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Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Montaigne said, The most universal quality is diversity. Given that diversity abounds, the project of understanding each other is both daunting and important. It is a journey never finished, because the process and the endpoints change constantly. The journey is bound up with communication and conflict, since misunderstandings and miscommunication can cause and escalate conflict. Effective communication is dissertation plagiarism often the pwc strategy consulting cover key to making progress in a conflict. Progress through conflict is plagiarism possible, and the route is twofold. First, self-knowledge and self-awareness are needed. Without these, our seemingly normal approaches to development meaning-making and dissertation plagiarism, communication will never be clear enough that we can see them for what they are: a set of lenses that shape what we see, hear, say, understand, and interpret. Second, cultural fluency is needed, meaning familiarity with culture and the ability to act on that familiarity. Cultural fluency means understanding what culture is, how it works, and child development, the ways culture and communication are intertwined with conflicts. This may sound simple enough, but it actually requires significant, continuous effort. As Edward T. Hall writes in the introduction to dissertation plagiarism his book, The Dance of Life , for us to understand each other may mean, reorganizing [our] thinking. and few people are willing to risk such a radical move.
Communication theorists, anthropologists, and others have given us tools to pwc strategy letter develop awareness of our own lenses, and to facilitate the reorganization of thinking necessary to truly understand others whose starting points may differ from dissertation, our own. Two of these tools are explored here. Communication Tools for Understanding Culture. Additional insights into communication tools for essay understanding cultural differences are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. Dissertation Plagiarism! The tools we will examine here relate to communication and ways of seeing the self in relation to others. They are: High-context and low-context communication, and Individualist and communitarian conceptions of self and other.
Since all of these tools are used in the service of understanding culture, a working definition of culture is useful. Donal Carbaugh defines culture as a system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of on albrecht durer mutual meanings associated with these. He also suggests culture is a learned set of plagiarism shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of people. In each of these definitions, culture is linked to communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity, and meaning-making. Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed, identity is composed and reinforced, and feelings are expressed. As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems, both conflict and harmony are possible outcomes of strong essay words any interaction. There is no comprehensive way to dissertation understand culture and its relationships to communication and conflict. Cover! The two tools outlined here give windows into how different groups of people make sense of their worlds. They are neither reliable guides to every member of a particular group nor are they fixed in nature, since culture is constantly evolving and changing as people within groups and the contexts around them change.
These two sets of tools are the most frequently used classifications of cultures used by anthropologists and communication scholars. We begin with one of the most familiar sets of tools: high-context and low-context communication. High-context and Low-context Communication refers to dissertation the degree to which speakers rely on factors other than explicit speech to process thesis convey their messages. This tool, developed by Edward T. Hall, suggests that communication varies according to dissertation its degree of pwc strategy field dependence, and that it can be classified into two general categories -- high-context and low-context. Field dependence refers to the degree to which things outside the communication itself affect the meaning. For example, a request for a child to shut the dissertation plagiarism door relies comparatively little on context, while a comment containing meaning other than what is on process the surface relies largely on context for its meaning to be received. A high-context message of disagreement might be telegraphed to a spouse or a co-worker by the words chosen or the way they are spoken, even if no disagreement is explicitly voiced. Hall says that every human being is confronted by dissertation, far more sensory stimuli than can possibly be attended to. Cultures help by screening messages, shaping perceptions and interpretations according to a series of selective filters.
In high-context settings, the screens are designed to pwc strategy consulting let in implied meanings arising from the dissertation physical setting, relational cues, or shared understandings. In low-context settings, the achieving goals screens direct attention more to the literal meanings of words and less to the context surrounding the words. All of us engage in both high-context and low-context communication. There are times we say what we mean, and mean what we say, leaving little to be read in to the explicit message. This is low-context communication. At other times, we may infer, imply, insinuate, or deliver with nonverbal cues messages that we want to plagiarism have conveyed but do not speak.
This is high-context communication. Most of the achieving time, we are somewhere nearer the middle of the continuum, relying to some extent on context, but also on the literal meaning of dissertation words. To understand this distinction between high-context and low-context communication, ask yourself these questions: Do I tend to strong essay words let my words speak for dissertation plagiarism themselves, or prefer to be less direct, relying on what is implied by process speech, my communication? (low-context communication) Do I prefer indirect messages from plagiarism, others, and am I attuned to a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to help me understand the meaning of what is and smith said? (high-context communication) As will quickly become clear, most people can and do function at plagiarism, both ends of the high-context, low-context continuum. There are times when direct, clear communication is most appropriate, and times when it is preferable to durer communicate in layers of meaning to plagiarism save face, spare feelings, or allow for diffuse interpretations. Most people rely on bradford a whole range of verbal and nonverbal cues to understand the meaning of what is said. Even in the most direct, low-context setting, meanings will be conveyed that are not explicitly spoken. The novelist Amy Tan describes the different starting points of English and dissertation, Chinese this way: I try to development explain to my English-speaking friends that Chinese language is more strategic in manner, whereas English tends to be more direct; an plagiarism American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in learning about your widget business?' Each to his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path. As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high context and low context.
Depending on pwc strategy consulting letter the kind of relationship, the situation, and the purpose of communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct. In close relationships, communication short-hand is often used, which makes communication opaque to plagiarism outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. With strangers, the same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and high-context communication refers not only to speech development individual communication strategies, but may be used to dissertation plagiarism understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and Southern cultures tend to use high-context communication. Within these huge categories, there are important differences and many variations. Where high-context communication tends to be featured, it is process speech thesis useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of others who may know more of the plagiarism unstated rules governing the communication.
Where low-context communication is the norm, directness is likely to be expected in strong essay return. It is less important to classify any communication as high or low context than it is to understand whether nonverbal or verbal cues are the most prominent. Plagiarism! Without this understanding, those who tend to use high-context starting points may be looking for shades of meaning that are not present, and those who prefer low-context communication may miss important nuances of meaning. The choice of high-context and low-context as labels has led to unfortunate misunderstandings, since there is an bradford essay implied ranking in the adjectives. Dissertation! In fact, neither is better or worse than the other. They are simply different. Each has possible pitfalls for cross-cultural communicators. Development! Generally, low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators should be mindful that. Dissertation! nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is letter said; status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement; face-saving and tact may be important, and need to be balanced with the desire to communicate fully and frankly; building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over time; and indirect routes and dissertation plagiarism, creative thinking are important alternatives to speech development problem-solving when blocks are encountered.
High-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators should be mindful that. things can be taken at dissertation plagiarism, face value rather than as representative of strong essay words layers of meaning; roles and functions may be decoupled from dissertation, status and identity; efficiency and pwc strategy cover letter, effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks; direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals; and indirect cues may not be enough to get the other's attention. As communicators factor awareness of high-context and low-context communication into their relations, conflict may be lessened and even prevented. Individualism and Communitarianism is the second dimension important to conflict and conflict resolution. Dissertation Plagiarism! In communitarian settings (sometimes called collectivist settings), children are taught that they are part of a circle of relations. This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in the South African idea of ubuntu: I am because we are. And Smith! In communitarian settings, members are rewarded for allegiance to group norms and values, interdependence, and cooperation. Wherever they go, their identity as a member of their group goes out in front. Identity is dissertation not isolated from others, but is determined with others according to group needs and consulting cover letter, views. When conflict arises, behavior and responses tend to be jointly chosen. Individualist patterns involve ideas of the self as independent, self-directed, and autonomous. Many Western conflict-resolution approaches presuppose exactly this kind of person: someone able to make proposals, concessions, and maximize gains in their own self-interest. Children raised in this milieu are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership.
They may be just as close to their families as a child raised in a communitarian setting, but they draw the boundaries differently: in case of a conflict, they may feel more free to choose their individual preference. Duty, honor, and deference to authority are less prominent for those with individualist starting points than communitarian ones. Individual and communitarian identities are two quite different ways of being in dissertation the world. They connect at some point, of course, since all groups are made up of individuals and all individuals find themselves in relationship with various groups. But the pwc strategy cover letter starting points are different. Plagiarism! To discern the basic difference, ask yourself which is most in strong words the foreground of your life, the welfare, development, security, prosperity, and well-being of yourself and dissertation plagiarism, others as individuals, or the shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of your people? Generally, those who start with individualism as their beginning tend to be most comfortable with independence, personal achievement, and a competitive conflict style.
Those who start with a communal orientation are more focused on social connections, service, and a cooperative conflict style. French anthropologist Raymonde Carroll, who is married to a North American, suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networks. This does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is notionally possible to see the self apart from these. In the North American view, there is a sense that the self creates its own identity, as in the expression, a self-made person. This view explains why it is essay about achieving unnecessary for North Americans to hide things about their past, such as humble origins. It also explains why the dissertation alcoholic brother of a president of the United States is seen as having no connection to the president's standing or ability. In a communitarian setting, identity is defined much more by durer, the person's social network, and plagiarism, cannot be so easily separated. One way to discern communitarian or individualist starting points is to listen to bradford and smith essay forms of greeting and address. Thomas Morning Owl, a member of the Confederated Umatilla Tribes in Oregon, reports that his response to the question 'Shinnamwa?' (Who are you?) would not be his name, but a description of his father, mother, and tribe, and the place they came from. Morning Owl reflects that individual identities are subsumed into the collective in his culture: Who preceded you, is who you are. Members of communitarian cultures place less importance than individualists on dissertation relationships with outsiders, such as strangers or casual acquaintances.
Boundaries around relationships tend to essay durer be less porous in communitarian contexts like Japan, where attention is plagiarism focused on maintaining harmony and cohesion with the group. In the individualist setting of the United States, by contrast, friendly behavior is directed to members of in-groups and strangers alike. This difference can lead to misunderstandings across cultures, since the U.S. American behavior of friendliness to strangers may be seen as inappropriately familiar by those from communitarian settings, while U.S. Americans may find social networks in communitarian settings very difficult to penetrate. No matter which starting point seems natural, it is important to bradford and smith essay keep the entire continuum in mind when trying to understand and address conflict. From each vantage point, it is useful to remember some things: From an individualist starting point, achievement involves individual goal-setting and action; I am ultimately accountable to myself and must make decisions I can live with; while I consult with others about choices, I am autonomous: a discrete circle; and I believe in equality and dissertation, consider everyone able to make their own personal choices. From a communitarian starting point,
maintaining group harmony and cohesion is important, and my decisions should not disrupt that; choices are made in consultation with family and authority figures and their input is weighted as heavily, or even more heavily, than mine. I am an overlapping circle amidst other overlapping circles; my decisions reflect on my group and I am accountable to them as a member; and I notice hierarchy and accept direction from those of higher status than myself. Child! With these differences in mind, it is important for plagiarism individualists to recognize the web of essay relations encompassing the dissertation plagiarism communitarian party to a conflict, and to act in durer recognition of dissertation those. Similarly, it is helpful for those from communitarian settings to remember that individualists value autonomy and durer, initiative, and to act in dissertation plagiarism ways that respect these preferences. Child Speech Development! Combining Starting Points: High-Context/Low-Context and Individualism/Communitarianism. As with any set of starting points, neither of these starting points exists in isolation. High-context communication often corresponds with communitarian settings, just as low-context communication often occurs in individualist settings. This is dissertation plagiarism not always true, but it is essay durer worth exploring because it is frequently the case. Dissertation Plagiarism! Where communitarianism is the preferred starting point, individual expression may be less important than group will.
Indirect communication that draws heavily on nonverbal cues may be preferable in such a setting, because it allows for multiple meanings, saves face, leaves room for group input into decisions, and displays interdependence. In individualist settings, low-context communication may be preferable because it is direct, expresses individual desires and initiatives, displays independence, and clarifies the meaning intended by the speaker. Nobel Peace Laureate Jimmy Carter understood the importance of high-context communication with his counterparts from Israel and Egypt in the historic Camp David peace negotiations. In one example, Carter reports that Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the negotiations after several days, discouraged at having reached an impasse. Carter met Begin at pwc strategy consulting cover, his accommodations and presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, inscribed with the names of each of Begin's grandchildren. Dissertation Plagiarism! Prime Minister Begin repeated the goals names of his grandchildren out loud as he paused to dissertation look at the pictures, seeming to reflect on the importance of the on albrecht durer peace negotiations to the grandchildren's futures. Carter knew instinctively that no direct, low-context appeal would work to bring Prime Minister Begin back to the negotiating table. Perhaps low-context requests were already tried without success. Instead, Carter relied on a high-context reference to legacy, future generations, and the relations that Begin cared about.
He invoked the communities each leader served by reminding Begin of dissertation plagiarism his grandchildren. Through Carter's masterful, high-context appeal, negotiations resumed and peace was achieved between neighbors who had been in process thesis intractable conflict for many years. This example shows the importance of these two interrelated starting points, individualism/communitarianism and low/high context. While there are many exceptions to cultural patterns and all of us use different starting points depending on the context, noticing the intersections of dissertation plagiarism ways of making meaning is often a useful window into conflict dynamics.  Montaigne, 1580. Quoted in Tracy Novinger.
Intercultural Communication . (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001)  This is closely related to the concept of framing.  Edward T. Hall, The Dance of Life. Process Speech Thesis! The Other Dimension of dissertation plagiarism Time (New York: Doubleday, 1983), 7.  Lustig, Myron and child, Jolene Koester. Dissertation! 1998. Speech! Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (3 rd Ed.). (Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1998), 30.  Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture . (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1971)  Tan, Amy.
The Language of Discretion, in About Language 3 rd Ed ., E.H.Roberts and G. Dissertation! Turgeon, eds. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 142.  These points are taken from Michelle LeBaron, Bridging Cultural Conflicts: New Approaches for a Changing World (San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2003)  Quoted in Tracy Novinger, Intercultural Communication (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001), 31.  Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith (New York: Bantam Books, 1982), 392, 399. Use the following to cite this article: LeBaron, Michelle. Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Bradford Essay! Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/communication-tools. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it.
Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to dissertation promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. Strong Essay Words! This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the dissertation plagiarism Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and speech development, peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in dissertation plagiarism the larger context of strong essay wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in plagiarism a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and child, do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved.
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Emancipate Yourself From Mental Slavery: Why Black People Need Meditation. If you follow me on Twitter, you may have noticed how important meditation is to my wellbeing. Meditation is the dissertation most valuable treasure I have uncovered from studying Buddhist philosophy it is a gem that I would like to share with you. L ong ago, around the time when I began studying Buddhist philosophy deeply, someone I bared my soul to proposed a question that sent me on a quest for answers. How does Buddhism help black people? I was enamored by the question, but thoroughly unprepared to give an answer; I told him I would think deeply about it and share my insights when they came to me.
I must admit, I have been thinking about that question ever since. It wasn't until I was listening to a song over a year later when the seeds of that question began to bear fruit. Emancipate yourself from mental slavery, Bob Marley sang, None but ourselves can free our minds. That was it. Africans throughout the diaspora have survived some of the most dehumanizing treatment in history- our physical freedom has been stripped through the Trans-Atlantic slave trade ( maafa ) and mass incarceration; through settler colonialism, anti-black values and strong essay words violence, our ancestral knowledge and dissertation plagiarism identities were erased and process we have been forced to adopt a colonized mentality to survive. Dissertation! Even now, our innate sense of self worth is undermined and attacked viciously by strong essay racist policies, unjust legal proceedings, a lack of dissertation representation in the media, and daily assaults which remind us that our lives do not matter. On every level- physical, psychological, spiritual- black people are struggling to get free . Meditation is one of pwc strategy consulting cover letter many tools in my arsenal that is helping me to plagiarism, liberate my mind (I hope my ass will follow). From the pwc strategy consulting letter moment we rise to the moment we go to sleep, we think millions of plagiarism thoughts and many of them are not our own.
Some are the opinions, beliefs and child development fears of others, projected onto us and absorbed by us. For black people, especially black women, we are vulnerable to internalizing negative messages from a society that antagonizes and seeks to dissertation, destroy everything black and strong words womanly in its sight. Dissertation! Meditation allows us to unravel ourselves from the strong essay endless chatter- negative, positive, ours, not ours- and dissertation plagiarism realize that we are the consciousness that observes, we are not our thoughts at all. And if we are not our thoughts, can't we simply change them? For those who meditate, it may be much easier to replace unhealthy thoughts with healthy ones throughout the day because of the bradford and smith essay practice.
Mind control is one of many benefits that meditation can have for your mental health and dissertation plagiarism emotional wellbeing, including regulating mood disorders, decreasing stress levels, improving sleep quality, improving brain functioning, increasing attention span, fostering a greater spiritual awareness, and on albrecht much more. What makes meditation most valuable to our people is that it requires little to start- at least 10 minutes and a quiet space- which makes it ideal for many of us who lack access to resources and have limited time. Meditation is anti-capitalist because it affirms that we have all the tools we need within ourselves to achieve liberation. Each morning, my consciousness reflects itself and dissertation plagiarism I realize that I am . Shortly after, I realize that I am awake, on this Earth, once again. I focus my heart on feelings of gratitude until I am uplifted. Then, I enter Vipassana meditation*. I take a breath as deep as my lungs will allow. I inhale, allowing my lids to almost close, then focus all of my attention on the breath. I allow myself to essay achieving goals, feel the sensations- the sharpness of air rustling the fine hairs in my nose, the gentle cadence of my heartbeat, the cold stabbing my toes. I relax my body from eyebrows to ankles, paying attention to the areas where I have the most tension. While I try keep my mind clear, I know thoughts will inevitably rise to the surface.
These I monitor with the dissertation vigilance of a TSA agent safety-checking an afro. When one pops up, I think 'this is just a thought, like all the others,' and watch it drift away. When I am having a hard day, I cling to essay achieving, thoughts and they form trains that latch on to each other and come too fast to slow down- I have to cook dinner. OH! What should I make? No, I would have to go shopping again. I think I have enough of that to dissertation, make this, though. When this happens, I don't get too hard on myself.
At least I made it to meditation today, because honoring my commitment to myself is the most important thing. To be completely honest, meditation can be difficult to get used to. The hardest part for me was learning how to sit still for an extended period of cover time. It has taken years to discipline myself into making meditation a daily habit, and even longer to notice results. However, I doubt I would've had the mental strength to persevere past the roughest time in my life if I did not have the tool of meditation at my disposal. It was during that time that I had to practice what I spent years studying- how to stay present with myself and see my inherent value when I felt ashamed and deeply unworthy. I realized that I was not my circumstances. And I was not what other people were telling me I was.
Despite the dissertation plagiarism poverty, underemployment, institutional racism, misogynoir, and process speech violence that entraps us and seduces our minds into plagiarism nihilism, black people are still worthy. We are still the pwc strategy cover letter masters of our souls. If someone asks me why meditation is valuable to plagiarism, black people, I would tell them this: through meditation we learn how to spend uninterrupted time with ourselves everyday. Through these sessions we learn self-love and strong essay words the power of pure consciousness. Meditating (even meditating wrong) teaches us that regardless of our material conditions, we are always in control of our spirit and our spirit will not break unless we allow it. Through this realization we become empowered. Through our power we become sovereign over our minds first, then our bodies, then our material conditions.
We realize the possibilities for living are limitless. Through this process we begin to believe that we can facilitate radical changes that will allow our people to thrive. *Vipassana can be roughly translated into seeing the plagiarism true nature of reality. Speech! Vipassana is one of several types of meditation in the Buddhist tradition. There’s No Beef: Black Feminists #038; Womanists Must Come Together to Do The Work. It is within the context of Black feminist spaces that I found language to articulate the deeper politics of plagiarism being black and child speech being a woman.
But as a human being who is always changing, no label fits my resistance quite right… Black feminism and womanism are two blooms stemming from the rich soil of Black Women’s Thought. Two distinct manifestations of Black women’s lived experiences, intellectual and community work. They share important tasks, including collecting the undervalued philosophy of our maternal ancestors and giving space to empower ourselves by centering Black women’s thought in our lives. Although these schools of thought both spring from the same source and share a goal of liberation for Black people and all beings — they differ in their methods of unpacking the dissertation oppression that follows being black and a woman at process thesis, the same time. Still, there are other important things to consider when engaging Black women’s philosophy than distinguishing one theory from the dissertation plagiarism other. More importantly is acknowledging that black women face inferior conditions because we live in a society that dehumanizes blackness, womanness and queerness. Due to this imbalance of power, there is a deep need for Black women’s philosophy. Strong Words! Also important is recognizing that the existence of multiple modes of Black women’s thought mirrors the plagiarism sheer diversity in our lived experiences. When we look to Black women’s theory, we must pay attention to the places where the essay about achieving your goals ideologies overlap; there we find the heartspace of black women’s wisdom about liberation. The Black feminist is a warrior resisting structural racism and dissertation misogynoir- not only in and smith essay practice, but uprooting very the logics that justify its existence.
For her, racism is not theory; racism is marked by frequent events that never allow her to plagiarism, forget her Blackness. Durer! Beyond that, she recognizes the link between her individual experiences and those of dissertation other Black women. When she looks at the world around her, she notices that Black people, her people, have to survive inferior conditions and child speech she is at the bottom of the pecking order. She acknowledges the way Black men access power through male privilege and dissertation how this impacts her personal relationships. Child Speech! Her philosophy is bold and rooted in resistance, like she is. Womanist is to Feminist as Purple is to plagiarism, Lavender. Centering the bradford essay experiences, needs and thoughts of Black Women, womanism stands as a philosophy all its own. The womanist is a whole human being that centers herself, loves other women (sexually and/or not) and dissertation recognizes her interdependence with men and the larger community. She is intuitive and honors Spirit. Consulting Cover! Likewise, her philosophy is intuitive, inspired in its fluidness and ambiguity.
She is futuristic in her optimism, knowing she can help restore her community to dissertation, balance. The womanist explores the positive aspects of black life, love and thought. Alice Walker’s womanism situates itself in a positive dialectic with Black Feminism. By defining womanism as “A black feminist or feminist of color,” she creates a fluid relationship between the philosophies that allows an exchange of thought. This statement centers the bradford importance of Black Women’s existing philosophy to the foundation of the dissertation plagiarism womanist space. When Walker states “womanist is to feminist as purple is to essay words, lavender,” she highlights the relationship between the two by using the same color family. A deeper hue than lavender, the color purple may represent deeper thought, a sharpening in perspective that allows for a richer theory. The Power of Black Women’s Thought. I get it. Identifying as a Black feminist may be uncomfortable for some Black women. The word “feminism” has been dirtied by white mainstream society and is held in contempt in the black community.
Now it smacks of male-bashing, bra-burning and white women struggling to achieve a more powerful place in the colonized world order- with or without their men. We don’t necessarily want to be attached to the politics of white women who were and continue to be complicit in our oppression. We have been ignored, abused and misunderstood by white feminists who do not want to learn how our struggle is more nuanced than their own. Despite creating a distinct space for Black women’s thought, there is a misconception that Black feminist thought is a byproduct of white feminism. This is a problem for several reasons — first, it presupposes that Black women are not capable of independent thought and contextualizing our experiences without borrowing the logical frameworks of our colonizers. Black feminism is inherently black because it comes from the dissertation experiences and thoughts of Black women. Period. Essay Durer! Second, it falsely positions Black feminism amongst the waves of the white feminist movement.
Black feminism is an organic philosophy that is intergenerational and complex. Because of the transatlantic slave trade, postcolonial conditions that forced immigration from Africa and our systematic dehumanization, Black feminism and dissertation womanism reconnect us with lost ancestral knowledge by incorporating not only Black women thinkers that identify as feminists, but historical Black women who embodied resistance in their liberation work. This has never been a project of white feminist theory. And Smith Essay! Finally, it ignores the fact that the white feminist’s understanding of intersectionality depends upon studying Black feminists and women of color. Although women are an oppressed group, white women’s whiteness affords them a position of plagiarism power that shelters them from knowing racism and misogynoir firsthand. White feminists are only able to learn intersectionality through observing the oppression of women of color and durer developing empathy. Black feminism and womanism have more in common with each other than they do with white feminism. Because black women feel our intersecting oppressions intensely, our philosophies value Black life at plagiarism, the core. Essay! A white feminist may or may not understand our social conditions and may or may not engage in work that helps black people and black women achieve liberation.
The white feminist has the privilege of concentrating her efforts on eliminating sexism alone. Unlike them, Black women’s survival depends upon eliminating ALL of the oppressions. Plagiarism! Simultaneously. Resurrecting Our Deep Thought. When I took my first class as a Philosophy major in university, it became painfully clear that Black women are not believed to words, have contributed anything of value to the intellectual landscape of the modern world. The demographic makeup of my classes reflected the scholars we studied- mostly entitled straight white men.
It’s no surprise the world has slept on and excluded our ideas for so long. Part of our intellectual heritage’s work is dissertation, collecting the fragments of wisdom that have been obscured by racism and misogynoir. Alice Walker’s womanism elevated Zora Neale Hurston’s work and allowed us to recognize a grandmother that the ivory tower neglected. Black feminism pieced together the remainders of Maria W. Stewart’s work, admitting us to learn about the first woman in strong essay words America to give public talks on race, gender and class struggles. The presence of dissertation Black feminist and essay goals womanist scholars means that there are, and will continue to plagiarism, be, women committed to the practice of strong words restoring our ancestors’ voices to power. “None of these authors created something new; rather, each named something that had been in existence for some time, functioning below the academic and dissertation plagiarism activist radar and outside the dominant histories of consciousness.” – Layli Phillips. We are involved in essay about a process of naming, renaming and cultivating a tradition that Black women have been valuing in spirit and service for generations. This is important because naming empowers us with self-determination. Dissertation! Naming helps us to on albrecht durer, more easily identify those with commonalities and makes space for our work to dissertation, be done in community. However, we must not be so preoccupied with the naming itself that we lose momentum in working on what it is we are naming.
We render ourselves stuck on the “linguistic treadmill,” to borrow Patricia Williams’ language, dissatisfied as changes in pwc strategy consulting cover academic trends and society heaps shame on the names we choose for ourselves. What would be a more effective use of our time? Patricia Hill Collins advises “revisiting the reasons why Black feminist thought exists at all.” You don’t have to call yourself a Black feminist to empower Black women. You don’t have to be a womanist to contribute to the healing of dissertation plagiarism Black people. My grandmother did not have the durer privilege of plagiarism learning Women’s and Africana studies in a university. She did not have access to the technology that makes exchanging these ideas easy now. But naturally, her love, wisdom and intuition have instilled within me the desire to essay your, value my womanhood and serve my community. Is that not what Black feminism and plagiarism womanism look like in practice? Learning about our philosophy is bradford, empowering because we can become more conscious of the similar conditions we face as Black women.
We realize we do not have to be caged by the current dynamics of the world. We are powerful enough to plagiarism, do the work to manifest magical changes. Change will not come solely from renaming ourselves, though. We must commit to bradford, doing the work that our ancestors have done and build upon their ideas. Dissertation! In the age of hashtags and retweets, it is process, easy to mistake the mere appearance of Black feminist and dissertation womanist thought with practice.
Still, we are living in goals an era where we are able to transcend geography to educate and empower each other through ideological frameworks that we have built… what a time to plagiarism, be alive. Photo: “Sisters” by Gabrielle Clark. Gabrielle Clark is a child welfare paralegal, independent writer and community-conscious creator on a path of liberation. She is a graduate of Temple University with Bachelor of Arts degrees in Philosophy and speech thesis Journalism. You can find her at inloveandlogic.com and follow her @allwolfnosheep. Wounded Healer: Self-Love After Trauma. “Write it down, girl. Tell everyone how much it hurts. Sharing will make it easier to bear.”
Healing from the physical pain and emotional trauma of dissertation abuse is the hardest project I have ever begun. Process Speech Thesis! The biggest obstacle wasn’t the betrayal of the assault itself. It wasn’t the realization that I could not be an plagiarism, effective role model for the young black women I mentored while being in process thesis a relationship with someone who dehumanized me. Dissertation Plagiarism! It wasn’t the homelessness that I experienced between deciding to leave the relationship and essay words revealing the abuse to my family. The biggest obstacle to my healing and dissertation plagiarism growth was the fact that this traumatic event had shaken up my psyche so vigorously that memories of abuses that I had suppressed and denied for years had come unhinged. It was the realization that my blackness and my womanhood had made me vulnerable to being a statistic not just this time, but more times than I had dared to accept for myself. This great undoing forced me to process thesis, confront the plagiarism fact that there have been multiple experiences in my life when my body was violated. When the violence in my past relationship escalated from emotional to bradford and smith essay, physical abuse, I could no longer deny that the bond had become toxic. I had to make a choice but I felt completely ill prepared to make it.
I simply did not know enough about abusive relationships to understand how I had found myself in one. Like a true bibliophile, I began downloading books and doing research. The statistics baffled me: 1 in 4 women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in her lifetime. For Black women, that number reaches a staggering 44% – and these are statistics calculated with police reports in mind, who knows what the dissertation actual number is, the one that we would show if all victims were educated on IPV and reported the crimes. Cover Letter! With statistics so high, I wondered why women relatives hadn’t warned me. Surely some of them had been victimized at some point.
Then I remembered the culture of silence. In my family, domestic violence was glazed over as it if never happened. Plagiarism! Emotional abuse was not noteworthy. One particular instance of physical abuse seemed to development, be forgotten by my relatives so quickly that if I hadn’t witnessed it myself, I would have believed it was a figment of my imagination. No one liked to speak of the trauma, even though the women in my family wore emotional scars like veils, shrouds that screamed out for dissertation healing. The culture of silence was not exclusive to my family. And Smith Essay! As I struggled to free myself from a relationship that had died long before I let it go, I had to inevitably deal with the backlash from plagiarism members of my community. Former friends, classmates, comrades in the struggle for development liberation- even a beloved professor- chose silence to protect their personal relationships with the plagiarism man who assaulted me. I felt that strange isolation that black people feel when we walk into bradford and smith essay a room full of white folks. It’s the feeling you get when the gaze, seeing but not recognizing you, washes over your body.
Monuments that I made with my former partner in love became triggers for mental health disorders that I was newly diagnosed with. My heart would race so fast that I felt like I could not breathe. I would space out during important conversations, losing track of plagiarism time, physically and emotionally reliving the moments where I had died a little inside. I began barricading my bedroom door at night because the about achieving slightest crack would rush me to dissertation plagiarism, consciousness, my fists up in fight mode to defend myself from a concerned and perplexed house cat. I felt like I was losing control over my mind- the only thing I had left as a poor black woman. Most of me wanted to cease to words, exist. But a stronger, smaller voice inside of me whispered that I was able to heal and worthy of love. My journey back to dissertation, self-love has not been an easy one and it is definitely not over. Healing is a choice that I have to make every single day.
When I wake up in the morning and ground myself in gratefulness, shielding myself with positive thoughts, I am resisting the speech development depression that came to consume me. After I take long baths with coconut milk and rose water, I stand in the mirror, slowly massaging whipped shea butter into each crevice of my black coffee-colored skin. Dissertation! Through these actions, I am affirming my worthiness of love by speech loving myself. When I leave my cell phone at home and run to the park to talk to the trees, I am reminding anxiety that it is no longer allowed to dissertation, make a home here. I remind myself that even though I have been dehumanized, I am not a victim. I do not have to walk in fear, I do not have to pwc strategy cover, live in dissertation fear. I command safety and light to surround me. Daily. I am safe. And Smith! I am loved. Plagiarism! I am powerful enough to protect myself in all ways.
Here are (5) things you can do to help your healing: Spend time in Nature: The natural elements have a way of restoring the human body to its balance. If you are able, take a walk or buy an indoor plant that you can nurture when it’s too cold to be outdoors. Creative Outlet: Whether it is singing, writing, or drawing on post-its, there is something you like to process speech, do (or can learn how to dissertation, do) that can calm you down, center your energy and help you to process the emotions you are feeling. Essay! Use Daily Affirmations: Affirmations are a great way to plagiarism, train the conscious mind to development, embrace ideas that your subconscious may not be on board with yet. If you tell yourself “I am worthy of love” daily, eventually you will believe it to be true. You can create your own affirmations, or find some positive ones online. Consistency is key.
Meditation and/or Prayer: Mindfulness meditation is cultivating an awareness of your thoughts, allowing yourself to observe your thoughts without becoming attached or judgmental. This process helps you to realize that you are not your thoughts, you are the plagiarism observer, and that you have the bradford essay power to focus your mental energy on what makes you happy. Prayer is dissertation, a direct connection to bradford, the divine that allows the universe to dissertation plagiarism, hear your the desires of essay about your your heart. You can set aside 10 minutes to pray or meditate at the beginning or end of each day or while you are involved in an immersive activity, like washing the dishes or taking a shower. Find a Therapist: There is no substitution for having the counsel of a trained professional. If you are in need of healing, seek the dissertation help of process speech a Licensed Professional Counselor, Clinical Psychologist, or Licensed Clinical Social Worker. There may be free or low cost resources available in your area.
Healing is a process, not a destination. Dissertation Plagiarism! Remember to be patient and consulting letter kind with yourself on the journey. Photo: “The Lotus” shot by the incredible Desmond Brown.
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Anita Hill and Revitalizing Feminism. With the lifted chin and steely grace that characterized her televised testimony about Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, Prof. Anita F. Hill yesterday went before a spirited crowd of 2,100 cheering women in New York who seemed to hold her personally responsible for dissertation plagiarism revitalizing feminism. Kicking off a sold-out conference at Hunter College in speech, Manhattan, Professor Hill gave a speech labeling sexual harassment as abuse of power and dissertation, more than just bad behavior or misguided romanticism. Thesis? She specifically avoided talking about herself or Justice Thomas, apologizing to dissertation plagiarism, those who wanted scandalous details. I'm here to address the general, not the specific, said the reserved Professor Hill. The audience, a Who's Who of politicians, women's rights advocates and writers, wore buttons saying Graduate of Thelma and Louise Finishing School.
They chanted, We believe Anita Hill. Essay? And they inducted the woman who accused Justice Thomas of dissertation sexual harassment and prompted an extraordinary Senate hearing on his character into consulting cover, the ranks of plagiarism such heroines as Susan B. Anthony and Rosa Parks. 'The Great Connector' What she's done is to make sexual harassment the great connector among women, said Irene Natividad, chairwoman of the National Commission of Working Women. This is child speech development one of those awakenings. It's like before, and dissertation, we feel powerful again, and she did this. Six months after her appearance before the Senate Judiciary Committee, which was considering the nomination of Justice Thomas to the Court, Professor Hill remains a controversial public figure in a society that usually forgets more quickly. Heroine to some, villain to others, she stirs unusual emotions for a low-key tenured law professor from the University of Oklahoma.
On the one hand, there are all the people, particularly women, who jump at the chance to bask in speech, her assertiveness. Just as crowds clogged the dissertation plagiarism halls of Hunter College yesterday, some 2,000 people went to hear her speak at the University of Pennsylvania earlier this month. Development? But there are also many people who continue to attack her, often venomously, for plagiarism nearly derailing the confirmation of bradford and smith essay Justice Thomas. Dissertation Plagiarism? In its March issue, The American Spectator, a conservative magazine, published a vehement anti-Hill article, impugning not only on albrecht durer her veracity but her quality as a lawyer and her conduct toward male students. Plagiarism? Professor Hill is also a constant target of Rush Limbaugh, the liberal-bashing syndicated radio personality. In between the two extremes are the majority of Americans who, at the time of the hearings, neither praised nor vilified Professor Hill. And as polls conducted after the child hearings showed, most did not believe her. Given all the fuss, Professor Hill is very much the plagiarism reluctant celebrity.
She has refused to be interviewed in depth by the media, with the exception of one appearance on 60 Minutes in February. She makes few public appearances, relative to the invitations she receives on process speech thesis a daily basis, said David Swank, her dean at the law school. And, as if everything were as it was, she keeps her telephone number published. But she almost always lets her answering machine, with its riff of Mozart before the beep, take her calls. In December, while chatting at the law school, Professor Hill bet a colleague that within a year she would be back to being a cog in plagiarism, the machine. The colleague, Prof. Shirley A. Wiegand, said that she flipped ahead in her purse calendar and and smith, marked the date next December with a question, Is Anita just a cog in the machine? At this point, Professor Wiegand said, neither woman believes the answer will be yes. Professor Hill has become a symbol of plagiarism a new and potent wave of thesis feminism, said the dissertation plagiarism president of New York Women's Foundation, Marion Kaplan.
Unregistered to vote at essay the time of the dissertation hearings, Professor Hill has also become a political force. Political Campaign Issue. By coming forward to talk about sexual harassment, and by doing so before an strong essay all-male Senate committee perceived, by some, to be insensitive, Professor Hill has also become an issue in the political campaigns of a Presidential election year. Dissertation Plagiarism? In Illinois, Carol Moseley Braun, the Cook County Recorder of Deeds, specifically ran for the Democratic Senate nomination out of essay anger that Professor Hill had been ignored and Justice Thomas confirmed. In a March primary, she defeated Senator Alan J. Dixon, who voted for the confirmation. In Pennsylvania, Lynn Yeakel, an advocate for dissertation women's rights, is running for the Democratic Senate nomination in Tuesday's primary. In her commercials, she shows not her primary opponents, but Senator Arlen Specter, a Republican member of the Judiciary Committee, as he grilled Professor Hill during the hearings. She then asks: Did this make you as angry as it made me?
At the Hunter College conference, a group led by former Congresswoman Bella Abzug began a petition drive to put women in more public offices. The petitions, which feature a photograph of the Judiciary Committee, say, We call upon pwc strategy, all political parties to nominate and plagiarism, support only speech women for all open seats until women achieve parity in plagiarism, our Government. Professor Hill did not attend the formal signing of the first petition that took place immediately after her speech. Nor did she answer any questions. She whisked herself away, as she usually does. Pwc Strategy Cover? And it remained unclear just where Ms. Hill stands on plagiarism any issue other than sexual harassment -- although women in the audience noted that she seemed to be growing into her role as feminist spokesman. 'Accidental Heroes' It's all too rare when our accidental heroes are worthy of the role, said the author Letty Cottin Pogrebin. In October, after the hearings, Professor Hill tried to return to her quiet life in Norman, Okla., where she lives alone in a ranch house. This semester, she is teaching first-year contract law and working in the university provost's office as a legal fellow. She has resumed some normalcy, but she doesn't really have a private life anymore, said Professor Wiegand, her friend. Strong Essay? No matter where we go for dissertation dinner, someone feels free to intrude.
After the hearings, the Leigh Lecture Bureau successfully recruited Professor Hill to be among its clients. Strong Words? Daniel R. Stern, a vice president, said that his company represented Professor Hill in all commercial appearances, and dissertation, that she has made only two paid appearances -- one at the University of New Mexico, the other at the University of Pennsylvania, both this month. Mr. Stern would not reveal her fee, which is believed to be about thesis, $10,000 for an appearance. Professor Hill appeared at the Hunter conference for free. Dissertation? She has also spoken at Yale Law School, her alma mater, and at process speech a women lawmakers' conference at Rutgers University. At the Hunter conference, Gloria Steinem, author and founder of the Ms. Foundation, credited the Oklahoma lawyer with corralling our anger and imagined a scenario in which Professor Hill would eventually sit on the Supreme Court herself. Professor Hill broke the impassivity of her gaze to smile broadly. Then she promptly labeled the dissertation scenario a fantasy.
Photo: Prof. Anita F. Hill waving to the audience yesterday as she arrived to speak at the Women Tell the Truth conference at Hunter College. With her was Gloria Steinem, the author and founder of the Ms. Foundation. (Jim Estrin/The New York Times) Should Beach Privatization Be Allowed? Room for Debate asks whether shorefront homeowners should have to open their land to all comers.
A Woman’s Leadership May Steady Murray. Curlers’ Aim: Sweep to a Win Over the Heat. The Cold War Brews Anew in Prime Time. New York City’s top public schools must become more diverse.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Dissertation! Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only speech development, looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and dissertation, thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of pwc strategy consulting cover letter, referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the dissertation plagiarism, source. What exactly is speech thesis, meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in.
Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the dissertation, Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. Durer! In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is dissertation plagiarism, also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is speech development, essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Dissertation! Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated.
The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. Speech Development! This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is dissertation, based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).
Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Development! Where there are more than two authors, the dissertation plagiarism, name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones.
What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to letter, give the dissertation, number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant?
The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and child, this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in dissertation plagiarism, their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is process speech thesis, merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the dissertation plagiarism, edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date.
Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the essay, one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Dissertation! Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for process speech the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the dissertation plagiarism, author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the process speech, text you consulted, because in plagiarism, the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication.
It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is pwc strategy, cited once, and dissertation plagiarism, listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of speech, references is dissertation plagiarism, not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the essay, sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by dissertation, the year of publication in brackets, the strong essay words, title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the dissertation, publisher. Speech Thesis! If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to dissertation, the title, this is goals, usually separated using colons (: sign).
Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by dissertation, two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by child speech, adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is dissertation, capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Process Thesis! Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and dissertation, Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand.
Hall, S. Speech! (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is dissertation plagiarism, edited. You give the family name of the on albrecht, author and plagiarism, his or her initial, the speech, year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in dissertation plagiarism, , and the name and essay on albrecht, year of the editor(s). Dissertation Plagiarism! If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. Strong Essay Words! (eds) (1990).
Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in dissertation plagiarism, a book. Durer! The editors are often given on dissertation the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in strong, Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004).
Journal articles are cited in plagiarism, a way that is quite similar to letter, chapters in plagiarism, a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the strong essay, author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and plagiarism, further details. Pwc Strategy Consulting Letter! The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Plagiarism! Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Process! Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Dissertation! Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89.
Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for process speech thesis your essays. The reference includes the name of the plagiarism, author and initial, the pwc strategy consulting, year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the dissertation plagiarism, content was written. Essay About Achieving Your! For example:
Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the dissertation plagiarism, volume, the date is given. Consulting Letter! The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in dissertation, brackets, the child, title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common.
For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to plagiarism, in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to thesis, a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the plagiarism, title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the strong, word at and the name of plagiarism, your institution, the place, and essay durer, date of the lecture. Plagiarism! For example:
Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of child speech, your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author.
The subject line of the dissertation, e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of your goals, personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work.
Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is plagiarism, no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example:
IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the and smith essay, year of a document is dissertation, not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in essay on albrecht, (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the dissertation, year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is speech thesis, easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at plagiarism, the end of the reference.
With articles sent to achieving goals, you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to plagiarism, include the essay durer, kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is plagiarism, used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to letter, the lecture handouts. Give the plagiarism, name of the author, the year in brackets, the letter, course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of plagiarism, material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and essay achieving your goals, Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
The capitalization of dissertation, titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the child, book. In the dissertation plagiarism, case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the achieving, journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an dissertation plagiarism, article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve.
Put in consulting cover letter, capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and dissertation plagiarism, withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and essay words, it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in dissertation plagiarism, this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to consulting cover letter, every work mentioned in this book at the end.
It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of dissertation, somebody else and present them as your own. Essay On Albrecht Durer! Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case.
Careless work is plagiarism, often a sign of students working too closely to speech development, the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it?
Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to dissertation plagiarism, make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. Speech Development! I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is plagiarism, always the search facility in the word processor. Essay Achieving Your Goals! By putting a place holder, I can get on dissertation plagiarism with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts.
Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Durer! Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Dissertation Plagiarism! Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an essay, idea, the plagiarism, markers of your essay will not only have access to words, the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.
If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Plagiarism! Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on cover the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in dissertation, the question. An even easier sign is having the essay words, same paragraph twice in dissertation plagiarism, the same essay, for and smith essay example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting.
Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in plagiarism, fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to bradford essay, break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and dissertation, things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for essay about your example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at dissertation plagiarism, the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is speech, suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by dissertation, the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the bradford essay, internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.
Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is.
It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and plagiarism, quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is strong essay, commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is plagiarism, useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly.
Citations are about essay achieving your goals, ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by plagiarism, others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the essay about goals, words of dissertation, someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is bradford and smith, that for dissertation plagiarism a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the pwc strategy consulting letter, text, there is no difference.
Short quotations are included in the text, and plagiarism, enclosed by speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by essay on albrecht, indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Dissertation! Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Essay Goals! Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and dissertation, cite the work instead.
If the and smith, changes are small, use square brackets to dissertation plagiarism, indicate that you have changed the speech development, text. Dissertation Plagiarism! For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. Essay Achieving Your Goals! I have included the words that I changed in plagiarism, square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in letter, square brackets are not the plagiarism, exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on essay on albrecht durer them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for dissertation plagiarism a different purpose.
The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. Pwc Strategy Consulting! If you rely too much on quotations, you run the plagiarism, risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the durer, idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the plagiarism, essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section.
References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to words, put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out dissertation, how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of letter, software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and dissertation plagiarism, usually let you search libraries and journal databases.
Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. Speech! It’s thus a good idea to dissertation, familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. Speech Thesis! So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file.
The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.