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Book Reports/Themes of The Crucible book report 3474. Arthur Miller enriches the reader's experience of The Crucible by. What! strategically portraying various themes throughout the play. Miller's themes. include social drama, personal tragedy, hysteria, superstition, greed and. vengeance, authority and judgment, theocracy, justice, historical drama, and. fear of the unknown. The theme of social drama is a direct result from the time period that. Miller wrote The Crucible. The play was written during the Red Scare, when. Americans were in of terrorism east, fear of a Russian takeover of the United States of America. This is reflected in The Crucible, because the people in the play are in. fear of some entity, the entity being witchcraft and not communism.
The Salem tragedy, which is about to begin in these pages, developed from a paradox. It is is homelessness, a paradox in whose grip we still. live, and there is no prospect yet that we will discover its. Personal Essay! revolution. Simply, it was this: for good purposes, even high. purposes, the people of Salem developed a theocracy, a combine of. state and religious power whose function was to keep the community. together, and to prevent any kind of disunity that might open it. to what is homelessness, destruction by material or ideological enemies. It was forged. for a necessary purpose and accomplished that purpose. Management Banks! But all. organization is and must be grounded on the idea of exclusion and. prohibition, just as two objects cannot occupy the same space. Is Homelessness! Evidently, the time came in New England when the death repressions of. order were heavier than seemed warranted by the dangers against. which the order was organized. The witch-hunt was a perverse. manifestation of the panic which set in among all classes when the. balance began to turn toward greater individual freedom (pgs. 6- The theme of personal tragedy exists today as it did during the period. when Miller wrote the play.
Today, personal tragedy can be the loss of a. loved one or even a couple decides to is homelessness, go its separate routes in life. However, in civil engineering phd thesis, The Crucible, personal tragedy is best personified with John. Proctor. Proctor is the main protagonist of the play and he is well suited. for the part. He was devoid of his freedom, privacy, and life. Act four. symbolizes the final decline of Proctor's social status when he is accused of. walking with Lucifer and later confessing to what, it. He was accused of being a. wizard after it was stated by Putnam that he was trying to overthrow the. court, with a deposition signed by Mary Warren stating that the afflicted. girls were frauds. As a result of this accusation, Proctor would only be. spared if he would confess to the accusation. Proctor did confess but later. ripped up a signed confession, citing that God had hear his confession and. seen his name on the confession (pgs.
142-143). Hysteria is the basis of the play. The people of Salem are scared, they. are paranoid. Will they be accused and even convicted of compacting with the. Devil? The trials pit neighbor against neighbor, sometimes for financial and. social gain or even out of pure hatred for gallaudet english writing, Goody Doe up the street. Hysteria. is what is homelessness, easily depicted in the early stages of the play, when the afflicted girls. call out the names of personal others they claim to have seen with the what is homelessness Devil.
Betty, staring too: 'I saw George Jacobs with the Devil! I saw. Goody Howe with the Devil.' Abigail: 'I saw Good Hawkins with the. Devil!' Betty: I saw Goody Bibber with the civil Devil! Abigail: I. saw Goody Booth with the Devil!' Again, hysteria is depicted on page 130: Hale to Danforth, Excellency, there. are orphans wandering from house to house; abandoned cattle on the highroads, the stink of rotting crops hangs everywhere, and no man knows when the. harlot's cry will end his life--and you wonder yet if rebellion's spoke? The Puritans did not use science or logic, they relied on God and his. book.
Without science, they explained natural occurrences, like rain, by. Is Homelessness! saying that God was angry and was trying to wash away the sins of humanity. Thus, the Puritans were very superstitious. Researchpaper Of Terrorism In The Meadle East! Witches never existed, however. their superstitious belief in what, witchcraft and the Devil led them to think. otherwise. Men Evidence! For example, the town beggar asks for food from Farmer Brown. Framer Brown is a very religious, hard-working, family-man, and he is is homelessness, not. English Works Writing! about the relinquish a portion of his hard-earned food to this feeble beggar. As he politely turns away, the beggar mumbles an what, obscenity. Upon closing the.
door to 12 angry essay, his cabin on the beggar, Farmer Brown's young son falls down and. breaks a bone. Immediately, the what is homelessness old beggar is to blame, superstition points. everything in the beggar's direction. She was hungry, asked for a donation. from Farmer Brown and she is turned away. Being a little upset by Farmer. Brown's actions, she tells him to do something to himself. Civil! Following that, Farmer Brown's son is injured and he places the blame on the old beggar, claiming that she placed a hex on Brown's family. Brown takes his problem up. with the court, the beggar is convicted and she is what is homelessness, hung. The previous example. shows how superstition influenced the lives of a Puritan family. The theme of. superstition in 12 angry men evidence, depicted in The Crucible on pages 76 and what is homelessness 77, when Elizabeth. Proctor is accused of civil engineering being a witch: Abigail were stabbed tonight; a needle. were found stuck into her belly. [Elizabeth].
And she charges me? (A poppet. was found in her house with a needle in the stomach, however Mary Warren. claimed that it was in there for safe keeping after she sown the poppet for. During the witch trials, a few characters were damming people left and. right for their own profit, sometimes for revenge. Thomas Putnam and Reverend. Parris are among the notorious few who were motivated by greed and revenge. Although it was not stated directly that Parris was looking for money and. What Is Homelessness! land, a few of his conversations lead the reader to the conclusion that Parris. was a televangelist of sorts.
During the play, it was evident that Parris. was concerned more with his reputation and obtaining the deed to the meeting. house. Not long after the fever died, Parris was voted from men evidence, office, walked. out on the highroad and was never heard from again, page 146. The previous. statement mentions the downfall of Parris. It means that once the hype over. the witch trials died out, the people of Salem finally rid themselves of the. corrupt Reverend Parris, who was selfish and cared nothing about the people. Putnam was motivated by his quest for more acreage. During the is homelessness trial of corsica one. What! George Jacobs, Jacobs first mentioned how much land he owned (film version).
The same thing went for John Proctor and one point during the trials, when he. mentioned to the court that he owned 300 acres of land. Abigail Williams is. the embodiment of revenge. She was in love with John Proctor, but she didn't. feel the english writing same way for his wife. Consequently, Elizabeth Proctor was charged. as being a witch, although she would be spared until she bore her baby.
The theme of judgment and authority revolves around the Puritans' belief. in theocracy. In The Crucible, the what court held power which was influenced by. the church, unlike modern society in which there is a separation of church and. state. Thesis Banks! The court in the play allowed spectral evidence, which could be proven. or disproved by a religious event or person. The main example of theocracy, is the fact that the courts held trials regarding witchcraft, which has its. roots with the Devil and Hell. In fact, the whole play revolves around. theocracy and this theme of judgment and authority, it was about witchcraft. and witchcraft trials. However, there were key individuals that made this. system effective, effective in is homelessness, this instance by putting followers of the Devil. to death. The first key individual was Judge Danforth.
Danforth lead the. high court of personal Salem and decided the fate of 18 Salemites. Danforth could be. described as a tough, yet fair judge during these trials. The other key. What! individuals were Cheever and Hathorne, who also helped decide whether the. accused was innocent or guilty, although they did not possess as much power as. The theme of justice is very evident throughout the play, since Miller. dedicated the entire third act to a court room drama.
Justice is the play is. not fair, considering that Danforth didn't believe Proctor's word that the. girls were faking their ailments. Essay! Justice also seemed to be influenced by the. public's opinion, if someone of a lower class was accused and not well liked. among the what is homelessness other classes, then they would be convicted and put to death. One. of the main characters that publicly stated his opinion on essay justice and the. court system was Reverend Hale. When he witnessed the corruption of the court. and realized that the entire proceedings was a big life, Hale declared his. departure from the court of Salem. I denounce these proceedings, I quit this. court! What also showed the corruption of the court, was how Hathorne. What! conducted his investigations.
Hathorne scared confessions out the defendants, because he would get in their face and yell at them, sometimes forcing the. defendant into tears. This is most evident in the film version of The. Crucible, because the actions of Hathorne and the other magistrates is easier. The Crucible was also written on the principles of historical drama. It tells of a time when the principles of personal death our society where in the early. stages of creation. The Puritans are like our modern society, yet much. primitive. They had their own sets of is homelessness laws and governing bodies, as was seen. in The Crucible. Unlike modern society and culture, punishments for researchpaper of terrorism in the, those. who broke any law were much harsher, including death. In the play, anyone who. Is Homelessness! was convicted of witchcraft was put to men evidence, death. Is Homelessness! Today, someone who does that. might go to jail and possibly put on trial, but the death penalty for. witchcraft in civil engineering, 2000 would be rare.
Man, you will hang! You cannot, Reverend. Hale to what is homelessness, John Proctor when Proctor tears up his confession. However, modern. society has adopted principles different to personal essay, that formed by the Puritans. Unlike the Puritans, there is a definite separation of church and state. And. one final principal adopted by modern society and is homelessness culture that was based on. principles formed by the Puritans and that was evident in the play, is a. social order. Back in the seventeenth century and management thesis indian banks as seen in is homelessness, The Crucible, people were grouped according to their financial and personal essay death social status: poor, middle or working class, and what the gentlemen or wealthy class. During the time. that the trials were held, the 12 angry classes discriminated against the lower of the. What Is Homelessness! three. This is indian, evident even today's society, although it is not as harsh as. it was in the seventeenth century. Finally, the theme of fear of the unknown played a major role in the. play. The Puritans did not know what was going on and did not know what was. causing the madness in what, Salem, Massachusetts.
For all they knew, it was the. actual battle of Good vs. Evil in their own village. The people were scared. since they had no idea what was going on. This theme even applies to thesis indian, today. A great example of being afraid of the unknown is being afraid of the dark, a. common fear among millions of Americans. These people do not know what lurks. in the dark, if anything, and they do not know what will happen to them if. they enter the darkness. Comparing this to the Salem tragedies, the villagers. did not know what was going on in the dark or what would happen to them if. they entered the dark, witchcraft and the trials that followed being the dark.
In conclusion, the is homelessness above themes played an integral role in The Crucible. They added to the overall impact that the play made on the reader's or. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.
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Logistics and Operations Management of IKEA Company. This paper draws on the model that operations and what is homelessness, logistic management form the base of any organization with its mission geared towards efficient production and death, distribution of goods and what is homelessness, services in the right quantity and quality as well as in men evidence essay the right place and at the right time. In the business environment, organizations draws on the strategic models of is homelessness logistics and operations management to make valuable contributions towards design, implementations and system management for the deployment of physical facilities, personnel, in-process inventories, raw materials as well as finished gods and services in the most efficient way. Need essay sample on Logistics and Operations Management of IKEA Company ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $13.90/page. Business and economics analysts argue that logistics and operations management facilitates a concise approach to supply chain, from the acquisition of raw materials, productions of to copy goods and services to the point where they are consumed. IKEA Group is what a National Competitive Advantage of Swedish Company founded in 1943. It operates a multinational chain of 12 angry essay stores for home furniture and furnishing; specializing in is homelessness stylish but inexpensive Scandinavian design furniture, and thus enjoying the researchpaper of terrorism reputation of a world’s largest furniture retailer.
Over the years, IKEA Group has employed strategic logistics in its operations, production and marketing (Chary, 2004, pp35-37). Examining the case of IKEA Groups, logistics and operations management has propelled the company to designs its products in a pattern that disassemble the entire unit and transport parts of the furniture in flat packages. The corporate interplay between IKEA’S corporate strategy and the business model of logistics and operations management is evident in the evolution of is homelessness IKEA’S expansion strategies, business model, supply chain planning and processes as well as the relationship between Ikeas’ management, its suppliers, warehouse operations and store design. The Interplay between IKEA’S Corporate Strategy and Operations Management Research shows that the operations functions of IKEA reflect a relationship with its corporate strategy by exhibiting strategic operations management, supply chain planning, processes and control (Chary, 2004, pp113-114). Accordingly, the productions of goods and services in IKEA Company involve the organizations commitment and ability to responsibly ensure that business operations in the company are not only efficient but also effective. In light of this, IKEA has drawn from logistics and operations management to paint a business picture of its corporate strategy manifested in the management of resources, production as well as distribution of goods and services to customers in personal an efficient queue system. Hoek and Harrison (2008, pp 76-77) postulates that operations and logistics management of IKEA focuses on the concise approach of achieving their goal enshrined in their motto, “ Affordable Solutions for Better Living”. IKEA expresses a relationship between the whole concept of operations management and its corporate business strategy by using the company’s resources in an effective way and thus gain huge profits by what is homelessness, equally developing a more economic pedestal of producing their wide range of goods.
This dimension has made IKEA company to work closely with its suppliers in a bid to control elements of business from the production line to supply chain management. To Copy Corsica! Unlike many furniture stores, IKEA builds on operations and logistics management to sell goods that are meant to is homelessness be assembled by the customer. This operations planning has enabled IKEA to efficiently use the depts gallaudet writing an essay available space in the warehouse. The company extensively uses operations management to reinforce its corporate strategy by developing business methods that satisfies customers with the wide use of technology as well as their unique selling points such as stock control (Greasley, 1999, pp 217-219). Operations Strategy of IKEA Company IKEA stands out in its supply chain due to its idiosyncratic operations strategy which is inspired by its mission to offer a wide range of furniture of excellent quality, durability as well as lows prices that most customers can afford to buy (Chary, 2004, pp 86-87).
The primary operations strategy is enshrined in the innovative approach of IKEA founder to design functional furniture that are inexpensive to build, receive them at what is homelessness the stores when they are already disassembled and display them in the showrooms thus making the need for sale people almost unnecessary (Kent, 2006, p 192). Accordingly, IKEA benefits from this operations strategy by modeling its operations and logistics management to empower customers to typically spend some time in the store. In this distinguished approach, IKEA achieves a competitive edge in the market place and essay death, makes shopping at its store more of an what is homelessness endearing experience. IKEA stores double up the engineering phd thesis role of a warehouse and they are build for the purpose of browsing such that the furniture are displayed in what is homelessness the stores as it would be in a home setting . Rosenfield et al, (2005, pp 311-312) argue that although this operations strategy seem simple, it enables shoppers to essays to copy corsica see everything in terms of IKEA’S products, ranging from kitchen wares, furniture to bowl soups under one roof. Arguably, the what genius of this business model is inherently built in phd thesis the flat packed, assemble at home beds, cabinets, bookcases and other furniture; a concept that reduces the operations cost by what is homelessness, making the customers half producers and half consumers.
Operating just like a warehouse, IKEA Company produces a high volume of products that are easily self-assembled. With regard to this, Fender et al (1998, pp 62-63) argue that IKEA is able to operate in many companies thereby allowing for management thesis indian banks the economies of scale and reduce its productions well as operations cost and still maintain a high volume production. Similarly, there is a variety of what is homelessness dimension in IKEA’S operations strategy such that its furniture becomes the value for money within a wide range of choices. For example, IKEA designs its products to be stored and death, sold as flat packs that can be easily assembled by the customer. In addition, IKEA promotes its products in a modular perspectives allowing for varied dimensions of the same product to personalize to yield greater variety. Accordingly, these varied dimensions allow IKEA as a company to offer greater variety for its products without the necessity of holding larger amounts of what is homelessness stocks in the stores. Significantly, IKEA builds on the unique operations management where customers have the flexibility of moving around the stores to pick whatever they want thus eliminating the need for sales personnel. The philosophy behind this approach is not to hassle the customers but instead allow them to make their shopping decisions at their own convenient time. As such, if customers are in need of any advice, the staff only guides them around the store. Process Types and Layout Design It is essay significant to is homelessness understand that the older stores for IKEA are usually very large often designed around a layout feature that is one way. Schonsleben (2007, pp 91-92) underscores that such layout design leads customers on the natural consumption way.
In essence, this layout design is made to encourage customer to tour the stores and see the engineering phd thesis products in entirety as opposed to the customary retail stores that allow customers to go straight to sections with products they need. What Is Homelessness! Newer IKEA stores on the contrary integrate the use of glass for researchpaper aesthetic as well as functional reasons. In this way, there are advanced self service warehouses, which reduce the is homelessness costs of men evidence energy and is homelessness, improve the morale of the staff, give an improved and better impression of the product. In addition, IKEA involves a warehouse design in their store integrating a showroom and a market place on one end. This allows for the stock to kept and still allow large stock quantities to be accessed at a single day. According to Hoek and Harrison (2008, pp 145-146), most stores of IKEA company are designed in a layout that reflects a unified business platform such that at the end of the warehouse, there is a cashier and similarly, the personal returned, damaged or formerly showcased furniture which are not in the good condition are taken out of the IKEA product range and sold at a significant discount. This means that the operations management and logistic helps IKEA company to communicate the policy of environmental issues. As such, the stores have omitted spaces and the vast stores are located outside the city centers to primarily cushion the element of traffic access and what is homelessness, land costs.
Facility Design The facility design of management thesis IKEA in light with operations and logistics management concerns the what wider angle of moving finished products to the customer. In facility design, Greasley (1888, pp 79-81) argues that the element of physical distribution is factored in, where the customer becomes the final destination in management indian the whole channel of marketing. Accordingly, IKEA Company uses the is homelessness availability of the product as the important aspect of facility design where each participant in the marketing channel makes a significant contribution in the production and consumption of products. Through the process of facility design and physical distribution, IKEA enhances the customer space and management thesis indian, time making it an integral part in the operations management. The logic of this design aims at providing well established warehousing, transport and is homelessness, inventory controls. It also provides IKEA with an opportunity to plan and control supply chains by reaching at strategic decisions.
In addition, the manufacturing flow is enhance through a facility design of this nature where activities related to scheduling, planning and english, supporting production operations such as work in process storages, transportation and emphasizing of components are done in addition with the geographic as well as assemblies of physical distribution operations (Kent, 2006, pp 221-222). Capacity In this dimension, IKEA continues to use the performance management in what is homelessness the wider perspective of logistics and operations management to increase their ability and produce quality products hence afford to gain a competitive advantage. Rosenfield et al (2005, p 318) contend that capacity management of IKEA portrays the ability to enhance production process in large measures through planning that helps in decision making about the men evidence essay overall business investment and growth. IKEA, through capacity management, portend a process of embracing global approaches as well a solutions in managing supply planning and replenishment based on store level forecast. What Is Homelessness! Through various operations and logistics managers, IKEA is corsica building on technology and information technology in a bid to network the operations of its 202 stores across the world. In light of this, Fender et al (1998, pp 67-68) assert that the capacity management of IKEA explain how the company has been able to what is homelessness hold over 3million stock keep units with a variety of products. The reported growth of IKEA over essays to copy corsica the years describes its efficiency in capacity management. Accordingly, the company has managed to work and solve the what is homelessness problems of transparency in supply chain and english works, integrate earlier supply planning and thus rise above the capacity management challenges associated with high inventory costs, and a fragmented information technology. The digital age has paved way for the use of ICT in inventory management and so, IKEA Group relies heavily on the use of is homelessness information technology to track their inventories by civil engineering phd thesis, scanning in and out of any merchandise on a daily basis (Schonsleben, 2007, p 86).
This method, involves the use of a database or other software that are relevant with supply management. Accordingly, the method helps IKEA in the cataloguing of information including the quantity on hand, cost of the item as well as location on the warehouse. Software inventory management gives a clear picture of how items are sold and allows inventory checks to be processed more efficiently and what is homelessness, quickly. Process Design Within the perspectives of logistics and operations management, IKEA Company employs a strategic approach of service characteristics within all operational issues. Scholars have argued that the researchpaper in the east process design of is homelessness operations management works within the wider service unique characteristics (Greasley, 1999, 73-74). In essence, the process design of IKEA include the intangibility, customer influence, heterogeneity, labor intensity as well as the inseparability of both production and consumption aspects of operations management. As service characteristics, the operations management of IKEA uses them within the framework of interdependency. Corsica! According to is homelessness Chary (2004, pp 89-91), the civil engineering process design in these characteristic not only makes them interdependent but also overlap to some degree. As such, IKEA benefits from is homelessness, these processes design by making the operations management easy and efficient.
Essentially, it is plausible to argue that customer interaction, customer contact, customer involvement and phd thesis, participation reflects the impact of IKEA’S process design in operations management. The process design therefore determines the what is homelessness logistic management of inventory management. Primarily, IKEA Group as an organization believes that the ultimate goal of any inventory management system is to facilitate a complete and up to date view of all components in an organization, ranging from assets to capital to turnover. Greasley (1999, pp 176-177) outlines that the fundamental essence of inventory management is to provide an actual state of affairs for all infrastructural components in the organization. Ideally, IKEA benefits from this rationale hence, as an organization; it forms inventory systems, which facilitates easy and efficient retrieval as well as sharing of 12 angry men evidence information either vertically or horizontally. Various ways used by IKEA organization to manage inventory and the overall operations management, borders the precincts of planning, replenishment and control of activities. These inventory management have improved an is homelessness IKEA’S inventory turnover ratio, thus facilitating the transformation of frozen inventory into cash.
The organization’s inventory management is depts works writing one of the biggest in the world with many hubs located across many nations (Kent, 2006, pp 97-98). With this concise process design, IKEA enables the production of goods from the company without the presence of customers then they are stored in the showrooms which facilitates how they are sold. The simultaneous production and consumption that characterizes how IKEA allows the customer to buy and assemble the furniture at home makes the production process exposed for what customer evaluation as well as influence. However, it is plausible to note that the process design of engineering phd thesis IKEA does not present a clear cut distinction between the stages of production and consumption. IKEA Operations Management The approaches of operations management add value to the delivery of IKEA Company by what is homelessness, enhancing the performance and measurement. There is phd thesis a strong interplay between the company and what, customer integration to market share and profitability.
Scholars explain that with the operation strategy and capacity as well as process design, IKEA takes advantage of distribution capabilities and 12 angry, extensive emphasis on the perspectives of supply chain in customer relations as well as the what company’s performance index (Rosenfield et al, 2005, p 318). In addition, the gallaudet english works writing company realizes logistics competencies by creating and maintains a competitive advantage. Manufacturing firms that engage in operations management such as IKEA, benefit from the performance measurement that improves the is homelessness overall productivity of the company. Facility design, process types and layout design are concepts of operations management that enhances the company’s delivery value in light with quality and reduced distribution costs. Improving Operations and Logistic Management in IKEA Implement leagility in personal Supply Chains According to Greasley (1999, pp 56-57) leagility, defined within the precincts of supply chain design, is the combination of both agility with lean capabilities within a single supply chain. It therefore follows that IKEA group should improve its inventory by using leagility because it works best in is homelessness operational terms as lean capabilities contributing largely to researchpaper of terrorism in the meadle east agile performance. In addition, Chary (2004, p221) underscores that leagility is the logistic approach that is what is homelessness required to essay fit succinctly within a purely agile supply chain strategy as opposed to a rather lean approach.
Inventory results using this model will optimize asset utilization in terms of manufacturing because of the variability driven by demand spikes such as customer order, by manufacturing processes themselves in the light of logistical upsets. Outsource Inventory Another approach to inventory management that IKEA should build on what is to apply service-parts technology to the inbound supply side such as vendor managed inventory system. Indian Banks! For proof of concept, IKEA Group has virtually no inventory other than the finished product shipped to customers. The entire inbound supply-side inventory is maintained by IKEA vendors and as a result, this approach makes organization’s no-inventory claim somewhat disingenuous. Significantly, the suppliers are carrying the inventory in plants and warehouses camped production plant. However, somewhere a happy medium exists in what IKEA’s managed inventory (Hoek and Harrison, 2008, pp 345-346). Conclusion The fundamentals of any company’s success rest on the elimination of wastes and gallaudet english writing an essay, maximization of profits. Inventory management and transportation approaches in what is homelessness supply chains designs, comes in handy by helping supply managers of management indian IKEA Company, in achieving this coveted business goal. From the foregoing discussions, it is evident that effective logistics and operations management through the various available methods have made it possible for what IKEA to benefit from over production and essays to copy, eliminate unnecessary processing. By including logistics management and workflow, IKEA has set up thresholds and other parameters for what a wide variety of variables associated with forecasts, customer demand, production, material movement, and logistics management.
In addition, efficient operations management increases the organization’s success in satisfying customers’ demand and at men evidence the same time reduces the control of daily logistics operations. Bibliography Chary, W. 2004. Productions and operations Management: A Case of what IKEA Company. New York: McGraw Hill Fender, M et al. 1998. Global Operations and Logistics. London: John Willey and Sons. Greasley, A. 1999. Civil Engineering! Operations Management in Business.
London: Nelson Thornes books Hoek, R and Harrison, A. Is Homelessness! 2008. Logistic Management and Strategy. Competing Through Supply Chain. Oxford: Prentice Hall Kent, G. 2006. Operation and Logistics Management: A competitive Advantage in the 21st Century.
London: Blackwell Publishers Rosenfield, D et al. 2005. Thesis Indian Banks! Modern Logistic Management: Integrating Manufacturing, Marketing and is homelessness, Physical Distribution. New York: Sage Books Schonsleben, P. 2007. Management Indian Banks! Integral Operations and Logistics Management in Comprehensive Value added Networks.
New York: Routledge. The Homemaker Riot of is homelessness 1886. In May 4, 1886 the Homemaker riot in the police clashed violent whit militant anarchists and labor movement protesters in Chicago. The strong public and state reaction against the Homemaker protesters has been palled the first red scare in death U. S history. The Homemaker Riot grew out of labor unrest … Population growth has its own effects on economic growth of a country, which can be negative or positive first we will look in to the negatively effecting factors of population growth: 1) Due to increase in Population Consumption Increases, which will decrease, GNP/ GAP and Imports will increase and Exports Fall down Budget Defect is is homelessness … Distinction between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics Distinction between microeconomics and Macroeconomics Microeconomics is the study of individual economic units of an economy whereas macroeconomics is the essay study of aggregates of an economy as a whole.
For example, when we study of an individual sugar mill manufacturing sugar, our study is micro analysis but if we study … Introduction Economic sociology is an attempt by sociologists to redefine in sociological terms questions traditionally addressed by what is homelessness, economists. It is thus also an answer to attempts by economists to works writing bring economic approaches – in particular utility mastication and game theory – to the analysis of social situations that are not obviously related to production or …
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What is homelessness? - Shelter England
Toys R Us Marketing Strategies: Success #038; Failure Essay. Introduction – There are many factors at play with regards to what is homelessness, the rise of the toy company Toys R Us in global renown. One of the crucial factors at play here is the role of marketing and how the company’s marketing contributed immensely during the periods of 12 angry essay great success and humbling defeat for the company. Toys R Us managed to realize one of the effective business formulas: sell something with a consistent market, and the toys that the is homelessness company sell always have kids eagerly waiting for every doll, action figure, bicycle or basketball that adults will purchase at gallaudet english, Toys R Us, lovingly wrap in a gift wrapper and lodge under the Christmas tree or by the kid’s bedside. Unfortunately, the formula for success for Toys R Us is not as simple as gift-wrapping or gift-giving, and this paper will try to identify some of the is homelessness key points that mark the success and failure of Toys R Us’ marketing strategies and efforts and provide an analysis on why things led to such eventuality. Successful marketing – There is no doubt that the 12 angry men evidence essay marketing efforts of Toys R Us in the past were indeed successful. The company is what very good in letting people know that Toys R Us is the place to go to for toys. The marketing effort of Toys R Us was so good that despite the fact that most critiques do not find the stores of Toys R Us as at the very least appealing and enjoyable, parents and other adults in need of toys buck the Toys R Us experience simply because Toys R Us was able to stand true to engineering, the message of is homelessness its marketing strategy – that every single toy is found inside every Toys R Us. Diorio (2001) wrote about this particular scenario wherein marketing and advertising totally outplayed the factors that might have pushed customers away, saying that “Toys R Us built a brand experience that brought customers into noisy, cavernous warehouses, where bikes and dolls and baby strollers were packed to the rafters and essays to copy corsica children were drag-racing around the aisles in shopping carts. Despite these unappealing features, adults packed the store, especially during the holiday season, because the Toys R Us brand was esteemed for its breadth and depth of what is homelessness inventory. Whatever the of terrorism in the hot toy of the moment was, a parent could find it at Toys R Us (Diorio, 2001, p. 75).”
Toys R Us, despite the problems it faced in what the past, should be commended nonetheless for 12 angry essay the efforts that it continually explores and undertakes to provide its marketing strategy with the much needed flexibility. Toys R Us and its marketing efforts and strategies have consistently considered both the changing features of its target market as well as the changes happening among its production and is homelessness manufacturing alliances. In doing so, Toys R Us and its marketing is providing the essays to copy corsica company with flexibility and more options for their current and future marketing attack. What. “Age compression has meant shorter and shorter life cycles. Therefore, toy retailers [and] manufacturers need to accelerate their response to the market. Toys R Us is proceeding in depts gallaudet english writing the right direction by is homelessness, helping manufacturers to design toys. A proactive strategy with manufacturers that might even result in partnership marketing should be favorably viewed (Michman, Mazze, 2001, p. 204).” Seiter (2003) pointed out to copy, that “Behind My Little Pony and Ghostbusters toys stand developments and strategies now institutionalized in the US toy industry today; deseasonalization, the encouragement of toy buying at times other than the Christmas season; character licensing, the use of is homelessness popular fictional characters for management indian banks a fee or a share of the profits as the design or decoration on toys; consumer research, in the form of test marketing; and line extensions, new characters and accessories added to is homelessness, successful toys (Seiter, 2003, p. 194).” This idea points to the changing social condition which Toys R Us, through its intuitive marketing acumen, took full advantage of. No one is really sure which institution started the cycle that made the shift possible and society-altering; some say its television and the mass media while others say that there were conscious efforts for toy makers to add an additional thrust so that there is an civil, every growing consciousness for the need to buy their products; some say it is the handiwork of the businessmen who foresaw the social changes that will make it perfect for the new role of is homelessness toys in the human social life while others simply believe that it was a case of everything coming together and hitting the once in a lifetime jackpot that established the toy store as one of the legitimate and solid industry in the facade of the modern business world.
Whatever the real reason was, the essays only thing certain is that Toys R Us and its marketing efforts were clearly in tune with the changes that happened in what is homelessness the course of time, allowing them to establish a niche for itself and a name that many other companies would attempt to defeat in the years to come. For what it is 12 angry men evidence now, Toys R Us clearly owes it to strong and solid marketing of the brand. Marketing and is homelessness cross cultural efforts – Another solid point for Toys R Us marketing is the vision of the company to corsica, expand outwards towards foreign countries and develop plans for cross cultural marketing which fitted like a glove. Take for example the what case of the Toys R Us expansion in Japan: despite the prevailing status quo when it comes to toy marketing and of terrorism in the selling, the what is homelessness pre-Toys R Us Japan have a more complex way of doing things, something that they are not ready to disregard in exchange for the new Americanized system. But because of the men evidence essay insistence and soundness of the approach that Toys R Us is bent on taking when it comes to their marketing and overall efforts in is homelessness the Land of the Rising Sun, Japan and its erstwhile unwavering style in toy selling finally yielded to the pressure made by Toys R Us. As Herbig (2005) noted in his book Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing, “Japanese toy manufacturers have traditionally sold through the convoluted, multi-tiered distribution system of Japan and initially refused to sell Toys R Us. Toys R Us retained its marketing strategy of signing low-cost direct supply contracts with manufacturers who also provided promotional funds. Toys R Us, by buying direct from manufacturers, eliminated the multiple layers of wholesalers which was so prevalent in Japan (Herbig, 2005, p. 197).” The result was fast growth and great market acceptance.
By the time the company marked its second year stay in the island, Toys R Us already have 16 superstores, and it will increase to thesis banks, up to 35 two years later. The Japan operations of Toys R Us were letter perfect and what is homelessness yielded a very positive income report, even surpassing the $10 million dollars that the US companies earned via the 20 million US dollars worth of income in the Japan base of operation. Clearly, the Japan expansion of Toys R Us once again showed the strength not just of the company’s operational capability, but also highlighted the success in of terrorism the market project and marketing efforts that the what company have designed and pursued in the belief that it was the action plan necessary for success. Barging inside the tightly-knit culture of researchpaper of terrorism east Japan and cornering the supply of one of the what important aspects of Japanese childhood is no easy feat, especially with the fact that almost every business entity in Japan – wholesalers, retailers, owners of lots for lease, etc – were hesitant to support the essays to copy American brand that brings with it the American culture of trade and commerce. But Toys R Us managed to what, survive and men evidence essay pass with flying colors, a feat owed largely to the solid marketing of the company, making Toys R Us and its efforts in its Japan expansion one of the textbook cases in cross cultural marketing.
As Melville (1999) puts it in his book, “Toys R Us came to what is homelessness, be as a test case, and thesis indian it did successfully enter and challenged established Japanese toy wholesaler-retailers in price, variety and patronage. Its presence came as part of double blow to local toy suppliers, who were hit soon after by the recession. What. In 1991, the year Toys R Us entered Japan, seven Japanese toy retailers went bankrupt; in just the 12 angry men evidence first ten months of 1996 there were 15 toy retailer bankruptcies (Melville, 1999, 198).” The failure in the Dutch front – While Toys R Us showed strength in marketing in the Japan front, there are also some weak spot for what is homelessness the overall cross cultural effort of Toys R Us. One of the examples of the failures of the Toys R Us when it comes to marketing competitively globally through sound marketing strategies happened in the Dutch operations of Toys R Us. When Toys R Us tried to establish itself as the toy supplier giant among the Dutch as it was among US and Japanese consumers, Toys R Us found out that its marketing strategies and efforts, along with some logistic and operational concerns, where not sufficient and sound enough to break the existing toy store blocs found in the country.
As Furse (2007) noted in management thesis indian his book The Law of what Merger control in the EC and the UK, “Toys R Us was one of the largest toys retailers in the world, and the Dutch subsidiary was wholly owned by the US parent. However, in essays corsica the Dutch market, the Commission accepted that Toys R Us suffered from is homelessness, structural weaknesses and made marketing errors which severely limited its ability to compete strongly on the Dutch market (Furse, 2007, p. 175).” US cross cultural marketing – But the idea of cross cultural marketing strategy that Toys R Us was brandishing in countries outside of the phd thesis United States will be put to good use when the what issue of producing ethnically correct toys hit the consciousness of Toys R Us to brass. Despite being hailed as the land of the free where everyone is created equal under God, the gods of toymaking seemed to be not putting too much attention to the fact that there is a growing concern in the fact that not all girls with ethnic background wants to 12 angry men evidence essay, be transformed into the blonde, leggy Barbie; some are voicing concerns over what, the fact that despite being dubbed as the store with the largest selection of toys, Toys R Us do not hold sufficient number of toys which are ethnically correct. The question now for Toys R Us is management indian this – what if all of the non-white girls clamor for dolls with skin color similar to them? The Barbie supply line cannot answer that, and counting the number of patrons that the company is set to lose if actions are not made immediately to address the supply of what is homelessness ethnically correct dolls, Toys R Us knew it did not need a calculator to have an overview of an impending massive income loss, ergo the shift towards supporting the creation and civil sale of ethnically correct toys. Chin (2001) wrote, “For minority toymakers, attempting to refashion the racial diversity on the shelves of a large retailer like Toys R Us or Target, their task is convincing these eight-hundred-pound gorillas that ethnically correct toys can make money, not that stocking their stores with a multicultural array of toys is the socially progressive thing to do. Toys R Us has been very supportive of up-and-coming manufacturers of ethnically correct toys notably Olmec and Playmates (Chin, 2001, p.161).” Signs of uncertainty in the marketing front – Some analysts wonder why it took so long for Toys R Us to what is homelessness, jump into the e-commerce bandwagon and protect its new sales channel: online purchasing. Kalakota and Robinson (2000) believed that Toys R Us, along with other big named entities, are not very much sold to the idea of selling online, guessing the reasons why these entities they called the ‘traditionalists’ are not willing disciples of the new form of trade which many consumer opted for because of convenience, above all the essay other reasons. What Is Homelessness. The unsure stance of Toys R Us when it comes to embracing e-commerce was no doubt one of the civil phd thesis reasons why its marketing aspect experienced a temporary glitch.
But Toys R Us have a reason for what is homelessness opting towards hard, solid traditional marketing and market strategy. Men Evidence. “Opposing the what is homelessness trend and protecting the status quo are the old guard, big retailers such as Toys R Us, and manufacturers of brand names, such as Mattel, Hasbro, and Parker Brothers. The traditionalists are worried that selling to customers directly will wreak havoc on management thesis indian banks their finely tuned retail channels, pricing structures, and channel distribution (Kalakota and Robinson, 2000, p. 36).” The Folly of what Toys R Us – Some would say that one way of looking at Toys R Us’ problematic 1999 year ender is to consider that the problem of the company originated from the phd thesis fact that it was very, very good in marketing and is homelessness advertising. Meadle East. But of course, that is what just one piece of the truth. Essays. They were very, very good in what is homelessness advertising and marketing but was at the same time very, very bad in logistics, preparation and management that the incompetency in the production and indian banks management line was somewhat attributed to the marketing and advertising teams’ strong and is homelessness consistent effort. People might ask what happened and how come some fingers are pointing towards the efficiency of marketing and advertising efforts for the problem that haunted Toys R Us before, during and a few months after the Christmas season. Here is a retrospective of the scenario that set off one of the most horrible moments in the history of civil engineering Toys R Us and is homelessness the performance of its marketing, advertising and essays corsica production and what is homelessness stock inventory teams. By 1998, e-commerce was experiencing a very good upswing when it comes to consumer dependency on online purchasing.
Among those which were sought and paid online were toys. By Christmas, the peak of the toy-buying frenzy, Toys R Us, with its weaker online presence compared to its competitors, was nowhere near the top 20, let alone the top slot. Diorio (2001) reported about Toys R Us’ dismal performance online, “Online, Toys R Us got a late start into electronic selling. First mover advantage went to eToys.com, which became the essay fifth-most-visited retail website over the 1998 Christmas season. What Is Homelessness. Toysrus.com came in a dismal 33rd in essays to copy corsica the same year’s ranking and posted a $132 million net loss for the quarter (Diorio, 2001, p. 75).” Because of this humiliating experience, Toys R Us promised to return with a vengeance, and it did. Bolstered by a strong online presence the following year, Toys R Us is positioned where they should have been the previous year, at what is homelessness, the top of the list of management thesis indian banks consumers who are looking at is homelessness, buying their toy supplies for the season online. By the 12 angry men evidence essay time Toys R Us knew they were top of what is homelessness store based and internet based toy selling, everyone was satisfied with the way marketing and advertising outmuscled the odds and civil engineering reversed the situation at Toys R Us in what less than twelve months. But the air of celebration will be short lived, because an impending tragedy is civil engineering set to hit Toys R Us, impacting them with the same blow as they experience the previous year, only in a different form.
With orders coming from online purchasers for toys pouring in a fast pace, the company found out what is homelessness, soon that it does not have enough to management indian banks, cater to what, customers. Long before Christmas, the company stopped receiving and taking online orders, and many consumers were outraged over Toys R Us, with what seemed to be a case of misleading marketing and advertising campaigns by the company; for the consumers, it was simple – they were made by the marketing and advertising efforts to believe at something that the company cannot really deliver. “In the debacle that followed, lawsuits were filed, thousands of disgruntled customers were issued credits and $100 gift certificates, and the company paid a $350,000 fine to the US Federal Trade Commission to settle claims that it had misled customers. Hundreds of news reports disparaged the company name. 12 Angry Men Evidence Essay. While eToys also reported some inventory problems, the what is homelessness brand damage was far worse at thesis indian banks, Toys R Us (Diorio, 2001, p. 75).” Conclusion – Over the years of its operation, Toys R Us have learned many important lessons because of its success and failure in the marketing side of operations. Take for example the meltdown in 1999; the what is homelessness important marketing strategies that Toys R Us learned from that particular experience include customer care and the opting for intelligent operations for particular course of action.
“The Toys R Us experience underscores the importance of customer care in branding. No online initiative is worthwhile if a customer’s Web experience damages the gallaudet english works an essay reputation of the brand. In the end, Toys R Us found it was best to co-brand with an experienced partner. For many traditional companies, sacrificing corporate ego – partnering to brand online instead of going it alone – may be the better path to building an online reputation” (Diorio, 2001). But perhaps, the most important marketing move made by Toys R Us is reflected in the understanding of the role, significance and is homelessness market power of toys in the overall economic and english writing an essay trade landscape, and the effort to is homelessness, maximize this situation by creating a marketing effort built and depts an essay designed to squeeze out every ounce of juice-profit from this currently existing social scenario.
Seiter (2003) provided an insightful scenario on what circumstance exactly did Toys R Us managed to make the most of, and using not just mere luck or happenstance but intensive marketing effort to ensure not only the sustenance of such circumstance but also the longevity of the social trend that has engulfed homes and families transcending financial, social and is homelessness cultural boundaries. Essays To Copy Corsica. Toys R Us, after all, markets itself as a toy store that is not bound by financial, social and cultural limitations; everyone can find something for them and what is homelessness their child in the store, or so their campaign efforts consistently remind the thesis public. “Each of these can be readily observed in the retailing practices and physical space of the giant of the retailing industry, Toys R Us, where licensed toys are found in the greatest abundance of the cheapest price of all toy stores. Toys R Us and what the mass marketed nationally advertised goods (known in the toy industry as promotional toys) that fill its shelves offer one version of the personal death toy culture (Seiter, 2003, p. 193).” Seiter (2003) also wrote that, “consumer goods – and, I would add, especially toys – express and negotiate generational conflicts. The balance of power has shifted, however, in the negotiation between parents and children. Mass media targeted at children have shortened the period of exclusively parental influence over children. What. A distinctive, peer-oriented consumer culture now intervenes in the relationship of parents and children, and that intervention begins for many children as early as two years of researchpaper of terrorism age (Seiter, 2003, p. 193).” Simply said, social factors enhanced the pressure for children to demand toys from parents and for parents to yield to this need. Toys R Us comes into the equation by marketing itself as the what place wherein the negotiation between the parent and corsica child can be settled. Everyone goes home happy.
The resulting business success of this marketing strategy makes Toys R Us the happiest of is homelessness them all. Toys R Us also deserves an A for their effort for of terrorism meadle supporting and selling ethnically correct toys, erasing the notion that Toys R Us is serving the needs of the exclusive toy buying white upper class American, and in the process expanding the market base via the general acceptance of individuals despite their cultural differences. What Toys R Us managed to do in is homelessness this particular instance is mark a victory in the effort against marginalization, and this particular effort was realized again by the move of Toys R Us to recognize changing social weather climate and adjusting to management thesis indian banks, these changes to is homelessness, allow income and growth to essays corsica, come in and make the changes profitable for the company. “Mattel launched its much-vaunted Shani doll in 1991; during the 1992 Christmas season Toys R Us was quietly and cautiously test-marketing ethnically correct dolls in Atlanta and Philadelphia. Is Homelessness. Toymakers who could not rely on the sell-appeal of the Barbie connection held their collective breath…All the major toymakers – Mattel, Hasbro, Kenner and Tyco – rushed a variety of line to market, and Toys R Us hired the thesis Mingo Group, the nation’s largest minority-owned advertising agency, to launch a marketing campaign aimed at African American consumers (Chin, 2001, p. What Is Homelessness. 161).”
Recommendation – One of the recommendations that any professional would make is for Toys R Us, despite the engineering blunders it made in the past involving marketing, to never stop changing and adapting to the times. Industries are subjected to the change being imposed by the changes that happen in the different social strata like economics, technology, trade and politics. Is Homelessness. Toys R Us should not stop and 12 angry men evidence ponder too much on its mistakes and instead look ahead so that no other similar bumps would be experienced in the future. Michman and Mazze (2001) explained that “niche retailers in is homelessness the toy industry have acknowledged that many time-honored ways of doing things are rapidly becoming obsolete. An operating reality for niche retailers has been the departure from past strategies that has been made possible new technologies.
Many formulas that were successful in to copy corsica the past have led to failure. Toys R Us is endeavoring to change in a volatile environment (Michman and Mazze, 2001, p. 204).” This is a good sign for Toys R Us, a company which should be given due credit for managing to surpass critical challenges that sometimes sent the marketing team to the ropes. Yes, credit goes to them because while Toys R Us is in the business of what selling play things, they also made sure that they come out ready to play, despite the changes that might have affected the company and the industry where it operates. Chin, Elizabeth M. Gallaudet Writing. (April 2001). Purchasing Power: Black Kids and American Consumer. Culture.
USA: University of Minnesota Press. Diorio, Stephen (November 2001). Beyond “e”: 12 Ways Technology is Transforming Sales. Marketing. McGraw-Hill Companies. Furse, Mark. Is Homelessness. (February 2007).
The Law of Merger Control in the EC and essays the UK .UK: Hart. Herbig, Paul A. (January 2005). What. Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing . Taylor Francis, Kalakota, Ravi and Robinson, Marcia (December 2000). e-Business 2.0: Roadmap for. Melville, Ian (April 1999). Marketing in Japan . Butterworth-Heinemann. Michman, Ronald D. and Mazze, Edward M. (February 2001).
Specialty Retailers – Marketing Triumphs and Blunders . Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. Seiter, Ellen. (August 2003). Sold Separately: Parents and Children in Consumer Culture . Rutgers University Press. Toys R Us (2008). Retrieved June 11, 2008, from essays to copy, www.toysrus.com. Wolk, Martin (March 2, 2006). Toys ‘R’ Us wins suit against what is homelessness Amazon.com . MSNBC. Retrieved June 11, 2008, from depts gallaudet english an essay, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11641703/ University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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What is homelessness? - Shelter England
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Adam, the Fall, and Original Sin: A Review Essay. Stephen N. Williams. Stephen Williams is professor of systematic theology at Union Theological College in Belfast, Northern Ireland, and served as general editor of Themelios from 1995 to 1999. The contributors to Adam, the what Fall, and Original Sin rightly maintain the traditional view of the historicity of Adam and depts works the entry of sin into the world through him. However, the what is homelessness account displays three weaknesses. English An Essay. Firstly, the inerrant authority of Scripture is sometimes interpreted as entailing that the Ancient Near Eastern context of Genesis sheds no light on how it should be read. Secondly, the question of why humans are justly condemned for the sin of Adam is never answered. Thirdly, no ground for dialogue with science is provided. It is more successful in indicating what we should affirm than in grappling with the difficulties of affirming it. Tritely told, the story goes like this. Religious belief, in its very principle, is what a matter of opinion, and when opinion is civil converted into dogmatism, that has been and is a recipe for social conflict.
Scientific belief may, in what practice, also be a matter of opinion, but it possesses what religious belief does not: the capacity to be based on evidence which may amount to knowledge. Essay. It provides a basis for social well-being. Science is the product of reason; religion is the product of faith. So much for principle. What Is Homelessness. As for application, Darwinism has long demonstrated the broad scope and mechanism of our evolutionary history and decisively undermined biblical anthropology. There is a choice: a faith-based religious anthropology or a reason-based neo-Darwinian anthropology. It is obvious which constitutes the intellectually responsible option. An historical Adam, fall and original sin does not.
Hans Madueme and Michael Reeves have gathered together a team of authors resolved to combat this position, not in the spirit of those who merely do not wish to cede this particular piece of territory but with the essays corsica conviction of those who regard this combat more or less as a battle for what the existence of Christianity.1 Their aim is to persuade, but the audience is strictly limited; one of the essayists, Carl Trueman, justifiably says that he assumes ‘that this volume is aimed primarily at a Protestant evangelical readership’. It is aimed at this audience because self-regarding evangelicals are now among those taking up positions once associated with non-evangelicals, specifically when they question the thesis indian historicity of Adam and Eve. Hence, in part 1, the what contributors deal with Adam and 12 angry essay Eve in the Bible. Rather than jump from that point into original sin in Scripture, an essay on ‘Adam and Modern Science’ closes this part before the second part of the volume traces the doctrine of original sin in the history of theology. Then come four essays which concentrate on the substantive theological question of original sin in our day before a fourth and what is homelessness final part deals again with biblical materials not in order to investigate their witness to the historicity of Adam but to examine what they say about the fall. To Copy Corsica. The closing essay is on ‘Adam, History and what is homelessness Theodicy’. I am grateful for the invitation to write an article review of this volume. It is a little unusual for someone whose published commendation of a volume appears on the volume itself to be reviewing it. On the basis of management thesis indian banks, correspondence extending over two or three years, by now, Hans knows that we differ on what is homelessness some significant points and 12 angry it is not only gracious but also a sign of transparency on his part to promote this exchange in Themelios . If I concentrate on points of difference, it is only because this best serves our present purpose. Some essays are stronger than others, but I shall not be trumpeting my opinion on the quality of individual essays.
It is as well to what is homelessness place my commendatory cards on the table from the outset. On the question of the 12 angry men evidence historical existence of Adam and the entry of sin into the world through him, I believe that the is homelessness tradition both rightly interprets Scripture and rightly stands theologically by men evidence essay, its teachings. Here, I find that the volume is persuasive, and I am now happy to say so. C. What. John Collins and Robert Yarbrough get us off to a good start, their chapters laying down the solid foundations on essays corsica which subsequent theological exploration can be built. After a study of Genesis 1–5, Collins describes the way in which ‘the rest of the Old Testament refers to, evokes, or presupposes the story of Adam and Eve’ (p. 5). Crucial to this argument is the claim that OT materials demonstrate this reference even when the story is not explicitly cited. What Is Homelessness. A sample of extra-biblical Jewish writings from the Second Temple period interprets the Genesis story similarly, so ‘the whole Old Testament story presupposes the essay historical significance of Adam and Eve as the fountainhead of humanity and as the doorway by what, which sin came into God’s world’ (p. Gallaudet English Works. 5).
Robert Yarbrough follows this through in relation to the NT, establishing the continuity between Pauline and OT presuppositions in relation to what is homelessness the role of Adam in management thesis indian banks the entry of sin into the world. Their common hermeneutic enables these two essays to provide a united front; as Yarbrough puts it, ‘paucity of direct reference to Adam is no necessary indicator of what is homelessness, his significance’ (p. 41). I have plunged into this account off the springboard of my published commendation of this volume. Let me now plunge into demurral, a rather nasty-sounding metaphor which is not designed to signal a nasty-spirited response. While Collins and Yarbrough persuasively show why we should demur from Peter Enns’s conclusion that Paul is giving an account of Adam discontinuous with that of the OT, the essays to copy corsica essay which sets out most deliberately to tackle Peter Enns, namely James Hamilton’s later contribution on ‘Original Sin in Biblical Theology’ in the third part of the volume, fails to come to what is homelessness effective grips with Enns’s reasoning in some key areas. As Enns figures prominently in the preface of this volume, it is indian banks appropriate to linger here.
Consistently with the earlier essays, Hamilton emphasizes against Enns the distinction between telling and what showing and the way in which narratives work. He is of terrorism meadle surely right, as he is to challenge Enns’s exegetical dogmatism on is homelessness such a text as Hosea 6:7 (pp. 201–2). 12 Angry Men Evidence. However, it seems to me that there are three difficulties in what Hamilton’s criticism of Enns. Firstly, it is misleading to say that Enns ‘ignores the way the biblical authors are assuming and operating within the world as Moses has defined it’ (p. 204).
Enns does not ignore it; the fact of the matter is that, on critical grounds, he has a different view of Pentateuchal authorship and essays dating from that of Hamilton, whose view he regards as demonstrably improbable in what is homelessness the extreme. As far as Enns is concerned, we do not know who wrote, e.g., Deuteronomy; it could have been anyone up to and including Ezra.2 If we do not understand the OT as a whole in its post-exilic setting, on which there is essays to copy considerable scholarly consensus, we shall not understand what it is trying to do and that includes what is what going on in its opening chapters. Researchpaper. In sum, since Moses did not define the world in what which the biblical authors are operating, there is nothing to ignore. That is Enns’s position. Secondly, there seems to be a vast methodological gulf between Hamilton and Enns and it seems to me that Hamilton is on civil the wrong side of that gulf, so that his earlier hermeneutical gain is offset by hermeneutical loss. I allude to Hamilton’s claim that ‘[t]he only access we have to is homelessness what the biblical authors thought or assumed is what they wrote’ (p. 189). This is deeply problematic. If the claim were that, de facto , we know too little about the english works writing ANE background of the OT for it to what cast any light on what biblical authors thought or assumed, that would be one thing and contentious enough at that. However, the point seems to be one of methodological principle and, as such, presumably amounts to the claim that the Bible is an exception to rules of general hermeneutics. This seems to rule out groundlessly and mistakenly the possibility of interpreting biblical authors in their cultural (ANE) context.
There is certainly plenty to discuss in relation to how ANE and canonical contexts should be related, but why should a ‘high’ view of biblical inspiration entail the engineering claim that a writer’s thought or assumptions is accessible only through what he writes? If space prevents Hamilton from giving a hermeneutical account, at least the hermeneutical disagreement with Enns ought to be couched explicitly not only in terms of the distinction between telling and showing, but also in what is homelessness terms of reading Genesis against its ANE background. Certainly, Enns emphasizes ANE background, observing that ‘[i]t is routinely understood, even by essay, conservative interpreters, that the cultural context of Scripture informs our understanding of Scripture’.3. Have I fairly represented Hamilton’s position? If I am missing something, at least my comments bring into view an apparently similar attitude by a later essayist. Is Homelessness. Noel Weeks, in his essay on men evidence essay ‘The Fall and Genesis 3’, refuses to interpret the early chapters of Genesis in what conjectural terms derived from 12 angry essay ANE Egyptian or Mesopotamian texts. He states his principle like this: ‘Rather than conjectures, we have to go to the text itself to know what it means. Belief in the divine inspiration of Scripture would lead us to that approach anyway’ (p. 292).
This is to is homelessness confuse issues of authority with issues of interpretation. Belief in the divine inspiration of Scripture is belief in its authority, but such a belief neither prescribes nor suggests such a hermeneutic. Gallaudet Writing An Essay. True, we should not build anything on conjecture, but that is different from apparently dividing up the hermeneutical world into what is conjectured and what is in the text. The same problem arises when Weeks proceeds to comment that he is not ‘adopting the canonical approach of Brevard Childs, for that method presupposes an what earlier chaotic history for the text but ignores that history because it leads into management indian a chaos of conjecture from what which no meaningful interpretation can emerge’ (p. 292). Certainly, when it comes to the de facto critical investigation of the OT, there has long been sufficient chaotic speculation out there to tempt us to think that the whole enterprise is radically unstable de jure . However, the proper response is a rigorous appropriation and hermeneutical use of ANE and extra-biblical materials, not what looks like an attempt to seal off the biblical world hermeneutically, an impossibility in 12 angry essay any case if we are going to read the original languages. Thirdly, returning to is homelessness Hamilton, it is tendentious and emotive to say that Enns seeks the kind of synthesis between the Bible and evolution ‘where the Bible bows the knee to evolution’ in indian practice (p. What. 196). In context, this claim is connected with the first two points and it is worth adding that Enns’s treatment of personal death, universality and is homelessness particularity in the relevant Genesis account is a little more nuanced than Hamilton implies.4 Enns certainly does highlight the evolutionary factor in his approach to the biblical text.
This review is not the place to management banks evaluate the way in which he sets about a synthesizing operation. To be useful, such an evaluation would have to be suspended on what is homelessness an account of 12 angry, how this synthesizing procedure is related both to his exegetical practice and to his view of the is homelessness nature of biblical authority. I note here only that it is one hermeneutical thing to read the Bible against its ANE background, knowledge of which might directly inform our reading of the text, another hermeneutical thing to read it against the background of gallaudet works, a scientific view, knowledge of which should not directly shape our reading. What Is Homelessness. For example, in principle the ANE material may help me to interpret the biblical material by disclosing to me the 12 angry men evidence world of the biblical writer; contemporary scientific views do not attain that. However, if I am convinced both of some current scientific position and of biblical inerrancy, I shall believe that a prima facie reading of the is homelessness biblical text which contradicts that scientific position has to be revised. This, as such, is researchpaper east not to is homelessness bow the knee; it is to seek the integration of researchpaper in the, beliefs and to allow that it is my interpretation of the Bible, not the Bible itself, that needs correction. What science can do is to help me to read the is homelessness Bible on its own terms (which includes in its own context); it does not dictate the reading. Depts English Writing An Essay. It goes without saying that this operates equally vice versa : if I am convinced both of biblical inerrancy and the correctness of a biblical interpretation, it is the prima facie scientific account that has to what is homelessness be reassessed in the event of personal, collision.
I am not comprehensively evaluating here what Enns is doing overall; the question of his attitude to biblical authority in this context is most tellingly focussed on his treatment of Paul. What Is Homelessness. But what would Hamilton make of the accusation that to deny that Joshua really meant that the essays to copy sun stood still is to bow the knee to post-Copernican heliocentricity? In point of fact, there is no conflict whatsoever between biblical observation-language about the movement of the sun—language which we continue to use in the third-millennium—and the conviction that the sun does not move around the what earth. The question is this: suppose someone is as convinced of evolution in the sense opposed by Hamilton as Hamilton is (presumably) convinced of heliocentricity. In that case, is Enns’s way of proceeding fairly described as a matter of bowing the knee? Is it that Enns is wrong in his attitude here or, rather, that he and Hamilton have different estimates of the status of a particular scientific view? Hamilton wonders ‘why evolution is so authoritative in Enns’s reckoning’ (p. 206); Enns will presumably equally wonder how it can fail to have that authority. Of course, whatever scientific authority a scientific proposal has, its hermeneutical status remains to be properly described and that, in turn, will lead us into the different discussion of the personal death nature of apostolic authority.
However, the question of is homelessness, whether the corsica evidence for the relevant kind of evolution is is homelessness as strong as the evidence for a heliocentric view of the world is surely what really lies behind the question of whether there is knee-bowing going on.5. Concentrating on Hamilton’s essay risks giving the unfair impression that he is personal essay unrepresentative of his fellow-authors in what carrying the burden of these criticisms, but that seems not to be the case, even if he is not always representative of all. To reiterate: it is only because of his engagement with Enns and only because much is made of Enns in the introduction to the whole volume that I have singled out this essay.6 As do the essayists in this volume, I demur both from Enns’s interpretation of the relationship between Pauline and Old Testament perspectives on Adam and his theological perspective on the historicity of Adam, so I am accompanying the researchpaper east essayists to first base.7. Suppose, then, that we are persuaded that the essayists give a fair account of how things stand biblically with Adamic historicity. How, now, do things stand theologically with original sin? There is plenty of good material in the essays in what is homelessness part 2, which deal with it historically. In the first of these, Peter Sanlon outlines Augustine’s thought, defending Augustine against the accusation that he invented the ecclesiastical doctrine of original sin. Management Banks. However, when Sanlon turns to a brief account of the Pelagian objection, trouble begins to brew which will later bubble up pretty fiercely with pressure on the theological defence of original sin in part 3. Sanlon notes the Pelagian objection that it is unjust to what is homelessness condemn Adam’s descendants for his sin. Judging by the silence of the essay, Augustine had no response this. Essays. On human will and on divine mercy Augustine has plenty to say, but here there seems to be nothing.
Will Lutheranism step into the breach and fill the void? There is no essay on medieval thought in this volume, so Lutheranism is next in line and what we have a characteristically informed account of original sin in the Lutheran tradition by essay death, Robert Kolb. On the one hand, we should beware the danger of failing to attend properly to that tradition in its own right by reading his essay as though its agenda must be set by Augustine’s contribution. On the other, Lutheranism entered into mainstream Augustinian inheritance on the matter at hand and we are entitled to wonder whether the question of the justice of the is homelessness condemnation of Adam’s progeny will rear its head and, if so, whether it will be addressed. The question of of terrorism meadle east, justice indeed arises, but Augustinian silence on what is homelessness it remains unbroken. In Kolb’s essay, we learn again of the 12 angry essay human will and of divine mercy, but again not of what, how our condemnation for the sin of to copy corsica, Adam can be regarded as just. What. Of course, this is accounted for management in part by the sixteenth century context of Lutheran theology. For example, when Martin Chemnitz examines Tridentine teaching on what is homelessness original sin, the question of fundamental justice is not what is at issue.
Yet, when Melanchthon tells us that it is the theological responsibility of the church to unfold and explain its brief doctrinal statements, we might expect something more; but Melanchthon does not offer it in the form which should interest a reader of this volume and where Melanchthon does not go, Chemnitz is unlikely to go.8 When, then, Kolb describes in laudatory tones Luther’s achievement and his grasp of paradox, the Augustinian problematic remains stonily untouched and unmoved in the scenic background. Perhaps the tacit assumption is that if we acknowledge paradox in our talk of original sin and human responsibility, paradox must play its part in our understanding of divine justice. Is that the way to read the Lutheran appropriation of Augustinian teaching? However we answer that question, in any list of unlikely accusations against works an essay Calvin, the accusation of refusing to grasp the nettle and of being silent when speech is owed should come pretty high up. Accordingly, if we expect the tradition which he inaugurated to address our concerns, we shall not be disappointed.
Donald Macleod guides us helpfully through it. After taking us through the theological development of the covenant of works, he faces the question head-on: ‘How, in accordance with justice, could the one sin of one man have such calamitous consequences?’ (p. 137). Once the question is what introduced, it dominates. Macleod supplies the Augustinian (Augustine’s own) answer, which Sanlon does not: by works writing an essay, virtue of the fact that we are one with Adam. In what sense are we one, not for Augustine, but for the Reformed tradition? The answer is: by what, federal unity. Essays Corsica. Macleod traces the debates on immediate and mediate imputation that surround that answer, in which context the question of what, justice is lively. Federal union secures the justice of our condemnation. What is both interesting and significant is that, at the end of his essay, Macleod observes that, in the Reformed tradition, we are still left with the question (among others): exactly ‘[w]hy, for depts an essay example, should the sin of Adam involve all his offspring in guilt?’ (p. 146).
Against the background of this essay and of the Augustinian inheritance, it is a question which patently embraces the issue of divine justice. As a theologian, Macleod may have his answer; as a historian—and that is his role here—he is implying that his account of federal union in the classical tradition of Reformed theology has not laid that question to is homelessness rest. It may be worth adding one footnote to this account. Macleod mentions that the one man who withstood the standard Reformed view of the federal relationship between Adam and posterity was W. G. T. Shedd, who adopted the position that human nature and all humans were present in Adam. My supplementary observation is that it is precisely the engineering phd thesis issue of justice which apparently drove Shedd to make his proposal. Shedd believed that the what imputation to management thesis indian his posterity of the sin of a vicarious representative violates the what is homelessness order of justice.9 We may and, I believe, should reject the theological substance of Shedd’s position, but how should we respond to its guiding purpose? Perhaps the Wesleyan tradition will tell us. Again, preoccupation with the question of justice should not be allowed to engineering phd thesis prevent that tradition from is homelessness speaking on its own terms and, in a fine essay, Thomas H. McCall permits it to do just that. Wesley was a federalist and in the meadle the federal tradition is largely kept up in mainstream Wesleyanism until the late nineteenth century. It is a lively and enquiring federalism which incorporates into is homelessness its developments the question of 12 angry, divine justice in relation to our damnation for the sin of Adam.
It also becomes a federalism rejected within the tradition, along with other components of the doctrine of original sin. It is just as interesting that McCall makes a studious theological proposal as it is that Macleod shows a studious theological restraint. After noting the modern turn against is homelessness the classical Wesleyan understanding of original sin as embracing original guilt, McCall proposes two possibilities for those who want to retain the banks principle. The first is what a fresh working of the personal death notion of mediate imputation. The second is to combine a version of that principle with other principles whose theological upshot is that, by ratifying what Adam did in his representation of us, we are guilty both for our corruption and for our actions. These suggestions are briefly set out at the conclusion of the essay. When, then, we have read Carl Trueman’s essay on ‘Original Sin and Modern Theology’, which concludes this part of the volume, we might conclude that the is homelessness Christian tradition had left modern theology with significantly unanswered questions on the doctrine of original sin. Whatever theological insights modern theology may yield—Trueman considers Schleiermacher, Rauschenbusch, Barth, Bultmann, Reinhold Niebuhr and essay Pannenberg—they are vitiated by rejection of the historicity of Adam.10 However, as far as our reading of Madueme and Reeves’s volume is concerned, we are bound to ask to what extent modern theological thinking on this question is the product of the failure of orthodoxy to establish the is homelessness theological credibility of its tenets. Trueman refers to ‘the typical modern concern for the idea of one person being considered guilty because of the failure of another’ (p. 180), but the earlier essays have shown that it is researchpaper in the meadle certainly not a distinctively modern concern attributable simply to what is homelessness those who reject some basic elements in the Christian tradition.
Accordingly, when the thesis banks co-authors of this volume arrive on the scene in its third part, they have given themselves a pretty demanding theological job to do. Their contributions are sandwiched between those of what, James Hamilton and Daniel Doriani (the latter on ‘Original Sin in Pastoral Theology’). In a joint essay, Madueme and Reeves tackle ‘Original Sin in in the meadle Systematic Theology’ and, in what an independent essay, Hans Madueme tackles ‘Original Sin and Modern Science’. I trust that my discussion hitherto has indicated the propriety of giving some space to these contributions quite independently of the appropriateness of doing so because Hans Madueme is responding to this article. In the joint essay, the authors argue for the dual necessities of depts gallaudet works an essay, belief in originating and what originated sin.
If we do not believe in the former, we cannot avoid the conclusion that evil is a part of thesis indian, creation, and this is drastic. If we do not believe in the latter, interpreted as hereditary descent from the first human pair, the what salvation from my sin wrought by Jesus Christ in countermanding the transgression of Adam is imperilled. Ontological union with Christ rescues me from ill-fated ontological union with Adam. The force of of terrorism in the meadle east, Madueme and Reeves’s first point (on originating sin) is what hard to avoid; the of terrorism in the meadle east Achilles’ heel of the what position which denies an historical fall is the theological implications for our view of evil in creation. In this context, we should also welcome the authors’ rescue of Irenaeus from those interpretations which make him an ally of that denial, although it is a pity that the historical account in Part 2 begins with Augustine and not with Irenaeus.
The second contention—on originated sin—is more troublesome. There are two difficulties here. One is the claim that, without monogenesis, God’s imputation of Adam’s sin to Adam’s race ‘seems unfair and arbitrary since it is management thesis not grounded in an antecedent natural reality’ (p. 217). What. However, this claim lacks force unless it can be shown that ontological union with Adam defuses the charge of unfairness and arbitrariness in the imputation of sin. Madueme and Reeves produce no argument to that effect. The second is the claim that I cannot know for sure that Christ has assumed ‘ my “human” nature’ (p.
216) unless I am monogenetically related to Adam and that ‘[d]enying that we inherit Adam’s original sin [understood in the sense of hereditary union] meant denying that sin has any real depth in us’ (p. 218). However, it is one thing to argue the exegetical case for the authors’ claim about an phd thesis ontological link, quite another to what argue its theological necessity in this fashion. I confess that I am reminded of the 12 angry essay argument that if you deny the historicity of Adam, then belief in the historicity of Jesus Christ is what unsafe. As though belief in the historicity of Jesus depended on belief in the historicity of Adam! Rather similarly, I know for sure that Christ has assumed my human nature and died for my sin; I know the unfathomable depth of my sin and dire corruption of my nature through the gospel or, if you like, through the New Testament witness.
I know it unshakeably while I may puzzle over how to understand it theologically, how to interpret Romans 5, or how to regard the researchpaper east relative claims of monogenism and what polygenism.11. This brings me to a weakness in the volume as a whole, manifested especially in to copy this essay. In rejecting interpretations of Genesis judged compatible with polygenesis, those interpretations which accept the contemporaneity with Adam of ‘humanlike contemporaries’, Madueme and Reeves aver that this looks like a ‘blatant contradiction to what the biblical teaching’ and that ‘[o]ne looks in vain for any indication in Genesis 2–3 that there were any humans, or humanlike beings, other than Adam and Eve’ (p. 216f.). What is puzzling here is the thesis indian total silence not only in this essay but in the whole volume of what is homelessness, a key passage in this discussion: Genesis 4:14–17. The index to the volume indicates hundreds of biblical texts cited in this work, but Genesis 4:14–16 never turns up at all and phd thesis Genesis 4:17 turns up only once in connection with 4:17–22, without hint of its significance for what is homelessness this debate (see p. 10). Gallaudet Works. This, of course, is where we learn that Cain, after expressing the is homelessness fear that his expulsion from the land which he was working will make him a wanderer liable to be murdered, settles down in Nod and gets married. It looks as though the text places him in a populated world. Of course, it cannot clearly be doing so, because of what has preceded it in essay death Genesis 2 and what 3. Then how should the chapters be related?
The possibilities are many. They are ignored in civil engineering phd thesis this volume. Madueme and Reeves also ignore the fact that they are committed to the goodness of original incest as the means of propagation according to what God’s design, whether between siblings or between Adam and his daughters, Eve and her sons and so forth onto to copy corsica, the possibility of is homelessness, uncles and aunts until the whole thing is (should we not say, mercifully?) avoided. Had the authors said that they were willing to accept this; had they explained why the affirmation that Cain’s wife must have been his sister does not really strain the text; had they added that neither is 12 angry it strained by the supposition that those feared by Cain as he wandered away must have been his own kin and that he was either initially alone in Nod with his wife or had been joined by other unmentioned kin—had they said all this, the reader could have weighed the words and agreed or disagreed. As it is, the reader is is homelessness made to civil engineering phd thesis feel like Walter de la Mare’s traveller at the moonlit door.12. Quite apart from what we might conclude about the literary genre of is homelessness, Genesis 2–3 (or 1–3, for that matter) studied in its own right, we must ask what light Genesis 4 throws on our reading of the preceding chapters just as we must ask to what reading of Genesis 4 those chapters point us.
These are questions arising from the text, but the significance of the possibility that Genesis 4 indicates Cain’s presence in a populated world bears on our ruminations on scientific (evolutionary) anthropology. This brings us to civil Madueme’s essay, ‘“On the what is homelessness Most Vulnerable Part of the Whole Christian Account”: Original Sin and Modern Science’. Researchpaper Of Terrorism Meadle. Madueme sets out in four steps to answer the question of whether modern science compels either the abandonment or the radical revision of the traditional doctrine of original sin. First, he briefly describes the relevant post-Darwinian science-religion conflict; then, he looks at theological attempts to resolve it; third, he offers a methodological proposal ‘for how to begin resolving these problems in dialogue with Scripture and tradition’ (p. 227); finally, some concrete suggestions are made. I shall not comment here either on the brief historical remarks on Darwinian conflicts (the first step) or on Madueme’s account of unsatisfactory moves, including what commonly goes under the description ‘theistic evolution’ (the second step). The ‘jackpot’ question, says the author (p. 238), is the methodological one tackled in his third step. To the jackpot, then, we shall go.
The third step is executed in three moves. The first—strictly a ‘commitment’ rather than a ‘move’ (p. 241)—is an affirmation of biblical inerrancy. What. The second is an affirmation of ‘pneumatic certainty’, the testimony of the Spirit to the truth of Scripture. The third is an eclectic approach to scientific theories, testing them according to Scripture, which may or may not mean conflict. Depts Gallaudet English Writing An Essay. This means rejecting ‘the scientific consensus when it conflicts with the doctrine of originating sin’ (p. 245) and entering into dialogue with science in relation to originated sin.
An example of this latter is the way in which we might accept biological explanations of human behaviour which ‘prompt some conceptual clarification in hamartiology’ (p. 246), forcing us to what is homelessness distinguish between biological and moral explanations of certain human behaviour. What are we to make of this proposal? Well, if (a) commitment to english biblical inerrancy is warranted and (b) we can be pneumatically certain that the Bible is the Word of God, then (c) an what is homelessness eclectic approach to scientific theories seems to follow. What does not follow, at least in this account, is the possibility of dialogue. English Works Writing An Essay. What Madueme calls ‘genuine dialogue with science’ (p. What. 248) is something quite different from that; it is, as he puts it himself, just a case of to copy, ‘[s]cience offering us data for theological reflection’ (p. 247). I confess that I cannot see how we have a methodological proposal here for resolving anything. The so-called resolution of the science-religion conflict lies in identifying what Scripture says and what is homelessness affirming that what Scripture says can be known to be true. Indian. So be it; but it just does not amount to a methodological proposal for a dialogue.
As it stands, it is just a statement of faith. So is there no dialogue in what the volume? Its subtitle is: Theological, Biblical and Scientific Perspectives on (the title) Adam, the Fall, and Original Sin . Except in one essay, we do not really get a scientific perspective and this essay has a further intriguing distinction, that of essays to copy, being written pseudonymously. It also ‘aims to bring the traditional doctrines of Adam and what the fall into conversation with the scientific data by outlining the expectations we harbor for the human fossil record based on the biblical witness and researchpaper meadle east comparing these expectations with current data and theories of what is homelessness, paleoanthropology’ (p. 54). A priori , then, ‘all humankind is connected by a line of ancestry to a single pair of specially created humans . . . there is no ancestral lineage that links humans reproductively with any other living or extinct animal species, including the apes and any fossil apelike creatures’ (p. 55, emphasis original). Correspondingly, William Stone (the pseudonymous author) expects the paleoanthropological record to show two things: (a) ‘that humans belong to a distinct “kind” from other primates’, and corsica (b) ‘consistency with a single human lineage’ (p.
55). We approach the scientific evidence knowing beforehand what we expect to find and not to find. And what do we find? We find that Adam is probably to be located at the root of the homo erectus to homo sapiens lineage almost 2 million years ago and that his progeny divided into different species. The latter is not really biblically or theologically problematic and the key move is to illustrate scientifically the discontinuity which we have expected theologically between the genus Homo and australopithecine genera. Of course (says Stone) this leaves problems unsolved. What do we do with the what prima facie Bronze Age context of Genesis 4–5 or with Noah’s flood? We do not know; but we can expect to get there some time.
I leave it to properly qualified scientists to comment on Stone’s handling of the scientific data. Personal Death. Although there are occasional allusions to genetics, it is what is homelessness fossils rather than genetics that interest William Stone; consequently, we have no essay in the volume which tackles crucial questions in scientific biology. I shall cut to essays corsica the chase by omitting also any discussion of the scientific reasoning involved in the essay and ask the question: what shall we make of Stone’s method of approach and its effect on the possibilities of what, conversation between Scripture and science? Certainly, if ‘x’ is known to be the case or if there are strong grounds for believing ‘x’, it is not only in order to bring that knowledge or belief into our evaluation of any claims and theories—it is necessary. That is the essay case whether the knowledge or belief is religious or scientific or anything else. Methodologically, there is what no objection in principle to 12 angry a person bringing his or her religious beliefs to what bear on scientific investigation; to say otherwise is to affirm that the outcomes of scientific investigation are, in principle, more certain than those of engineering phd thesis, religious reasoning and that such an affirmation might take the form of a methodological commitment every bit as a priori as that of Stone. What. If there is a problem with what Stone does, it does not lie at this very general level.
Rather, it will lie in what happens in this case when his method is applied. Let the range of scientists tell us both what does happen here and what would happen if the field of genetics were treated in the same way.13. We know, of course, what the overall evaluation of corsica, Stone’s conclusions will be in mainstream science (at least in general; I do not myself know what will be made of every detail in the argument). Here, we are in the neighbourhood of an issue which Madueme also faces in his essay: just how secure do scientific ‘findings’ have to be in what order to overthrow theological conclusions? Madueme is willing to thesis indian banks allow that, in principle, scientific evidence may be so compelling that it forces us to revise the traditional doctrine of original sin. However, he believes that the bar for this is extremely high, so that we are looking more at a theoretical than a realistic possibility.
It may be worth mentioning two avenues for what is homelessness exploring the issues which arise here. One is the philosophy of John Locke, majoring on his religious epistemology in its connection with his philosophy of science. Locke’s influence on modern thought has been huge; he was, as Sir Leslie Stephen (Virginia Woolf’s father) put it, ‘the intellectual ruler of the eighteenth century’.14 His religious epistemology has been undervalued, although it is open to more than one serious criticism, including its early-modern interpretation of rationality. What Locke simply says is that a religious believer is entitled to works maintain religious beliefs grounded on justified belief in revelation even when they can be shown to be rationally highly improbable. Revelation trumps contrary rational probability. It cannot trump what is rationally known to be contrary to it; in the event of what, collision, we should know that what we thought had been revealed had not really been revealed. Thus, rational knowledge trumps not revelation itself but our suppositions that there has been revelation on the point in question. I think that an evangelical exploration of this, especially in connection with Locke’s philosophy of science, would be profitable.15.
The second is contemporary or twentieth century philosophy of science. Some of us will demur both from the exegesis of Genesis in this volume which rules out ‘theistic evolution’ and from the authors’ refusal to accept the scientific evidence for of terrorism in the meadle the integration of humankind into evolutionary history.16 Yet, all of us need to attend to issues in the philosophy of science, particularly as they have taken shape since the work of Karl Popper.17 Both Madueme and Stone aspire to dialogue; in that case, surely what is needed is an is homelessness incursion into the relationship of (what we might broadly term) philosophy of religion and of terrorism in the meadle east philosophy of science.18. Stone’s enterprise is driven by what, a conviction which is not his alone, though it is meadle impossible to say whether it is shared by all the other authors—a conviction that the doctrine of original sin is either drastically redefined or lost if humans are located along an evolutionary line extending back to pre-human or non-human ancestors. This is not necessarily so. What. When Scripture talks about ‘man’ or humankind, it is tempting to researchpaper in the assume that it means what anthropologists mean when they use that language.
However, anthropologists do not demarcate species by identifying a point at which the first humans became addressed by what, God, called by God, answerable to God. That is Scripture’s interest in humankind to the point of 12 angry men evidence essay, being essential to its definition. There will be a neurological correlation to this summons, but, unless we accept some form of mind-brain identity theory, the what spiritual summons is personal death hidden, as is the apostasy of the fall. What is definitive of humanity by biblical standards is scientifically invisible, just as God and salvation are invisible, and an evolutionary pre-history does not in the least affect this. Polygenism is a separate question; theistic evolutionists can be committed monogenists. I think that Madueme is right to point out the dangers in this area of what is homelessness, accommodation to the latest scientific picture, dangers which are grave indeed if even someone of Henri Blocher’s stature has to make retractions. Madueme is also right to note the men evidence essay possibility of adhering to the historicity of Adam without commitment to the chronological matter of what is homelessness, where, on the evolutionary time-line, Adam appears (p.
237–38). Mention of Blocher takes us into the last part of the volume. In his essay on ‘The Fall and Genesis 3’, Noel Weeks thinks that it is a struggle for death Blocher to combine reference to an historical Adam with symbolic trees in Eden and that Blocher ‘seems reduced to saying that he is what is homelessness certain something happened but that translating from the researchpaper in the symbolic to what the actual is depts writing beyond us’ (p. 299n37).19 As a matter of fact, there is neither struggle nor reduction here. History symbolically rendered is scarcely alien to Scripture. Weeks says that Blocher has not ‘dealt with interpretations that see the story as “symbolic” in some nonhistorical form because such readings are pure arbitrary imposition unless they are anchored in something within the text itself’ (p. 305).
Actually, Blocher spends his time anchoring his readings within the text itself. If Weeks insists that Blocher and is homelessness others go outside the text in order to researchpaper of terrorism in the meadle east interpret trees as symbolic, then we are not only taken back to what our earlier remarks about hermeneutics and ANE context, but Weeks has to tell us why he is not being arbitrary in taking the trees non-symbolically. What Collins says about other scholars in his opening essay applies to Weeks: he is management thesis indian banks ‘conflating historicity with a literalistic scheme of interpretation, without argument’ (p. 9n17). However, Thomas Schreiner’s essay on what Romans 5:12–19 does expose the difficulties with Blocher’s reconstruction of the doctrine of original sin and those of essays, us who are willing to what is homelessness entertain the proposition that Henri Blocher’s theological ability is unexcelled on the contemporary scene will conclude that, if the doctrine of original sin remains a riddle after he has examined it, riddle it will remain for some time to come. Schreiner’s exegetical argument results in a modification of Murray’s advocacy of the imputation of thesis indian banks, Adam’s sin and he opposes Blocher’s challenge to the traditional federalist interpretation of Romans 5.20 Whatever we make either of Schreiner’s interpretation of his interlocutors or of the is homelessness relative exegetical merits of the positions concerned—and Schreiner conducts his arguments well—he is surely correct to protest that Blocher’s interpretation does not fulfill its aim of relieving the problem of researchpaper meadle east, divine justice in condemning his progeny for Adam’s sin.
The final chapter of Blocher’s Original Sin is focussed on presenting a theological interpretation of original sin which has (prominently) amongst its goals the aim of what, turning aside this allegation of divine injustice. Blocher holds that, if Scripture does not teach the imputation of alien guilt to Adam’s descendants, nothing should hinder the expression of our biblically informed moral sense of researchpaper, injustice at such a proposal. Indeed, Blocher grants that infants are guilty and deprived of fellowship with God and is aware that this is open to the charge of injustice, if it is Adam that brought them into this condition. His discussion reveals his awareness that his own solution will not satisfy. Even so, he advances as the ‘least inadequate’ analogy the fact that children born during a war are at war with the what is homelessness other nation.21 His underlying supposition is that the human race has an organic spiritual solidarity and Adam was placed at its head. Blocher is not convincing. In the essays corsica situation of war, we do not regard children as guilty for the fact that their leaders have brought the what is homelessness nation into war; we do not condemn them, even if they cannot but be implicated in action undertaken against 12 angry essay their nation. Of course, Blocher is subtle and we have to figure carefully all the angles of his discussion. Nonetheless, it is hard to gainsay the fairness of Schreiner’s observation: ‘It is is homelessness difficult to thesis indian banks see how anyone who struggles with God’s justice in the matter of Adamic headship will find Blocher’s solution much of an improvement over the theory of an imputed guilt’ (p. 277). Yet, for himself, Schreiner does not demonstrate divine justice on his interpretation either, so we are left with a volume which has come to an end with this question unanswered.22.
In conclusion, I go back to first base and to commendation. Adam was an historical figure through whom sin entered the world. Yet, I do not see that we have got beyond first base and that the authors have found a way of defending this conviction beyond saying: ‘The Bible says’. It goes without saying that no one who seriously takes the Bible to be the Word of God will disdain that response. What. However, when more is attempted, more is expected. In sum, it seems to me that there are at least three (familiar) areas which need evangelical attention if we are to go beyond first base. Indian Banks. We need (a) an in-depth engagement with different ways of understanding the literary genre of the early chapters of Genesis; (b) a renewed attempt to explain, if it is possible, the justice of what is homelessness, condemning his progeny for the sin of meadle east, Adam;23 and (c) a philosophy of science which explores carefully the work and legacy of Karl Popper. Let me solemnly assure readers that the easiest thing in the world is to write a review suggesting to all concerned what should be done. Let me also assure them that those who have the temerity to take up the task organized by Hans Madueme and Michael Reeves would do well to emulate their spirit of humble faithfulness to Scripture and earnest desire to get to grips with their subject. Added Note: Revisiting B. Is Homelessness. B. Warfield on Creation and Evolution. At this point, I am following Noll and Livingstone’s reading of Warfield, but I am grateful to thesis Brian Tabb for drawing my attention to Fred G. Zaspel’s criticism of it in “B.
B. Warfield on Creation and Evolution.”24 Zaspel argues that their description of Warfield as an evolutionist at best goes far beyond the evidence, at worst ignores some of the evidence and at is homelessness, all events must be rejected. He claims that, while Warfield granted that theistic evolution could be consistent with Christianity and civil phd thesis did not rule it out, he himself rejected that position.25. The disagreement invites careful scrutiny of Warfield’s work and what what follows is not a detailed adjudication but a general judgement with an eye to my observations on gallaudet writing Hans Madueme’s reading. Zaspel’s challenge surely fails. Four reasons of what, unequal weight can be given for this.
First, what Zaspel means by ‘theistic evolution’ is depts english works an essay not altogether clear. He says that ‘[e]ven the theistic evolutionist cannot explain ultimate origins in terms of evolution. . . ’,26 but I have never heard of a theistic evolutionist who even tried to is homelessness do so and, were the attempt to be made, I should not know what ‘theistic evolutionism’ meant. I can only read Zaspel’s remark in its own right as a tautology, but the tautology does not serve his argument. However, perhaps this is a minor point. Madueme himself has no problem with describing Warfield as a theistic evolutionist, but he believes that specifically human evolution is excluded in this case (pp. 228–29).27. Second, practically the first thing which Noll and Livingstone say in their introductory essay is that ‘Darwin, Darwinism and evolution . . . were distinct’ for Warfield,28 but Zaspel collapses the last two. Men Evidence Essay. Thus he moves from is homelessness quoting Warfield on the improbability of ‘any form of evolution which rests ultimately on the Darwinian idea ’ (my italics) to the denigration of evolution in general.29 Unfortunately, it is impossible to investigate all the aspects of Zaspel’s case here, because, at a certain juncture, he gives the wrong reference for depts english works writing a citation from Livingstone’s work.30. Thirdly, Zaspel’s case turns largely, though not entirely, on the need to attend closely to Warfield’s precise and careful formulations. What Is Homelessness. This is a welcome insistence and Warfield’s writings on depts english an essay evolution are an impressive model of careful theological reflection and expression.
However, Zaspel’s principled approach rebounds on him in practice for he delivers a major component of is homelessness, his thesis only at the cost of doing precisely what he accuses Noll and Livingstone of doing, which is to civil be inattentive to Warfield’s actual wording. What. Thus, he ascribes Noll and Livingstone’s expository confidence to their interpretation of two pieces by Warfield. The first is his review of Orr’s God’s Image in Man . 12 Angry Men Evidence. According to what is homelessness Zaspel, in this review Warfield ‘ evidently (my italics) sees the meadle east biblical account of death as an obstacle to what is homelessness evolution’.31 Actually, Warfield does not imply, still less say, any such thing. To Copy Corsica. What he says is that ‘ [p]erhaps ’ (my italics) Orr overstates the is homelessness matter when he says that ‘“there is not a word in engineering Scripture to suggest that animals . . . came under the law of death for man’s sin.”’32 Warfield’s response to Orr is: ‘The problem of the reign of death in that creation which was cursed for man’s sake and which is to be with man delivered from the bondage of corruption, presses on what is homelessness some with a somewhat greater weight than seems here to be recognized.’33 As a matter of fact, Zaspel has earlier represented both Orr and Warfield in excessively vague terms to the point of misrepresentation. He speaks of depts gallaudet, Warfield’s praise of Orr for his ‘courage to recognize and assert the is homelessness irreconcilableness of the two views’ and of Warfield’s positive evaluation of Orr on this account.34 Zaspel does not tell us what the two views in question were but he does say that consideration of what Warfield says, ‘by itself, at least, would have led Livingstone and Noll to civil phd thesis a very different conclusion.’35 However, what Orr was contrasting here was a Christian world-view and nineteenth-century evolutionary philosophy exemplified, e.g., by Ernst Haeckel. It is on this that Warfield is commenting positively and both the Noll/Livingstone account and their conclusion are entirely harmonious with it.36. Fourthly, as for what the second of the two pieces on which Noll and Livingstone apparently depend, Zaspel grants that there is men evidence a case for their reading. However, he is not convinced of it and he believes that it cannot stand against the contrary weight of evidence in Warfield’s corpus.
The piece in question is Warfield’s celebrated essay on ‘Calvin’s Doctrine of the Creation’. But, against Zaspel, it is surely not probable that anyone as redoubtably Calvinistic as was Warfield and who rejected evolution would have prosecuted so robustly (and contentiously) the case that Calvin taught a doctrine of evolution and was a theistic evolutionist.37. This is not necessarily to dispose of everything which Zaspel says: e.g., the weight which he places on Warfield’s 1888 lecture essay on ‘Evolution and is homelessness Development’ compels anyone who wishes to adjudicate this disagreement in detail to give meticulous attention not only to what the word ‘evolution’ comprehends in Warfield’s writings but also to the hermeneutical principles with which we approach Warfield’s texts. For myself, I should not be too surprised if Warfield had the researchpaper of terrorism last laugh on all of us, if this is not to what treat a serious issue too flippantly. Perhaps in his later writings (the focus of the debate) he did not show his hand at all, neither overtly rejecting human evolution nor overtly declaring it, not giving away even his leanings one way or the other. Until the laughter echoes loud and clear or until another case is put forward for essays corsica Zaspel’s conclusion, there is is homelessness no need to demur from essays to copy corsica Noll and Livingstone’s conclusion.  Hans Madueme and Michael Reeves, eds., Adam, the what Fall, and Original Sin: Theological, Biblical and Scientific Perspectives (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014). Page references to this volume will usually be given in the text.
 Peter Enns, The Evolution of Adam: What the Bible Does and Doesn’t Say About Human Origins (Grand Rapids: Brazos, 2012), 15. ‘In a book on management banks evolution’ it is ‘important for us to see the Pentateuch as a postexilic work’ (p. 26).  Note exactly what Enns says about the relation of universality to Israelite history in particular in the early chapters of Genesis, e.g., on the universal setting of Genesis 1–11 (Ibid., 65). He says that he is ‘not suggesting that the Adam story can only be read as a story of Israel’s origins’ (p. 66) but it seems that he could also have moved the adverb and said that he is ‘not suggesting that the Adam story can be read only as a story of is homelessness, Israel’s origins’.
 Enns explicitly draws this familiar comparison in researchpaper of terrorism the ‘Introduction’ to what The Evolution of Adam , xvi. He is simultaneously aware that ‘evolution uniquely strikes at central issues of the Christian faith’, p. xiv.  Enns’s work is also the subject of frequent allusion in Collins’s essay, but the index to the volume does not give a complete list of the footnote references to Enns.  Full justice to Enns’s volume will not be done without a study of his Inspiration and Incarnation: Evangelicals and the Problem of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2005).  At least this is so in the context of Chemnitz’s Loci Theologici , trans. J. A. Essays To Copy Corsica. O. Preus, vol.
1 (St. Louis: Concordia, 1989). For Melanchthon’s comment, reproduced in Chemnitz’s work, see p. 272.  Dogmatic Theology , 3rd ed. (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian Reformed, 2003), IV. 5.  Within the space of one essay, Trueman was bound to be brutally succinct and selective. Even so, his succinct one page on what Pannenberg, e.g., will give us no idea of what he might have to teach us and men evidence essay his selection strangely omits Emil Brunner.
Compare, for example, Henri Blocher’s engagement with Pannenberg (and with Brunner, for that matter) throughout his important Original Sin: Illuminating the Riddle , New Studies in Biblical Theology 5 (Leicester: Apollos, 1997).  In much the same way as Madueme and Reeves do not show how their theological understanding of original sin is what is homelessness necessarily required in order to maintain belief in it, so the logic of Doriani’s account of ‘Original Sin in Pastoral Theology’ often requires only a conviction that sin is thesis banks deep, not a belief about original sin. See, e.g., pp. What. 259–60.  See his unfading poem ‘The Listeners’. We might, of course, add consideration of Genesis 6:1–4 to that of Genesis 4. I should say that I am not definitely committed to the belief that 4:14–17 introduces us to a populated world.
Quite apart from the difficulty of interpreting dogmatically compressed narratives, Cain might have been thinking of a period of hundreds of years during which he could be hunted down from a distance.  It is worth adding that Stone’s biblical-theological principles require less in the way of scientific evidence than he supposes. Those principles do not require, as he supposes, that the paleoanthropological record ‘show that humans belong to a distinct “kind” from other primates’—only that it does not contradict the claim about the distinction of humankind (p. 55).  History of English Thought in phd thesis the Eighteenth Century , vol. 1 (London: Smith, 1876), 86.  See Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding , ed. Peter Nidditch (Oxford: Clarendon, 1975), IV.14–20.  This need not be evidence which supports a neo-Darwinian synthesis; meta-Darwinism is another player in what is homelessness the game.
See T. B. Fowler and D. Kuebler, The Evolution Controversy: A Survey of Competing Theories (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007). Depts Works Writing. David Stove’s Darwinian Fairytales (Aldershot: Avebury, 1995) is compelling reading in this connection. Is Homelessness. Madueme wrongly places Warfield on the side of those who reject human evolution (p. 229). He cites Warfield’s 1888 lecture ‘Evolution or Development’ (reprinted in B. B. Warfield, Evolution, Science and Scripture: Selected Writings , ed. Mark Noll and David Livingstone [Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2000]), which the civil editors say represents Warfield at ‘his most skeptical about evolutionary theory’ (p. Is Homelessness. 114). Further, Madueme fails to essay refer to the different line taken in Warfield’s review of James Orr’s God’s Image in Man . What Is Homelessness. See ‘Added Note: Revisiting B. B. Civil Engineering Phd Thesis. Warfield on Creation and Evolution’ at what is homelessness, the end of this article.  Bryan Magee’s ‘Conversation with Karl Popper’ in Magee, Modern British Philosophy (St Albans: Paladin, 1973), 85–107 is a most useful way in, as is his Popper (Glasgow: Fontana, 1973). Popper’s work as a whole deserves our attention in this context, including the way in which his philosophy of science is informed by his interpretation of the significance of Einstein’s challenge to Newton. Pannenberg comes to management banks terms with Popper in his argument that the ‘real task’ of theology ‘is to examine the validity of the thesis of faith as a hypothesis’, Theology and what the Philosophy of Science (London: Darton, Longman Todd, 1976), 296.
Popper was a great admirer of Charles Sanders Peirce, to whose thought Alister E. McGrath frequently alludes in his various writings on science and religion. See, e.g., Darwinism and the Divine: Evolutionary Thought and Natural Theology , 198–99. 12 Angry. As I mentioned Stove’s work on Darwinian Fairytales , so mention should be made of his critical Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists (Oxford: Pergamon, 1982) but note should be taken of the what is homelessness self-imposed limits of thesis, Stove’s criticism of Popper and others in this work. In connection with Popper, of continued importance for philosophers and theologians alike is W. W. Bartley’s essay on The Retreat to Commitment (Chicago: Open Court, 1999).  Madueme refers to Alvin Plantinga (p. What. 240n72) whose work on religious epistemology is certainly pertinent in this context.
For dialogue, see Alister McGrath’s The Foundations of Dialogue in Science and Religion (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998).  Weeks refers to Henri Blocher, In the Beginning: The Opening Chapters of Genesis , trans. David G. Preston (Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1984).  I am happy to confess my admiration for gallaudet an essay John Murray’s work as well as that of Henri Blocher, but the convolutions of Murray’s formulations seem to is homelessness me to obscure the reasoning in The Epistle To The Romans: The English Text With Introduction, Exposition and Notes , NICNT (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1968), 189n22.  In fairness to Schreiner, it is not his brief. Essays To Copy Corsica. In his closing essay on ‘Adam, History, and Theodicy’, William Edgar apparently does not try to make headway on this one either.
 We should consider approaching this by is homelessness, exploring the proposition that we all would have done what Adam did. This would involve both setting out the logic of putting our post-lapsarian individual selves in civil phd thesis the place of another human being and observing the distinction between saying that, contingently, any one of us would have done the same and saying that sin was inevitable for humanity.  Fred G. Zaspel, ‘B. B. Warfield on Creation and what Evolution’, Them 35.2 (2010): 198–211.  For a brief response, see David N. Livingstone’s Dealing With Darwin: Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution (Baltimore: Maryland, Johns Hopkins, 2014), 251n121. Indian. See Livingstone’s discussion of is homelessness, Warfield on pp. 185–93.
 Zaspel, ‘B. B. Warfield on Creation and Evolution’, 201.  ‘Theistic evolution’ is actually better called ‘evolutionary creationism’, but the latter will seem a contradiction in terms in a climate where creationists may regard theistic evolution as a contradiction in terms.  Noll and Livingstone, ‘Introduction: B. B. Warfield as a Conservative Evolutionist’, in Warfield, Evolution, Science and Scripture , 13.  Zaspel, ‘B. B. Warfield on Creation and Evolution’, 203.  The words which he quotes are not found at the point of reference (ibid., 207n38).  Warfield, Evolution, Science and Scripture , 235–36.  Zaspel, ‘B. B. Warfield on Creation and Evolution’, 208.
 Warfield, Evolution, Science and Scripture , 231. See James Orr, God’s Image in essays Man and Its Defacement in the Light of Modern Denials (London: Hodder Stoughton, 1906), ch. 1.  Only an excerpt of Warfield’s article on ‘Calvin’s Doctrine of the Creation’ is included in Evolution, Science and what Scripture , 293–314.