mascot or a catchphrase or a picture printed on the label of a company's product; the company as a whole could have a brand identity or a corporate consciousness, as this ephemeral quality was termed at the time. As this idea evolved, the adman ceased to see himself as a pitchman and instead saw himself as the philosopher-king of artwork essay, commercial culture, in the words of great, ad critic Randall Rothberg. The search for the true meaning of brands #151; or the brand essence, as it is often called #151; gradually took the agencies away from individual products and their attributes and toward a psychological/anthropological examination of good getters essay, what brands mean to the culture and to people's lives. This was seen to be of crucial importance, since corporations may manufacture products, but what consumers buy are brands. It took several decades for the manufacturing world to great adjust to this shift. Buy Nursing Essays? It clung to the idea that its core business was still production and that branding was an important add-on. Then came the brand equity mania of the eighties, the defining moment of which arrived in 1988 when Philip Morris purchased Kraft for $12.6 billion #151; six times what the company was worth on paper. The price difference, apparently, was the cost of the coursework word Kraft.
Of course Wall Street was aware that decades of marketing and brand bolstering added value to a company over and above its assets and total annual sales. But with the Kraft purchase, a huge dollar value had been assigned to something that had previously been abstract and unquantifiable -- a brand name. This was spectacular news for the ad world, which was now able to artwork essay make the claim that advertising spending was more than just a sales strategy: it was an great expectations, investment in cold hard equity. The more you spend, the more your company is worth. Not surprisingly, this led to a considerable increase in spending on advertising. More important, it sparked a renewed interest in puffing up brand identities, a project that involved far more than a few billboards and latest research on wireless communication TV spots. It was about pushing the envelope in sponsorship deals, dreaming up new areas in which to extend the brand, as well as perpetually probing the zeitgeist to ensure that the great expectations essence selected for one's brand would resonate karmically with its target market. For reasons that will be explored in the rest of this chapter, this radical shift in corporate philosophy has sent manufacturers on a cultural feeding frenzy as they seize upon every corner of make cover page mla format, unmarketed landscape in search of the oxygen needed to inflate their brands.
In the process, virtually nothing has been left unbranded. That's quite an impressive feat, considering that as recently as 1993 Wall Street had pronounced the brand dead, or as good as dead. The Brand's Death (Rumors of great expectations coursework, Which Had Been Greatly Exaggerated) The evolution of the brand had one scary episode when it seemed to face extinction. To understand this brush with death, we must first come to terms with advertising's own special law of gravity, which holds that if you aren't rocketing upward you will soon come crashing down. The marketing world is research on wireless communication, always reaching a new zenith, breaking through last year's world record and planning to do it again next year with increasing numbers of ads and aggressive new formulae for reaching consumers. The advertising industry's astronomical rate of growth is neatly reflected in year-to-year figures measuring total ad spending in the U.S. (see Table 1.1 on page 11), which have gone up so steadily that by 1998 the figure was set to reach $196.5 billion, while global ad spending is estimated at great, $435 billion. According to on facebook addiction the 1998 United Nations Human Development Report, the growth in great coursework global ad spending now outpaces the growth of the world economy by one-third. This pattern is a by-product of the firmly held belief that brands need continuous and constantly increasing advertising in order to essay addiction stay in the same place.
According to this law of great expectations, diminishing returns, the more advertising there is out there (and there always is more, because of this law), the more aggressively brands must market to stand out. And of course, no one is online, more keenly aware of advertising's ubiquity than the coursework advertisers themselves, who view commercial inundation as a clear and persuasive call for more #151; and more intrusive #151; advertising. With so much competition, the agencies argue, clients must spend more than ever to make sure their pitch screeches so loud it can be heard over all the others. David Lubars, a senior ad executive in the Omnicom Group, explains the latest research on wireless industry's guiding principle with more candor than most. Consumers, he says, are like roaches #151; you spray them and spray them and coursework they get immune after a while. So, if consumers are like roaches, then marketers must forever be dreaming up new concoctions for industrial-strength Raid. Attention Getters For An? And nineties marketers, being on a more advanced rung of the sponsorship spiral, have dutifully come up with clever and intrusive new selling techniques to great do just that.
Recent highlights include these innovations: Gordon's gin experimented with filling British movie theaters with the scent of juniper berries; Calvin Klein stuck CK Be perfume strips on the backs of Ticketmaster concert envelopes; and in attention getters essay some Scandinavian countries you can get free long-distance calls with ads cutting into great coursework your telephone conversations. Good Attention For An? And there's plenty more, stretching across ever more expansive surfaces and cramming into the smallest of crevices: sticker ads on pieces of fruit promoting ABC sitcoms, Levi's ads in public washrooms, corporate logos on boxes of Girl Guide cookies, ads for pop albums on great coursework, takeout food containers, and online ads for Batman movies projected on great expectations, sidewalks or into buy nursing the night sky. Great? There are already ads on benches in latest national parks as well as on library cards in public libraries, and in December 1998 NASA announced plans to solicit ads on its space stations. Pepsi's on-going threat to project its logo onto the moon's surface hasn't yet materialized, but Mattel did paint an entire street in Salford, England, a shriekingly bright bubblegum hue of coursework, pink #151; houses, porches, trees, road, sidewalk, dogs and cars were all accessories in have a thesis the televised celebrations of Barbie Pink Month. Barbie is but one small part of the ballooning $30 billion experiential communication industry, the phrase now used to encompass the staging of such branded pieces of corporate performance art and other happenings. That we live a sponsored life is great, now a truism and artwork essay it's a pretty safe bet that as spending on expectations coursework, advertising continues to rise, we roaches will be treated to artwork essay even more of these ingenious gimmicks, making it ever more difficult and more seemingly pointless to muster even an great, ounce of outrage. But as mentioned earlier, there was a time when the new frontiers facing the buy nursing advertising industry weren't looking quite so promising. On April 2, 1993, advertising itself was called into question by the very brands the great industry had been building, in some cases, for over two centuries. Good Essay? That day is known in marketing circles as Marlboro Friday, and expectations it refers to a sudden announcement from latest papers communication Philip Morris that it would slash the great expectations price of Marlboro cigarettes by 20 percent in an attempt to compete with bargain brands that were eating into artwork essay its market. The pundits went nuts, announcing in frenzied unison that not only was Marlboro dead, all brand names were dead.
The reasoning was that if a prestige brand like Marlboro, whose image had been carefully groomed, preened and enhanced with more than a billion advertising dollars, was desperate enough to expectations compete with no-names, then clearly the mla format whole concept of branding had lost its currency. The public had seen the expectations coursework advertising, and page the public didn't care. The Marlboro Man, after all, was not any old campaign; launched in 1954, it was the expectations longest-running ad campaign in have history. It was a legend. Great Expectations? If the Marlboro Man had crashed, well, then, brand equity had crashed as well. The implication that Americans were suddenly thinking for themselves en masse reverberated through Wall Street. The same day Philip Morris announced its price cut, stock prices nose-dived for artwork essay, all the household brands: Heinz, Quaker Oats, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Procter and great expectations coursework Gamble and RJR Nabisco. Philip Morris's own stock took the worst beating.
Bob Stanojev, national director of consumer products marketing for Ernst and Young, explained the logic behind Wall Street's panic: If one or two powerhouse consumer products companies start to artwork essay cut prices for good, there's going to great coursework be an do short, avalanche. Expectations Coursework? Welcome to the value generation. Yes, it was one of those moments of essay, overstated instant consensus, but it was not entirely without cause. Marlboro had always sold itself on the strength of its iconic image marketing, not on anything so prosaic as its price. As we now know, the Marlboro Man survived the great expectations price wars without sustaining too much damage. Have A Thesis? At the time, however, Wall Street saw Philip Morris's decision as symbolic of a sea change. The price cut was an admission that Marlboro's name was no longer sufficient to sustain the flagship position, which in a context where image is equity meant that Marlboro had blinked. And when Marlboro #151; one of the quintessential global brands #151; blinks, it raises questions about branding that reach beyond Wall Street, and way beyond Philip Morris. The panic of expectations, Marlboro Friday was not a reaction to a single incident. Rather, it was the artwork essay culmination of years of escalating anxiety in the face of some rather dramatic shifts in great expectations coursework consumer habits that were seen to be eroding the market share of household-name brands, from Tide to Kraft.
Bargain-conscious shoppers, hit hard by the recession, were starting to pay more attention to buy nursing price than to the prestige bestowed on their products by the yuppie ad campaigns of the 1980s. The public was suffering from great coursework a bad case of what is latest papers communication, known in the industry as brand blindness. Study after study showed that baby boomers, blind to the alluring images of advertising and deaf to great coursework the empty promises of celebrity spokespersons, were breaking their lifelong brand loyalties and artwork essay choosing to feed their families with private-label brands from the great supermarket #151; claiming, heretically, that they couldn't tell the difference. From the beginning of the recession to 1993, Loblaw's President's Choice line, Wal-Mart's Great Value and Marks and on facebook addiction Spencer's St. Michael prepared foods had nearly doubled their market share in North America and Europe. The computer market, meanwhile, was flooded by inexpensive clones, causing IBM to slash its prices and otherwise impale itself. It appeared to be a return to the proverbial shopkeeper dishing out generic goods from the barrel in coursework a prebranded era. The bargain craze of the early nineties shook the name brands to their core. Good Getters? Suddenly it seemed smarter to great put resources into price reductions and other incentives than into fabulously expensive ad campaigns.
This ambivalence began to be reflected in the amounts companies were willing to pay for so-called brand-enhancing advertising. Then, in 1991, it happened: overall advertising spending actually went down by 5.5 percent for the top 100 brands. It was the first interruption in the steady increase of U.S. ad expenditures since a tiny dip of 0.6 percent in 1970, and the largest drop in four decades. It's not that top corporations weren't flogging their products, it's just that to good for an attract those suddenly fickle customers, many decided to put their money into great expectations promotions such as giveaways, contests, in-store displays and (like Marlboro) price reductions, in 1983, American brands spent 70 percent of their total marketing budgets on advertising, and 30 percent on these other forms of promotion. By 1993, the ratio had flipped: only 25 percent went to ads, with the artwork essay remaining 75 percent going to promotions. Predictably, the ad agencies panicked when they saw their prestige clients abandoning them for the bargain bins and they did what they could to great expectations coursework convince big spenders like Procter and Gamble and Philip Morris that the proper route out of the artwork essay brand crisis wasn't less brand marketing but more. At the expectations coursework annual meeting of the do short have U.S.
Association of National Advertisers in 1988, Graham H. Phillips, the U.S. chairman of Ogilvy Mather, berated the assembled executives for stooping to participate in coursework a commodity marketplace rather than an image-based one. Buy Nursing Online? I doubt that many of you would welcome a commodity marketplace in which one competed solely on price, promotion and trade deals, all of which can easily be duplicated by competition, leading to expectations coursework ever-decreasing profits, decay and good attention getters eventual bankruptcy. Others spoke of the importance of maintaining conceptual value-added, which in effect means adding nothing but marketing. Stooping to compete on great coursework, the basis of real value, the agencies ominously warned, would spell not just the death of the brand, but corporate death as well. Around the same time as Marlboro Friday, the ad industry felt so under siege that market researcher Jack Myers published Adbashing: Surviving the Attacks on Advertising , a book-length call to arms against everyone from supermarket cashiers handing out coupons for canned peas to legislators contemplating a new tax on ads. We, as an industry, must recognize that adbashing is a threat to capitalism, to have a free press, to our basic forms of entertainment, and to the future of expectations, our children, he wrote. Despite these fighting words, most market watchers remained convinced that the essay on facebook heyday of the value-added brand had come and gone. The eighties had gone in for brands and coursework hoity-toity designer labels, reasoned David Scotland, European director of Hiram Walker. The nineties would clearly be all about value. Make Page Essay? A few years ago, he observed, it might have been considered smart to coursework wear a shirt with a designer's logo embroidered on the pocket; frankly, it now seems a bit naff.
And from the cover essay other side of the Atlantic, Cincinnati journalist Shelly Reese came to the same conclusion about our no-name future, writing that Americans with Calvin Klein splashed across their hip pocket aren't pushing grocery carts full of Perrier down the aisles anymore. Expectations? Instead they're sporting togs with labels like Kmart's Jaclyn Smith and maneuvering carts full of addiction, Kroger Co.'s Big K soda. Welcome to the private label decade. Scotland and Reese, if they remember their bold pronouncements, are probably feeling just a little bit silly right now. Their embroidered pocket logos sound positively subdued by today's logomaniacal standards, and sales of name-brand bottled water have been increasing at an annual rate of 9 percent, turning it into a $3.4 billion industry by great coursework, 1997.
From today's logo-quilted perch, it's almost unfathomable that a mere six years ago, death sentences for the brand seemed not only plausible but self-evident. So just how did we get from make cover mla format obituaries for Tide to today's battalions of volunteer billboards for Tommy Hilfiger, Nike and Calvin Klein? Who slipped the steroids into the brand's comeback? The Brands Bounce Back. There were some brands that were watching from the sidelines as Wall Street declared the death of the great expectations coursework brand.
Funny, they must have thought, we don't feel dead. Just as the admen had predicted at artwork essay, the beginning of the recession, the companies that exited the downturn running were the ones who opted for marketing over value every time: Nike, Apple, the Body Shop, Calvin Klein, Disney, Levi's and Starbucks. Not only were these brands doing just fine, thank you very much, but the act of expectations, branding was becoming a larger and larger focus of their businesses. For these companies, the artwork essay ostensible product was mere filler for the real production: the brand. They integrated the expectations idea of branding into the very fabric of their companies. Their corporate cultures were so tight and cloistered that to outsiders they appeared to be a cross between fraternity house, religious cult and sanitarium. Buy Nursing Essays Online? Everything was an ad for the brand: bizarre lexicons for expectations coursework, describing employees (partners, baristas, team players, crew members), company chants, superstar CEOs, fanatical attention to on wireless design consistency, a propensity for monument-building, and New Age mission statements. Unlike classic household brand names, such as Tide and expectations Marlboro, these logos weren't losing their currency, they were in the midst of breaking every barrier in the marketing world #151; becoming cultural accessories and lifestyle philosophers. These companies didn't wear their image like a cheap shirt #151; their image was so integrated with their business that other people wore it as their shirt.
And when the brands crashed, these companies didn't even notice #151; they were branded to the bone. So the real legacy of Marlboro Friday is that it simultaneously brought the two most significant developments in nineties marketing and consumerism into sharp focus: the deeply unhip big-box bargain stores that provide the essentials of life and monopolize a disproportionate share of the on wireless communication market (Wal-Mart et al .) and the extra-premium attitude brands that provide the great coursework essentials of lifestyle and papers on wireless communication monopolize ever-expanding stretches of great expectations coursework, cultural space (Nike et al .). The way these two tiers of essays online, consumerism developed would have a profound impact on the economy in great expectations the years to come. When overall ad expenditures took a nosedive in make cover essay mla format 1991, Nike and Reebok were busy playing advertising chicken, with each company increasing its budget to outspend the other. (See Table 1.2 on expectations, page 19.) In 1991 alone, Reebok upped its ad spending by 71.9 percent, while Nike pumped an extra 24.6 percent into its already soaring ad budget, bringing the company's total spending on marketing to buy nursing essays a staggering $250 million annually. Far from great worrying about competing on price, the sneaker pimps were designing ever more intricate and pseudoscientific air pockets, and for an essay driving up prices by signing star athletes to colossal sponsorship deals. The fetish strategy seemed to expectations be working fine: in the six years prior to 1993, Nike had gone from a $750 million company to a $4 billion one and Phil Knight's Beaverton, Oregon, company emerged from the recession with profits 900 percent higher than when it began. Benetton and latest on wireless Calvin Klein, meanwhile, were also upping their spending on lifestyle marketing, using ads to great coursework associate their lines with risque art and progressive politics. Online? Clothes barely appeared in these high-concept advertisements, let alone prices. Even more abstract was Absolut Vodka, which for great expectations coursework, some years now had been developing a marketing strategy in which its product disappeared and its brand was nothing but a blank bottle-shaped space that could be filled with whatever content a particular audience most wanted from its brands: intellectual in Harper's , futuristic in Wired , alternative in Spin , loud and proud in Out and Absolut Centerfold in Playboy . The brand reinvented itself as a cultural sponge, soaking up and morphing to its surroundings. Attention Getters For An Essay? (See Table 1.3, Appendix, page 471 and Absolut image, page 32.)
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The Body Shop had been a presence in Britain since the seventies, but it wasn't until 1988 that it began sprouting like a green weed on every street corner in the U.S. Even during the darkest years of the recession, the company opened between forty and fifty American stores a year. Most baffling of great coursework, all to Wall Street, it pulled off the expansion without spending a dime on advertising. Who needed billboards and magazine ads when retail outlets were three-dimensional advertisements for an ethical and page mla format ecological approach to cosmetics? The Body Shop was all brand. The Starbucks coffee chain, meanwhile, was also expanding during this period without laying out much in advertising; instead, it was spinning off its name into a wide range of branded projects: Starbucks airline coffee, office coffee, coffee ice cream, coffee beer. Starbucks seemed to understand brand names at a level even deeper than Madison Avenue, incorporating marketing into every fiber of its corporate concept #151; from the chain's strategic association with books, blues and jazz to its Euro-latte lingo.
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The brand builders conquered and a new consensus was born: the products that will flourish in the future will be the research papers ones presented not as commodities but as concepts: the brand as experience, as lifestyle. Ever since, a select group of corporations has been attempting to free itself from the corporeal world of commodities, manufacturing and products to exist on another plane. Anyone can manufacture a product, they reason (and as the success of private-label brands during the recession proved, anyone did). Such menial tasks, therefore, can and should be farmed out to contractors and great expectations subcontractors whose only concern is filling the artwork essay order on time and under budget (ideally in the Third World, where labor is dirt cheap, laws are lax and tax breaks come by the bushel). Great Coursework? Headquarters, meanwhile, is cover mla format, free to focus on the real business at hand #151; creating a corporate mythology powerful enough to infuse meaning into great expectations these raw objects just by signing its name. The corporate world has always had a deep New Age streak, fed #151; it has become clear #151; by a profound need that could not be met simply by do short a thesis, trading widgets for cash. But when branding captured the coursework corporate imagination, New Age vision quests took center stage. As Nike CEO Phil Knight explains, For years we thought of do short stories a thesis, ourselves as a production-oriented company, meaning we put all our emphasis on designing and manufacturing the product. But now we understand that the most important thing we do is market the product.
We've come around to saying that Nike is a marketing-oriented company, and expectations coursework the product is our most important marketing tool. This project has since been taken to an even more advanced level with the emergence of cover page essay mla format, on-line corporate giants such as Amazon.com. It is on-line that the great expectations purest brands are being built: liberated from the real-world burdens of stores and product manufacturing, these brands are free to soar, less as the essay addiction disseminators of goods or services than as collective hallucinations. Tom Peters, who has long coddled the great inner flake in many a hard-nosed CEO, latched on to the branding craze as the secret to financial success, separating the transcendental logos and the earthbound products into two distinct categories of companies. The top half #151; Coca-Cola, Microsoft, Disney, and artwork essay so on #151; are pure `players' in brainware. The bottom half [Ford and coursework GM] are still lumpy-object purveyors, though automobiles are much `smarter' than they used to be, Peters writes in The Circle of getters for an, Innovation (1997), an ode to coursework the power of marketing over production.
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I just use the latest research company that I surprisingly created as a success -- it shouldn't have been like this, it wasn't meant to be like this #151; to stand on the products to shout out on these issues, Roddick says. The famous late graphic designer Tibor Kalman summed up the shifting role of the expectations coursework brand this way: The original notion of the brand was quality, but now brand is a stylistic badge of courage. The idea of selling the courageous message of on facebook addiction, a brand, as opposed to a product, intoxicated these CEOs, providing as it did an opportunity for expectations, seemingly limitless expansion. Essay? After all, if a brand was not a product, it could be anything! And nobody embraced branding theory with more evangelical zeal than Richard Branson, whose Virgin Group has branded joint ventures in everything from expectations music to bridal gowns to airlines to cola to financial services. Branson refers derisively to the stilted Anglo-Saxon view of consumers, which holds that a name should be associated with a product like sneakers or soft drinks, and opts instead for essay on facebook, the Asian `trick' of the keiretsus (a Japanese term meaning a network of great coursework, linked corporations). The idea, he explains, is to build brands not around products but around reputation. The great Asian names imply quality, price and innovation rather than a specific item. I call these `attribute' brands: They do not relate directly to one product #151; such as a Mars bar or a Coca-Cola #151; but instead to a set of values.
Tommy Hilfiger, meanwhile, is less in the business of manufacturing clothes than he is in on facebook addiction the business of signing his name. Expectations? The company is buy nursing essays online, run entirely through licensing agreements, with Hilfiger commissioning all its products from a group of other companies: Jockey International makes Hilfiger underwear, Pepe Jeans London makes Hilfiger jeans, Oxford Industries make Tommy shirts, the Stride Rite Corporation makes its footwear. Expectations Coursework? What does Tommy Hilfiger manufacture? Nothing at all. So passe had products become in the age of lifestyle branding that by the late nineties, newer companies like Lush cosmetics and Old Navy clothing began playing with the idea of old-style commodities as a source of retro marketing imagery. The Lush chain serves up its face masks and moisturizers out of refrigerated stainless-steel bowls, spooned into plastic containers with grocery-store labels. Old Navy showcases its shrink-wrapped T-shirts and good attention getters for an sweatshirts in deli-style chrome refrigerators, as if they were meat or cheese. When you are a pure, concept-driven brand, the aesthetics of raw product can prove as authentic as loft living. And lest the branding business be dismissed as the playground of trendy consumer items such as sneakers, jeans and great expectations coursework New Age beverages, think again. Caterpillar, best known for essay addiction, building tractors and busting unions, has barreled into expectations the branding business, launching the make cover page essay mla format Cat accessories line: boots, backpacks, hats and anything else calling out for great expectations, a postindustrial je ne sais quoi . Intel Corp., which makes computer parts no one sees and few understand, transformed its processors into a fetish brand with TV ads featuring line workers in good attention essay funky metallic space suits dancing to Shake Your Groove Thing. The Intel mascots proved so popular that the company has sold hundreds of thousands of bean-filled dolls modeled on the shimmery dancing technicians.
Little wonder, then, that when asked about the company's decision to diversify its products, the expectations senior vice president for sales and marketing, Paul S. Otellini, replied that Intel is like Coke. One brand, many different products. And if Caterpillar and Intel can brand, surely anyone can. There is, in fact, a new strain in page essay mla format marketing theory that holds that even the lowliest natural resources, barely processed, can develop brand identities, thus giving way to expectations coursework hefty premium-price markups. In an research papers communication, essay appropriately titled How to expectations coursework Brand Sand, advertising executives Sam I. Hill, Jack McGrath and Sandeep Dayal team up to tell the latest papers on wireless communication corporate world that with the right marketing plan, nobody has to stay stuck in the stuff business. Great Expectations? Based on extensive research, we would argue that you can indeed brand not only sand, but also wheat, beef, brick, metals, concrete, chemicals, corn grits and an endless variety of commodities traditionally considered immune to the process. Over the past six years, spooked by the near-death experience of Marlboro Friday, global corporations have leaped on the brand-wagon with what can only be described as a religious fervor. Never again would the corporate world stoop to praying at the altar of the commodity market. From now on they would worship only latest on wireless, graven media images.
Or to great expectations quote Tom Peters, the brand man himself: Brand! Brand!! Brand. That's the message . for the late '90s and beyond. (C) 1999 Naomi Klein All rights reserved. ISBN: 0-312-20343-8.
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Introduction Case studies are an important research method in areas where innovations are studied. They enable us to . study contemporary and complex social phenomena in their natural context. Expectations. Over the years researchers working from both epistemological perspectives have addressed important methodological issues. Essay. A case study is expected to capture the great coursework, complexity of a single case , and the methodology which enables this has developed not only in the social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, anthropology. Case study , Evaluation methods , Qualitative research 1916 Words | 7 Pages. too much on his previous knowledge of good for an being an great, engineer. For example , the page mla format, case states “Gary decided to let the other project . office personnel handle the administrative work and run weekly team meetings. He asked Paula to work with him in the research lab until they got acceptable results. For the next three weeks they spent virtually twelve hours per day, seven days a week, in the research and great expectations coursework, development lab” (Orion Shield Project Case ). This shows that Gary did not want anything to do with the management.
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Task Please. APA style , Bibliography , Citation 478 Words | 3 Pages. For each case , include the following: An analysis of the situation and possible causes for the subject’s behavior A preliminary diagnosis of . the addiction, subject’s disorder using the symptoms he or she displays The set of therapies you suggest for helping the subject deal with his or her symptoms Case Study Number One: Karen Karen is great expectations, a 30-year-old single woman. She was referred to a psychiatrist after six visits to her primary care physician complaining of headaches, body aches, sharp pains. Bipolar disorder , Cognitive behavioral therapy , Cognitive therapy 2164 Words | 7 Pages. ? Case 1 – Trait Perspective – Subira 1.What do McRae and Costa mean by introversion and extraversion? Is Subira introverted or . extraverted? Find examples in the case to support your answer.
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Great Expectations GCSE Coursework - John D Clare
Extract: #039;How the BBC leans to the right#039; The Independent Online. The BBC in Media City in coursework, Salford, Manchester Getty Images. Social scientists like myself like to see claims and assertions enlightened by a solid body of evidence. I have, as a consequence, found some of the more public discussions of BBC impartiality dismal to behold. Accusations of BBC bias are now part of have a thesis, a political game in expectations coursework, which forms of self-interest are played out against getters, a backdrop of anecdotal evidence and half-truths. Leading the charge are conservative media owners and their press outlets. Their motivations are partly economic (a dismantled BBC would allow then to increase their market share) and partly ideological (they are highly sceptical about regulated public services).
Allied in this effort are those Conservative politicians who share the ideological suspicion of public service broadcasting. Their interests are also strategic, since political pressure – they hope – obliges the BBC to bend over backwards to avoid accusations of a leftist tilt. The BBC receives criticism from other quarters – in an open society there are many sensibilities to offend – but it is these accusations they most fear. The press can (and do) make a crisis out of the smallest drama, while there is justifiable anxiety about the way a Conservative government might behave whenever the license fee is due for renewal. Great! While this point is generally ignored, it is the BBC’s cyclical dependence upon whoever happens to on wireless communication, be in government during the licence renewal period that is the expectations, greatest threat to its impartiality. For those who value the BBC’s independence, this a gaping flaw in the system – arguably a far more serious political infringement on journalistic freedom in the UK than anything proposed by latest papers on wireless, Lord Justice Leveson. Despite the highly partial origin of claims about the BBC’s propensity to lean leftward, any serious accusations of this kind deserves proper examination. Expectations! I have often heard it said that if the BBC is latest papers being criticised from both political flanks, it is probably getting it about right. Great Expectations Coursework! This is, with all due respect, a lazy supposition (so, for example, a centrist bias is still a breach of impartiality), and if this chapter is a plea for anything, it is that impartiality is sufficiently important to be subject to latest on wireless communication, systematic, independent scrutiny.
We also need to consider the possibility that attacks from the right are having the desired effect. While the BBC can, at times, be robust in defending its independence, it can also be risk averse. There is a real possibility that this understandable caution has led the BBC to great, seek shelter in more conservative enclaves. Recent evidence from the most recent BBC Trust commissioned impartiality review appears to support this view. The research, by good getters essay, my colleagues at Cardiff, compared BBC news when Labour were in power (in 2007) with coverage under a Conservative-led coalition (in 2012). The study found, by a series of measures, that ‘Conservative dominance in 2012’ of BBC news was ‘by a notably larger margin than Labour dominance in 2007’ (Wahl-Jorgenson et al 2013: 5). Beyond the great expectations coursework, main parties, the study suggested that the latest research, BBC is great more likely than either ITV or Channel 4 to use sources from the right, such US Republicans or Ukip, and less likely to use sources from the left, such as US Democrats and the Green Party. Artwork Essay! But it is the imbalance between Conservative and Labour – by margins of three to one for party leaders and four to one for ministers/shadow ministers – that was most striking, especially since the research indicated that this rightward shift was a strictly BBC phenomenon. The study found no similar patterns on either ITV or Channel 4 (ibid: 83). Expectations! These were not findings the good for an, BBC Trust was especially keen to great coursework, draw attention to, and – oddly for a review about impartiality – they were played down in a thesis, the subsequent report.
It is worth noting that these independent findings, based on solid samples, have received less attention than rather flimsier (in evidentiary terms) conservative claims. Impartiality goes beyond matters of party political representation: it encompasses the issues a news outlet chooses to cover and the way those issues are framed and reported. Making judgements about political bias is as much about the assumptions that inform a news story than party political representation. So, for example, conservative newspapers tend to give far more coverage to issues that interest the political right (such as immigration or abuses of welfare) than those that concern the left (such as poverty or inequality). The first problem facing any analysis of BBC impartiality is great expectations that there is no neutral centre of gravity, no golden objective mean to adopt as a point of departure. Essay! Locating the great, centre is a matter of context, and involves a series of choices. The BBC’s approach to make cover page mla format, the coverage of great expectations coursework, politics, for example, generally uses Westminster as its touchstone, with its centre of gravity somewhere near the Speaker’s Chair.
This point was made clearly by the King Report, based on the BBC Trust’s commissioned study of political coverage in a post-devolution era (Lewis et al 2009; Cushion et al 2009). The research found that despite the significant devolution of political power to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, political coverage remained heavily focused on make page mla format, Westminster. Coursework! At best, this meant ignoring the different policies pursued outside England, at worst it meant that England (whose governance remains at Westminster) became a stand-in for the UK as a whole. The BBC, to its great credit, took action to on facebook, remedy some of the weaknesses identified by the King Report. Follow up research suggested that this intervention improved coverage in a number of areas, with greater representation of policy regimes across the four nations (Cushion et al 2010). Nonetheless, reporting remains focused around leading politicians in the House of Commons. This is expectations a reasonable enough position to adopt in a parliamentary democracy, but it comes with distinct limitations. Most notably, it relies upon the main political parties to give voice to essay on facebook, a range of well-informed perspectives. As a consequence there are many parts of the great expectations, political terrain – such as the EU, immigration or economic growth – where debate takes place within a very narrow frame of reference. So, for example, debates about Europe are invariably framed by a main party debate which sees ‘Europe as a problem for the UK, particularly in terms of national sovereignty’ (Wahl-Jorgensen et al: 51).
The recent BBC Trust commissioned review found ‘very little room for sources presenting a broader range of attention getters for an essay, views, and for substantive information about what the EU actually does and how much it actually costs’ (ibid: 52). What we end up with is less a discussion about the merits of the EU than who can best represent UK interests. Important, no doubt, but limited in scope. Similarly, there is now a growing body of evidence suggesting a model of permanent economic growth is of dwindling benefit to wealthy countries such as the UK. Research now shows that GDP growth is great no longer linked to improvements in health or happiness (Bok 2010; Layard 2011), is environmentally unsustainable (Jackson 2010) and stretches commodity choice far beyond the time we have available to buy nursing online, us as consumers (Offer 2006; Lewis 2013). In short, there is a serious debate about whether wealthy consumer economies still rely on growth to generate prosperity.
But it is not one to be heard in the House of Commons – or, as a consequence, on the BBC, where GDP growth is invariably assumed to be an objective good (Lewis 2013). The BBC thereby reflects a series of expectations, assumptions that inform the political mainstream. Addiction! It is both pro-democracy and pro-monarchy. It upholds liberal Western values and a series of economic assumption based on a global market economy (in which, for example, economic growth is seen as more important than the climate change it helps create). The BBC, in this very Reithian sense, reflects the expectations coursework, assumptions of some of our dominant institutions. This is an easy position to defend, although it sometimes risks a certain myopia, constraining wider and more critical discussion. The failure of the on facebook, BBC’s economic experts to great coursework, anticipate the credit crash, for example, was a function of online, its reluctance to go outside a narrow range of mainstream economic debate and incorporate those more critical economists who did see it coming (Berry 2013). Similarly, the BBC’s reliance on military top brass for discussions about military spending levels means that such discussions are decidedly lop-sided. Claims for under-funding from such interested parties are rarely balanced by those who feel we should spend less on defence.
The UK is one of the world’s largest military spenders (a point rarely made) while discussions of the merits of expectations coursework, such spending, research suggests, is becoming increasingly one-sided (Lewis and Hunt 2011). The BBC Trust’s first impartiality review, which suggested moving from a ‘see saw’ (generally left vs right) to a ‘wagon wheel’ approach, did not really explore these ideological assumptions. While it contained some thoughtful discussion, the review did not take the opportunity to review the academic research on impartiality and, at times, relied on ad hoc and anecdotal accounts rather than more scientific bodies of evidence. Its conclusions were based on have, the sense that traditional left/right divisions were breaking down, making the great expectations coursework, old ‘see saw’ balancing act a less appropriate guiding metaphor. Its advocacy of the ‘wagon wheel’ was an attempt to move beyond such limitations: The wheel is not exactly circular, it has a shifting centre, the ‘spokes’ are not necessarily evenly spaced, nor do they all reach the edge of the wheel, nor does one ‘spoke’ necessarily point in a directly opposite direction to another.
So opinion is not confined to ‘left’ and ‘right’ but ranges through 360 degrees. One opinion is research papers not necessarily the exact opposite of another, nor do they all reach the expectations coursework, extremity of available argument (BBC Trust 2007). The flaw in the metaphor is, perhaps, revealing. A wagon wheel’s centre does not shift – it will (like news) move forward, but it remains at a fixed point. The assumptions behind locating the centre remain an issue. What it does make possible, in attention essay, a way the see-saw does not, is great expectations coursework shedding light on perspectives that question those assumptions. Moving from do short stories have a thesis, a see-saw to a wagon wheel is, however, easier said than done. It requires a radical appraisal of the expectations, range and type of sources typically used to latest research papers communication, inform news, and a commitment to great, looking beyond the usual suspects for buy nursing essays a well-informed diversity of perspectives. The latest BBC Trust impartiality review, designed to great expectations coursework, test how far the BBC had made this metaphorical move, found the see-saw still firmly in artwork essay, place (Wahl-Jorgenson et al 2013), with a small number of dominant institutions – notably parliament – continuing to dominate debate. The BBC’s model of impartiality – the location of its centre, if you like – is inevitably limited by its tendency to favour some institutions over great coursework, others.
A 2007 study, for example, found that around half of those sources used on BBC news were from just four professions: the worlds of politics, business, law and order and the news media. Buy Nursing Essays! By contrast, the main knowledge-based professions and civic voices (from the academy, medicine, science and technology, thinks tanks, government/public agencies and NGOs) made up, between them, only 10 per cent of great, all sources (Lewis and Cushion 2009). This concentration was confirmed by latest research papers on wireless, the recent BBC Trust review of television news, which suggested that the dominance of these four groups as news sources has increased over the last five years – with a particular rise in the use of business and media sources (Wahl-Jorgensen et al 2013: 80, which found similar trends on the Radio 4 Today programme). This contrasts with other broadcasters, who are far less reliant on business (11.1 per cent of sources on BBC news, but only 3.8 per cent on ITV and 2.2 per coursework, cent on Channel 4) or media (8.2 per cent of sources on BBC news, 1.6 per cent on ITV and 5.9 per cent on online, Channel 4). Both ITV and Channel 4 make significantly more use of sources from the academy, medicine, science and technology, thinks tanks, government/public agencies and NGOs: these groups make up 16.4 per cent of sources on ITV and 22.7 per cent on Channel 4, but only 9.7 per cent on the BBC. This not only narrows the range of expertise available on BBC news, it has implications for impartiality. The increasing dependence on media and business sources is especially problematic. Expectations Coursework! Our print media have a self-declared right-wing bias – some (such as the Sun , Mail or Express ) vociferously so.
While the BBC undoubtedly tries to negotiate this bias (sometimes balancing, for example, the essays, Guardian against expectations coursework, the Telegraph ), it is often guilty of using the online, press as a substitute for public opinion. Expectations! This, in turn, provides a loudspeaker for addiction those instances when polling majorities lean to the right – on issues such as immigration, on which sections of the press campaign – than when they lean to great, the left – on issues such as the getters for an, privatisation of coursework, Royal Mail, on essay addiction, which they do not (see Jordan 2013). The assumption that, for example, the views of Daily Mail readers are represented by the newspaper’s editorial line is great expectations coursework not borne out by a detailed examination of public opinion data. In short ‘Middle England’ is far more politically diverse than Mail editorials would suggest (Lewis et al 2005). Majorities may be anti-immigration, but they are also opposed to further privatisation of public services and sympathetic to nationalisation of buy nursing essays, others (such as the railways).
A reliance on the range of opinions expressed by the press will invariably push debate to the right of the broader public. In a similar way, the growth of business news (Svennevig 2007) and the widespread use of business sources raises important questions about impartiality. Expectations! A business perspective will tend to lean to the right: representatives of on facebook, business (for reasons of economic self interest) will, for example, favour corporate tax cuts over public spending, and opt for less rather than more regulation on employment rights or environmental protection. In the coursework, past, these perspectives were balanced against cover page mla format, voices from the trade union movement. The growth in business coverage has, however, taken place while trade unionists have almost disappeared from news routines (Wahl-Jorgenson et al 2013: 80). A review of UK Business Reporting for expectations coursework the BBC Trust (BBC Trust 2007) sidestepped the broader question of artwork essay, whether a focus on business creates a slant toward a particular view of the world. It focused, instead, on the narrower question of whether business was viewed from a consumer or a company perspective. Coursework! The report’s desire for a more consensual approach – avoiding such antagonisms – glossed over the different interests of do short stories a thesis, producers and consumers (consumers want the best product at the cheapest possible price, while businesses want to spend as little on the product as they can and sell it for as much they can). More importantly a broader and great more critical view of the attention getters, role of business in society has no place in this framework.
Although the BBC Trust review did not explore this point, they did acknowledge it, observing that: Around 29 million people work for a living in great expectations coursework, the UK and essay addiction spend a large proportion of expectations coursework, their waking hours in online, the workplace. However, little of this important part of UK life is reflected in the BBC’s business coverage … the great expectations coursework, audiences are served in their identity as consumers. But they are not that well served in their role as workers (ibid: 9). As workers, we have distinct interests – we want well-paid, secure jobs with profits shared amongst the workforce, rather than passed to artwork essay, owners, shareholders or consumers. For both businesses and consumers cheap labour is great expectations a good thing, for workers it is not. Overall, the available evidence on the BBC centre of buy nursing online, gravity does not suggest a leftist tilt.
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