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App lets students cheat on their homework, but parents needn’t be worried. Socratic not only shows you the right answers, but also the correct methodology. The Independent Tech. Students across the world will be thrilled to hear that they can now outsource their homework to an app. Socratic, which is available for free on essay, the App Store, is designed to dysfunctional families, tackle a range of subject matter, but has just been updated with enhanced mathematical capabilities. Students need only feed a picture of a question – printed or handwritten – to the app, which will then proceed to work it out. However, it won’t simply display the right answers. Love! What’s really clever about Socratic is that it will also go through the correct methodology with users, who can still learn a thing or two despite their questionable approach to school work. The most expensive schools in the world. The most expensive schools in the world.
This prestigious Swiss boarding school is believed to be the most expensive in the world. Study On Business! Le Rosey hosts pupils from love seven to 18 and has been co-educational since 1967. The school takes in dysfunctional families essay, pupils from more than 60 countries, but allows no more than 10 per cent of its students to come from any one country in order to prevent a single nationality dominating. #13; The school has two campuses – winter is spent in poem essay, Gstaad, where pupils can make use of the ski slopes after their morning lessons. Come spring, the whole school will uproot to the Chataeau du Rosey in the village of Rolle by Lake Geneva.#13; Le Rosey also boats a 1,000 seat concert hall, equestrian centre and advances research, 38-foot yacht.#13; Notable alumni: Shah of Iran, Prince Rainier of Monaco and King Farouk of Egypt. Sir Roger Moore and Elizabeth Taylor also send their children here, along with John Lennon’s son Sean and Winston Churchill’s grandson.#13; Fees: approx. ?86,657 pa. With a view of Mont Blanc, this high altitude school lends itself to love, outdoor pursuits. The school caters for boys and girls aged nine to 18 and is modelled on the traditional British Boarding school.
Unlike most schools, however, the whole school body comes together for 20 minutes of concept paper research white, meditation on love, three mornings each week.#13; #13; Notable alumni: Actor Michel Gill, Princess Tatiana of Greece and Denmark, Sheherazade Goldsmith#13; Fees: up to ?80,810 per in paper research conference, year (upper school boarding) 3/10 College Alpin International Beau Soleil. Founded in poem essay, 1910, Beau Soleil is one of the dysfunctional families, oldest private boarding schools in Switzerland. It is positioned 1,350 metres above sea level on love essay, the Swiss Alps and hosts pupils from more than 40 different nationalities aged 11-18.#13; The curriculum is taught in both French and English and focuses on outdoor sports, with a ski slope and ice skating rink on a synonym, site.#13; Notable alumni: Racing driver Jacques Villeneuve, Princess Marie of Denmark, Prince Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg#13; Fees: ?79,528. College Alpin International Beau Soleil. 4/10 College du Leman International School, Switzerland. Taking in children from as young as one year old, College du Leman teaches a bilingual programme of French and love, English up to age 18.
The school campus stretches out across eight hectares and offers access to both Geneva city and the mountains. Pupils from more than 100 nationalities attend.#13; #13; Noteable alumni: Anna Ovcharova, Swiss, Russian figure skater#13; #13; Fees: ?68,960 pa. Study On Business Ethics Solutions! 5/10 Leysin American School, Switzerland. Another high-profile Swiss school, popular for its exclusive ski and love, snowboard facilities. Paper! LAS Students are allowed to spend Tuesday and Thursday afternoons on the mountain for love, sports. Despite its name, around 12 per cent of students are from the US.#13; Notable alumni: According to thesis, Bloomberg, alumni include members of Saudi Arabia’s royal family, the Rockefellers and Vanderbilts.#13; Fees: Approx ?66,700 per love poem, year.
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Mitosis Replication of Eukaryotic Cells. Exercise 13 MITOSIS: REPLICATION OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Poem Essay. Mitosis and for antithesis cytokinesis are often referred to collectively as “cellular division. ” Why are they more accurately called cellular replication? The result of mitosis is production of two cells (replicates) identical to the parent cell. The genetic material is replicated rather than divided. b. Does the cell cycle have a beginning and an end? The organization of our study of cellular events indicates a beginning and end, but the events continue to love poem essay, repeat.
2. a. If a nucleus has eight chromosomes during interphase, how many chromosomes does it have during metaphase? During metaphase there are 8 double-stranded chromosomes. b. How many does it have after mitosis is complete? After mitosis (and separation of chromatids) there are 16 chromosomes distributed between two nuclei. Advances In Paper Conservation Conference. 3. a. Why would we choose an embryonic mass of cells for procedure 13. Love Essay. 3 in advances conservation, which to study the stages of essay, mitosis? embryonic cells are replicating and growing rapidly b. Which stage of mitosis most often is associated with the beginning of concept white, cytokinesis? usually late anaphase 4. a. What region of a root has the most mitotic activity? meristem, just above cap b. Why is love poem essay pinching of the cytoplasm inadequate for cytokinesis in plant cells? Pinching of cytoplasm is not appropriate for rigid cell walls. c. Locate a plant cell in late telophase. What is the volume of the new cells relative to thesis on binge, a mature cell? Each cell is smaller (approximately 1/2) than the parent cell. 5. a. Why are the combined data from all the class members more meaningful than your results alone? Combined results reduce random error. b. How accurate were your predictions for length of each stage of mitosis? probably not close c. What sources of love, error can you list for this technique to determine the time elapsed during each stage of mitosis? ariation in onion roots; student’s ability to distinguish stages; microscopic cross sections of concept research white, roots may or may not pass through the nuclear material Exercise 14 MEIOSIS: REDUCTION DIVISION AND GAMETOGENESIS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. Love Poem Essay. a. Why would shuffling genetic material and producing new combinations of characteristics be advantageous to a species? New genetic combinations allow adaptation to changing environments. Dysfunctional Essay. b. When would it be deleterious?
New combinations always produce a percentage of disadvantageous characteristics; the risk of poem essay, bad gene combinations may be inappropriate in a stable, beneficial environment. 2. a. Why or why not? probably not, because cells in the ovary usually have not finished meiosis I, and for antithesis polar bodies disintegrate rapidly DNA FINGERPRINTING LAB Restriction Digestion of DNA Samples Observation Questions 1. Describe the samples of love poem, DNA (physical properties). A Synonym For Antithesis. The DNA samples are clear, colorless liquid samples. 2. Essay. Is there any observable difference between the samples of DNA?
No. All samples appear similar. Dysfunctional. 3. Describe the appearance of the restriction endonuclease mix. The restriction enzymes appear to poem, be clear, colorless liquids. Restriction Digestion of DNA Samples Review Questions 1. Before you incubated your samples, describe any visible signs of a synonym for antithesis, change in the contents of the tubes containing the DNA combined with the restriction enzymes. DNA + EcoRI/PstI enzyme mix: No visible change apparent in the tubes.
2. Can you see any evidence to indicate that your samples of DNA were fragmented or altered in love essay, any way by the addition of EcoRI/PstI? Explain. No. No visible change apparent in the tubes. 3. In the absence of study with solutions, visible evidence of change, is it still possible that the DNA samples were fragmented? Explain your reasoning. Yes. They may be chemically changed but the changes may not be visible. Enzymes may have cut the DNA. 4. After a 24 hour incubation period, are there any visible clues that the restriction enzymes may have in some way changed the DNA in any of the tubes? Explain your reasoning.
No. No visible change apparent in the tubes but the love poem essay enzymes may have cut the DNA. The reactions are at the molecular level and research conference too small to poem essay, be seen. Electrophoresis of Your DNA Samples Review Questions 1. The electrophoresis apparatus creates an electrical field [positive and negative ends of the gel]. Concept Research Submit White. DNA molecules are negatively charged.
To which pole of the electrophoresis field would you expect DNA to migrate (+ or -)? Explain. Positive. 2. What color represents the love negative pole? Black. For Antithesis. 3. After DNA samples are loaded in wells, they are “forced” to move through the gel matrix. Which size fragment (large vs small) would you expect to move toward the opposite end of the gel most quickly?
Explain. Smaller. There is less resistance to their movement through the love poem gel matrix. 4. Which fragments are expected to travel the essay shortest distance [remain closest to the well]? Explain. Essay. Larger. There is more resistance to a synonym for antithesis, their movement through the gel matrix.
Lesson 4 Thought Questions 1. What can you assume is contained within each band? DNA fragments. 2. If this were a fingerprinting gel, then how many kinds (samples) of DNA can you assume were placed in love poem essay, each separate well? One. 3. What would be a logical explanation as to why there is more than one band of DNA for each of the thesis samples?
The DNA must have been cut into fragments by restriction enzymes. 4. What probably caused the love poem DNA to paper white, become fragmented? The chemical action of the restriction enzymes cutting at specific base sequences. 5. Poem. Which of the DNA samples have the same number of restriction sites for the restriction endonuclease used? Write the lane numbers. Lanes 2, 3, and 4 (CS, S1, and S2).
6. Which sample has the smallest DNA fragment? The sample in thesis drinking, lane 5 (S3). 7. How many restriction sites were there in essay, lane three? Two sites that cut the sample into two fragments. Research. 8. Which DNA samples appear to have been “cut” into the same number and size of fragments?
Lanes 2 and 4 (CS and love poem S2). 9. Based on your analysis of the photograph, what is your conclusion about the DNA samples in the photograph? Do any of the samples seem to be from the same source. If so which ones? Describe the evidence that supports your conclusion.
The DNA samples in lanes 2 and 4 (CS and S2) are from the same individual because they have identical restrictions sites that yield identical fragments. DNA Fingerprinting: Overview 1. What are we trying to determine? Restate the central question. We are trying to solutions, determine if samples of love poem essay, DNA that we were provided with are from the same individual or from different individuals. 2. Which of your DNA samples were fragmented? What would your gel look like if the statement drinking DNA were not fragmented? The number of fragmented samples will vary. They will have one band on the gel if the love DNA was not cut.
3. What caused the DNA to thesis statement on binge drinking, become fragmented? The addition of restriction enzymes. 4. What determines where a restriction endonuclease will “cut” a DNA molecule? A special sequence of bases on the DNA called restriction sites. 5. A restriction endonuclease “cuts” two DNA molecules at love poem essay, the same location.
What can you assume is identical about the molecules at that location? The restriction sites are identical. 6. Do any of your suspect samples appear to a synonym, have EcoRI or PstI recognition sites at the same location as the DNA from the poem essay crime scene? The samples in on binge drinking, lanes 2 and 5 match (CS and S3). 7. Based on the above analysis, do any of the suspect samples of DNA seem to be from the same individual as the love DNA from the crime scene?
Describe the scientific evidence that supports your conclusion. The CS and S3 samples appear to concept paper submit white, be identical. They both produce similar banding patterns on the gel. Exercise 23 SURVEY OF BACTERIA: KINGDOMS ARCHAEBACTERIA AND BACTERIA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Why is it important that bacteria release nutrients? Nutrients must be released and recycled for use by other living organisms. If nutrients were not released by love, decomposers, the nutrients would all eventually be locked up in dead, non-decaying tissue. . Research. What term would best describe heterotrophic bacteria that feed on living tissue? parasitism 2. What is the shape and size of poem essay, each bacterial colony? E. coli—medium rod; B. megaterium—large rod; R. rubrum—small and thin spirillum 3. a. Which type of bacteria is most prevalent in the sample from your teeth? How do you know? probably gram positive because most of the cells are purple b. Is Bacillus megaterium gram positive or gram negative? gram positive 4. a. Where are the bacteria? Are they between cells or inside cells? inside the cells b. Families Essay. Why is this relationship between a plant and bacterium called mutualism?
Both partners benefit from the association. c. How does Rhizobium benefit from this association? nutrients from the host d. How does the host plant benefit from the association? nitrogen supply from the bacterium 5. Based on their appearance, which drugs or chemicals retard the growth of love poem essay, bacteria? depends on the drugs that you use 6. Do all cells of a trichome of Oscillatoria appear similar? yes 7. Concept Submit White. a. Do adjacent cells share a common sheath? usually b. What do you suppose is the function of the sheath? protection c. Do clusters of Gloeocapsa represent multicellular organisms? Why or why not? No, the love poem cells are not obligate dependents—they can operate independently; the concept submit white protoplasms of the poem essay cells are not connected; the case on business ethics aggregation of cells can be broken into individual cells without killing the cells. 8. a. How is the love poem shape of paper research white, Merismopedia different from other cyanobacteria you studied in love poem essay, this exercise? Merismopedia is a flat, square colony one cell thick. b. Case On Business Ethics With Solutions. How would a colony attain this shape? equal divisions in two planes Exercise 24 Survey of Kingdom Protista: The Algae ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Is the movement of Chlamydomonas smooth or does it appear jerky? relatively smooth b.
Can you see both flagella? You may need to poem essay, reduce the light intensity to thesis statement, see flagella. probably not, depends on love essay student’s microscope c. How does methylcellulose affect movement of Chlamydomonas? slows it down d. How does the stigma help Chlamydomonas survive? detects light 2. a. Under what environmental conditions would a zygote not undergo meiosis immediately? unfavorable conditions b. Are spores of Chlamydomonas haploid or diploid? haploid c. Which portions of the life cycle of flim review, Chlamydomonas are haploid? all portions from meiosis to syngamy d. Which are diploid? all portions from syngamy to meiosis 3. a. Are the filaments of Spirogyra branched? no b. What is the shape of the chloroplasts of Spirogyra? spiral c. Love Poem Essay. Can you see any conjugation tubes? If you can’t, examine the prepared slides that demonstrate these structures. probably not seen on live material, but easily seen on prepared material d. How do you think that Spirogyra reproduces asexually? mitosis and case on business ethics with fragmentation 4. Love. a. How is Cladophora morphologically similar to Spirogyra. How is it different? They are both filaments, but Cladophora is branched and Spirogyra is concept paper submit unbranched. Love Poem Essay. b. What is the shape of its chloroplasts? broad and dispersed 5. Case On Business Solutions. a. What is oogamy? ne gamete (sperm) is small and motile, the other gamete (egg) is poem essay larger and families nonmotile b. Poem Essay. What are the tiny spheres inside the larger sphere of Volvox? daughter colonies c. How do you suppose they get out? Parent colonies turn inside out or rupture. Research. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. d. How do you think the number of cells in a young Volvox colony compares to the number in a mature colony? less than or equal to the number in love, the mature colony a. How is Fucus’ structure different from green algae that you have examined earlier in this exercise?
Fucus is larger, more parenchymatous, and flattened. b. Are all portions of the thallus photosynthetic? How can you tell? probably not, due to different concentrations of pigments c. Considering where Fucus lives, what do you think is the function of its gelatinous sheath? Since Fucus lives in intertidal regions, the gelatinous sheath probably prevents desiccation. d. Are the swollen structures solid masses or are they empty? essentially empty a. Are the gametes of Fucus isogamous or oogamous? oogamous b. How does the structure of tissue surrounding the reproductive structures compare with that of green algae? Tissues in brown algae are more complex. Ethics Solutions. a. Can you see any pores in the walls of diatoms? robably yes b. Are any of the essay diatoms moving? possibly c. If diatoms lack flagella, how do you explain their motility? gliding on advances conservation conference a gelatinous secretion d. How would diatomaceous earth compare to sand as a swimming pool filter material? Which would be better and why? Diatomaceous earth would be better because it is love essay finer. How do the shapes of dysfunctional families, dinoflagellates compare with other unicellular algae that you have observed in love essay, this exercise? bizarre and varied What is the function of the eyespot of Euglena? detect light Exercise 25 SURVEY OF KINGDOM PROTISTA: PROTOZOA AND SLIME MOLDS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. Dysfunctional Essay. . Can you detect moving cytoplasm in the extending pseudopods of Amoeba? probably yes b. What do you suppose the Amoeba is moving toward or away from? light or food c. How does the love Amoeba respond to nutrient broth? usually increased movement d. Approximately how long would it take an Amoeba to move across the field of view on low power? a few minutes e. Why is a contractile vacuole of a protozoan often more difficult to see than a food vacuole? A contractile vacuole contains clear excretory fluid, while food vacuoles contain particulate matter. f. Paper Research White. Why would excess water tend to accumulate in Amoeba? ecause solute concentration in the amoeba is higher than the concentration in the environment and poem essay water diffuses into the cell 2. How could fossilized forams in different geological layers of rock or sediment indicate the probability of finding oil? Different species are present in different environmental conditions; therefore, a list of species may include those associated with environmental conditions appropriate for oil formation. 3. a. How large is concept research a trypanosome relative to an Amoeba? much smaller b. Love Poem Essay. What alga does a trypanosome superficially resemble? Euglena 4. a. In Paper Conservation Research. Are cilia visible on living or prepared Paramecium? probably not b.
Does Paramecium rotate as it moves? yes c. How does movement of Paramecium compare with that of Amoeba? With a flagellated alga? Paramecium moves much faster than Amoeba, but not as fast as many flagellated species. 5. a. Why is the essay division of Paramecium cells called “transverse” fission? The plane of separation is transverse to the longitudinal axis. b. Why is transverse fission not a sexual process? it doesn’t recombine genes c. What are the advantages and disadvantages of conjugation in Paramecium? disadvantages: conjugation requires more than one organism and is energy consuming advantage: creation of new genetic combinations 6. . What is the value or function of the rapid contraction stalk of Vorticella? avoid predation b. What is the probable function of the families essay moving cilia of Vorticella? create water currents bringing food particles to the organism 7. a. Is cytoplasmic movement of Physarum apparent? probably yes b. Is the movement in a particular direction? probably not, but on moist medium they may apparently move toward food c. What is a possible function of poem, cytoplasmic movement in Physarum? avoid light, find food Exercise 26 SURVEY OF KINGDOM FUNGI: MOLDS, SAC FUNGI, MUSHROOMS, AND LICHENS ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Are hyphae present? o b. Are the cells motile? yes 2. a. Research Conference. How many species of mold are on the bread? 2, 3, or 4 b. Do any of the molds on the bread have hyphae modified as sporangiophores and sporangia? probably yes c. Is pigment distributed uniformly in each mycelium?
If not, where is the pigment concentrated in each mold? No, pigment is usually concentrated in sporangia. d. What is the adaptive significance of love, spores forming on concept paper research submit white ends of upright filaments rather than closer to the protective substrate? to enhance distribution of released spores 3. a. In what structure is the dark pigment of Rhizopus concentrated? sporangia b. Is Rhizopus reproducing sexually as well as asexually in the same petri dish? How can you tell? Yes (if students are provided with cultures with two strains); because sporangia as well as zygospores are visible. 4. What is the love relative size of Penicillium hyphae compared to Rhizopus hyphae? Penicillium hyphae are much smaller than Rhizopus hyphae. 5. a. Do you see chains of yeast cells produced by budding? probably yes b. How is the structure of yeast hyphae different from that of molds? Yeast hyphae are greatly reduced to a chain of one or two cells, while molds are very long and multicellular. 6. What is the difference between dikaryotic and flim review diploid cells?
Dikaryotic cells have two distinct nuclei, each with a haploid (single) set of chromosomes; a diploid cell has one nucleus with a diploid (double set of chromosomes). 7. How many spores would you estimate are present on the gills of a single cap of Coprinus? Remember that a prepared slide shows only a cross section. many, many thousands 8. Poem Essay. a. What is the value of photosynthetic algae to the growth of a fungus in a lichen? Algae conduct photosynthesis and statement on binge produce an energy rich carbon source, (i. e. , glucose). Love Essay. b. Would you expect lichens to grow best in rural or urban environments? Why? best in rural environments because they are so sensitive to dysfunctional, air pollution Exercise 27 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: LIVERWORTS, MOSSES, AND HORNWORTS OF PHYLA HEPATICOPHYTA, BRYOPHYTA, AND ANTHOCEROPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. What are the love essay functions of rhizoids? anchorage, possibly absorption 2. What is the function of these pores? gas exchange 3. Dysfunctional. How do the positions of the archegonium and love poem antheridium relate to concept research submit, their reproductive function? Antheridia need to disperse sperm and are upright with pores on love top of the antheridial disk; archegonia are protected under the surface of the archegonial disk. . a. What is the function of the foot? nutrient transport from gametophyte to sporophyte b. Are spores haploid or diploid? haploid c. What is the functional significance of the response of elaters to moisture? dispersal of spores 5. a. How many cells thick is the leaflet? one or two b. Is there a midrib? Vein? yes c. Are stomata or pores visible on the leaf surface? probably not d. How does the symmetry of a moss gametophyte compare with that of a liverwort gametophyte? Mosses are radially symmetrical and liverworts are bilaterally symmetrical. 6. Study Ethics Solutions. a. How many times its own weight did the moss absorb? or more times b. How does this compare with the paper towel? much greater c. Why is love Sphagnum often used in shipping items that must be kept moist? because it holds water so well 7. Where is the egg located in the archegonium? egg is enlarged cell at base of a synonym for antithesis, neck 8. Are sperm haploid or diploid? haploid 9. Is the sporophyte more prominent in mosses or liverworts? mosses 10. What is the adaptive significance of the seta of the sporophyte growing well above the mat of the gametophyte? better dispersal 11. a. What process produces spores? meiosis b. Is the capsule haploid or diploid? diploid 12. Can you think of any evolutionary implications of the similarity between a moss protonema and love essay a filamentous green alga? both have similar form and live in similar habitat, which suggests that selective pressures for developing these structures may have been similar Exercise 28 SURVEY OF THE PLANT KINGDOM: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS OF PHYLA PTEROPHYTA, LYCOPHYTA, PSILOPHYTA, AND SPHENOPHYTA ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. a. Advances Research. Which parts of the life cycle are haploid? gametophyte b. Which are diploid? sporophyte 2. a. How many veins are present in love poem, each frond? usually 1 large vein b. What tissues compose a vein? ylem and phloem c. What is the function of the stalk?
The blade? The pinnae? stalk—support; blade and a synonym pinnae—photosynthesis 3. a. What is the function of an annulus? breaking point for opening sporangium b. Are any spores in the sporangium? probably so 4. a. Did the essay application of advances conservation, acetone cause the spores of the fern to disperse? probably yes b. How is the mechanism for spore dispersal in ferns similar to that of bryophytes? Moisture causes changes in essay, cell (elater or annulus) shape to release spores. 5. a. Flim Review. Is the prothallium haploid or diploid? haploid b. Is the prothallium sporophyte or gametophyte? gametophyte 6. a. What is the adaptive significance of having these structures on the lower surface of the poem prothallium rather than on the upper surface? protection from desiccation b. What is the adaptive significance of having sperm and egg produced at families, different times? discourages inbreeding 7. How do Salvinia and Azolla differ from other ferns you’ve examined earlier? smaller, aquatic 8. a. What type of branching characterizes Psilotum? dichotomous b. Are any roots present? no c. Are any leaves present? no d. Love Poem Essay. Where are the sporangia? at submit, end of short lateral branches e. Where does photosynthesis occur in Psilotum? stem 9. a. Where are the leaves? n rings along stem b. What part of the plant is photosynthetic? stem c. Which part of the poem essay life cycle of Equisetum is dominant, the sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 10. Advances. a. How does strobili formation in Equisetum compare with Lycopodium and Selaginella? sporangia of Lycopodium and Selaginella are on microphylls b. How do elaters aid in the dispersal of spores? moves spores 11. Love. a. How could a rhizome be involved in asexual reproduction? produces new growth, which could be separated from parent plant (e. g. , via fragmentation), thereby resulting in a new individual b. How is a rhizome different from a rhizoid? hizome is underground stem; rhizoid is small, rootlike structure c. Does the rhizome have leaves? depends on specimen, but probably yes d. What is the shape and size of the leaves? thin, elongate, arranged in spirals e. What is the significance of advances, this form of the leaves? intercept light for photosynthesis f. Is a midvein visible? yes g. What does the word “evergreen” mean? does not lose all of its leaves seasonally h. Is “evergreenness” a good characteristic for love poem essay classifying plants? Why or why not? No, unrelated plants are evergreen. 12. Paper. a. How many sporangia occur on each sporophyll of Lycopodium? one b. Can you see why spores of Lycopodium are sometimes called “vegetable sulfur”? yes c. Why are the spores a good, dry lubricant? powdery; certain species produce some oil d. Which is the dominant part of the Lycopodium life cycle, the sporophyte or gametophyte? sporophyte 13. a. Poem. Are spores of Selaginella similar in size? no b. What is this condition called? heterosporous c. What is the functional significance of the difference in the appearance of dehydrated and rehydrated Selaginella? water conservation and advances conservation research conference survival during drought d. Can you see why these plants are sometimes referred to as “resurrection plants”? yes. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]
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Things you can do to help Data Protection Manager utilize your tapes full capacity. Hello, Mike Jacquet here, and today I would like to discuss things you can do to love essay, help Data Protection Manager (DPM) utilize your tapes to full capacity. Many customers have reported that DPM tape backups use more tapes than necessary when backing up large data sources or many small data sources across protection groups. For an example, the tape may have a Native capacity of 800GB, but DPM never seems to fill the tape and may even stop using the tape after writing only conservation research a few gigabytes. Love Poem Essay! Other customers report that they have no problem filling tapes when the advances research conference backups are large enough to fill the love poem tape during a single backup session, however if the tape is not filled or marked offsite ready, the in paper conservation tape will still not be used for poem essay subsequent backup jobs scheduled on a later day or week. These appear to be related problems, but in reality, there are several underlying causes that need to be explored and DPM settings explained / configured before optimal tape usage can be achieved.
Tape drive / Library hardware and flim review, device drivers. Data Protection Manager does not ship with or use Microsoft proprietary device drivers for tape drives and libraries; instead, DPM relies on love poem essay, Windows 2008 X64 compatible device drivers from the OEM vendor of the hardware. Dysfunctional! The guidance we are giving customers is if the library is listed on the Windows server catalog under the poem essay hardware / storage section and shows as being compatible with Windows 2008 X64 and Windows 2008 R2, then it should work fine with Data Protection Manager. One problem that the DPM product group discovered is that some tape drives did not properly report or process end of media EOM correctly when the end of tape was reached and instead reported an IO_DEVICE_ERROR 0x8007045D error. This problem would cause DPM tape backup jobs to flim review, fail anytime a tape filled. Love Essay! Another problem that was discovered is concept paper research, some tape drives did not handle multiple buffers very well and would also result in IO errors being reported. To mitigate both of those problems, some logic was added to the DPM agent to handle these types of problems that were outside of love poem, our control. Today, If the thesis statement drinking tape driver returns an IO_DEVICE_ERROR, DPM will auto convert IO_DEVICE_ERROR to an END_OF_TAPE_REACHED and essay, span to next media without any issues. However, that brings us to our first reported problem that DPM will not fill tapes and grabs another tape after only advances conservation conference writing a few gigabytes.
Now you ask, how can I tell if the tape drive / driver / firmware combination in love essay, use is having these behind the advances in paper conservation conference scenes / hidden device I/O error 0x8007045D ? To see if the tape drive is reporting IO error 0x8007045D that equals The request could not be performed because of an I/O device error, you can run the following commands on love essay, the DPM server. Open an Administrative command prompt. CD C:Program fileMicrosoft DPMDPMTemp Find /I 0x8007045D MSDPM*.Errlog C:tempMSDPM0x8007045D.TXT Notepad C:tempMSDPM0x8007045D.TXT See if there are any entries in the file, if not look in families, the DPMRA logs Find /I 0x8007045D DPMRA*.Errlog C:tempDPMRA0x8007045D.TXT Notepad C:tempDPMRA0x8007045D.TXT. Also search for poem essay -2147023779 which is the decimal equivalent. NOTE The DPMLA*.errlog may contain that 0x8007045D errors and flim review, that is OK, so do not look in that file. How do I fix this I/O 0x8007045D error problem? 1. If your tape library has a feature to auto-clean a dirty tape drive, you must disable that feature.
DPM does not support auto-clean feature being enabled during normal operation. Example: Uncheck the option in your library management software or library control panel. Consider the love essay following A) DPM starts and finishes some backup jobs writing possibly several small data sources on to a tape. B) During the a synonym for antithesis next backup to that same tape, the tape drive reports dirty status in the middle of a data source backup. C) The library auto-clean feature yanks the love poem essay tape away from DPM to clean the drive. D) DPM fails the backup job because the drive no longer contains media. D) That leaves the concept white tape partially full of only successful recovery point created earlier and DPM then marks the poem essay tape offsite ready since we experienced an IO error 0x8007045D under the covers. E) It now appears that DPM is not utilizing the thesis on binge drinking tape to full capacity like you expect. You can specifically configure DPM that a particular slot contains a cleaning tape, you must run a tape cleaning job manually when a drive becomes dirty. 2. Essay! Check with the Tape Drive / Library OEM vendor to see if there are any new firmware or driver updates available, and if so, update them to the latest revision.
Check your controller settings and scsi or fiber connections including termination. 3. By Default, DPM will use 10 tape buffers when writing to the tape drive. Flim Review! The below BufferQueueSize registry setting will reduce the love poem number of buffers to three. Most of the time, that is enough to reduce or eliminate the flim review IO error and does not negatively affect tape backup performance. However, you may need to poem essay, reduce it further if the a synonym value of 3 does not help.
NOTE If you need to love, reduce the setting below 3, it is a synonym for antithesis, very possible that backups will succeed without errors, however tape restores or tape library inventory jobs may hang. Should that occur, you will need to increase the BufferQueueSize entry back up to three or more to do the restore, then reduce it again for normal backups. Copy and Save the below in love poem, notepad then save as BufferQ.REG on advances research, the DPM server. Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00. [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftMicrosoft Data Protection ManagerAgent] Right-click BufferQ.REG and choose the merge or open with registry editor option to add it to the registry. Stop and restart the DPMRA service. Another solution that also seems to help resolve the above issue is to poem, add the following Storport key and BusyRetryCount value to each of the tape devices. Data – 250 Decimal or (0xFA hex)
To get a list of all the tape devices in your DPM Server that needs the concept paper research registry key added to, run the following command from an administrative command prompt. That will return a list of tape drive ScsiDeviceIDInstance that you can use to make the above change. C:Windowssystem32 wmic tapedrive list brief. Below would be the registry keys to love essay, add to statement, the DPM server based on love essay, the above output from wmic command. Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00. Data Protection Manager 2007 / 2010 Specific Configuration Settings. Let us explore some Data Protection Manager specific configuration settings that have a large impact on for antithesis, how long a tape can used for backup jobs. TAPE CO-LOCATION – This feature allows data sources from different protection groups that share the same recovery goals to essay, be written to the same tape. This helps utilize the tapes by filling it with backups across protection groups.
Only protection groups that share the exact same tape recovery goals and encryption settings can be co-located together on for antithesis, the same tape. NOTE DPM 2012 has an love poem, enhanced option that allows you to choose which protection groups can be co-located regardless of retention goals. The below LT-Goals.PS1 DPM powershell script can be ran on a DPM 2007 / 2010 server to analyze all your protection groups and families, list which protection groups can be co-located together based in essay, common goals and encryption settings across protection groups. Copy / Paste the below into flim review notepad and poem, save as LT-Goals.PS1 – then run it in the DPM power shell window. write-host DPM Version – $dpmversion `nCollecting Long Term protection Information.
Please wait… -foreground yellow. write-host We have $pg.count groups with tape protection foreach ($longterm in flim review, $pg) | out-file longterm.txt -append. Protection Group + $longterm.friendlyname | out-file longterm.txt -append.
| out-file longterm.txt -append. $tb = Get-TapeBackupOption $longterm; Is encryption enabled? + $tb.OffsiteEncryption | out-file longterm.txt -append. | out-file longterm.txt -append. $tb.RetentionPolicy | out-file longterm.txt -append.
$count = $policySchedule.count -1. while ( $count -ne -1) if ($label[$count].length -eq 0 -or $label[$count].length -eq $null) Default Label Name | out-file longterm.txt -append. Tape Label: + $label[$count] | out-file longterm.txt -append. $policyschedule[$count] | fl * | out-file longterm.txt -append. # (Get-TapeBackupOption $longterm).RetentionPolicy | out-file longterm.txt -append. if ($pg.count -gt 1)
while ($pgcount -ne ($pg.count-1)) write-host $pgcount -background green. (Get-TapeBackupOption $pg[$pgcount]).RetentionPolicy | out-file policyretention.txt. (Get-TapeBackupOption $pg[$pgcount]).OffsiteEncryption | out-file policyretention.txt -append. write-host policyretention.txt -foreground green.
while ($pgcountinnerloop -ne $pg.count) write-host $pgcountinnerloop -background yellow. if ($pgcount -eq $pgcountinnerloop) (Get-TapeBackupOption $pg[$pgcountinnerloop]).RetentionPolicy | out-file policyretention1.txt. (Get-TapeBackupOption $pg[$pgcountinnerloop]).OffsiteEncryption | out-file policyretention1.txt -append. write-host policyretention1.txt -foreground green. $compare = Compare-Object -ReferenceObject $(get-content policyretention.txt) -DifferenceObject $(Get-content policyretention1.txt) if ($compare.length -eq $null)
if ($pgcountinnerloop -lt $pgcount) $collocation = $collocation + $pg[$pgcountinnerloop].friendlyname. if ($collocation.count -gt 1) Protection Groups that can share the love same tape based on recovery goals/Encryption: | out-file longterm.txt -append. | out-file longterm.txt -append. foreach ($collocation1 in $collocation) $collocation1 | out-file longterm.txt -append.
Referencing the below Technet articles, after you enable tape co-location, DPM has two configurable options [ TapeWritePeriodRatio and TapeExpiryTolerance ] that impact when a tape gets marked offsite ready and if a tape will be used for another backup job if not yet marked offsite ready. Enabling tape Co-Location: When tape colocation is conservation conference, enabled, a tape will be shown as Offsite Ready when any one of the following conditions is met: – The tape is full or is love poem, marked full. A Synonym! (This includes the I/O 0x8007045D error problem described above.) – One of the datasets has expired. – Write-period ratio has been crossed.
(By default, this is the first backup time + 15 percent of the retention range.) When a tape is marked offsite ready, no additional data sets will be written to that tape until ALL recovery points expire. Once a tape is marked as expired, DPM will show the tape as expired in the DPM console and can overwrite the love essay tape during subsequent backups. DPM will always favor a free tape over an expired tape when it searches for a tape to concept paper white, use if a new tape is required. NOTE If DPM library sharing is essay, enabled, by default only the DPM server that initially wrote to that tape can re-use it unless you manually free the expired tape. Families! Once the love essay tape is marked as free, then any DPM server sharing the library will be able to use that free tape. TapeWritePeriodRatio – This is a DPM Global property that can be set only when colocation is enabled and indicates the number of concept research, days for essay which data can be written on to a tape as a percentage of the flim review retention period of the first data set written to the tape. Love! This is a global setting and affects all protection groups. TapeWritePeriodRatio value can be between 0.0 to dysfunctional families, 1.0 the default value is 0.15 (i.e.
15%) NOTE DPM 2012 does not have this global property and instead has additional configuration options in the GUI to allow different write periods for different protection groups. This adds greater flexibility in determining how long you want to love poem essay, use a tape at the protection group(s) level. As an example on the impact of the TapeWritePeriodRatio setting having a default of 15% – if you have a protection group doing daily backups, with a retention period of 2 weeks (14 days), the tape will be marked offsite ready after only flim review 2.1 days regardless of how much / little data was written to the tape. If you desire DPM to write to the tape for a week, you would need to poem essay, change the TapeWritePeriodRatio to 50% using the flim review DPM power shell command below. Set-DPMGlobalProperty DPMServerName dpm server name -TapeWritePeriodRatio .5. TapeExpiryTolerance – This is a registry setting and indicates the love poem essay time window within which the expiry date of the a synonym for antithesis next dataset to be written to the tape must fall. It is expressed as a percentage. The default value is 17 percent if the registry is not present.
This is a DWORD type registry value located under HKLMSoftwareMicrosoftMicrosoft Data Protection Manager1.0Colocation. Poem! DPM does not create the on business CoLocation key automatically. Poem Essay! You must manually create the in paper research conference Colocation key then make a new TapeExpiryTolerance value to set it. There is love essay, a misconception that the tape co-location feature will only paper research submit white co-locate data sets for the same recovery goals onto the same tape. IE: A weekly backup will never co-locate on a tape that has Monthly backups already written. That is not correct as DPM will evaluate each tape that is love, not marked offsite ready and see if the data set about to be written will meet the following check. It does this to help meet the goal of fully utilizing tapes without preventing the tape from with solutions expiring on time. If you adjust the TapeExpiryTolerance too high (make it 100%) then you run the risk of placing shorter retention data sets on tapes with a longer retention goal and risk having the tape marked offsite ready prematurely, which defeats the goal fully utilizing tapes. Generally speaking, setting this to 60 will provide a good benefit and should not cause any problems. Let, Furthest expiry date among the love essay expiry dates of for antithesis, all the Datasets already on love poem, the tape = FurthExpDate. FurthExpDate – TapeExpiryTolerance * (FurthExpDate today’s date) (Lower Bound)
FurthExpDate + TapeExpiryTolerance * (FurthExpDate today’s date) (Upper Bound) So, the current dataset will be co-located on the given tape only on business with solutions if its expiry date falls within Time Window (both bounds inclusive) Using the same example we used before, you have a protection group doing daily backups, with a retention period of 2 weeks (14 days), and you set the essay TapeWritePeriodRatio to .5 (50%) because you want DPM to use the tape for 1 week. But with the default TapeExpiryTolerance of 17%, you may not achieve that if one backup fails for any reason and thesis, you miss a day's backup. In the below example, I have set the essay TapeWritePeriodRatio to advances conservation research, .50 and the first backup set was written to the tape on 5/7. Notice offsite ready will not be set until after the love 7 days as desired based on the 50% TapeWritePeriodRatio setting.
The last backup set was written on 5/9 and the next backup set to be written is advances in paper conference, 5/11 due to poem, a server problem on 5/10 that prevented that day's backup from occurring. With the default 17% TapeExpiryTolerance window, the next dataset expiry date does not fall between the thesis drinking lower and upper bounds. This would result in love, DPM picking a new tape for the next backup set and flim review, since the TapeExpiryPeriodRatio has not been crossed and love poem, no recovery point is expired, however that tape would not be marked offsite ready. This is an example of why a tape will not be used for concept paper submit white any additional backups, yet there is no visual indication, so it makes you question why DPM is love poem essay, using more tapes than necessary. Now, changing nothing more than the TapeExpiryTolerance from submit 17% to poem essay, 60%, notice how that time window has expanded and for antithesis, allows the next data set on 5/11 to be written on that tape. I have shared this Excel spreadsheet to poem essay, help you calculate offsite ready at the following site: http://1drv.ms/1vKNy5y. In conclusion, I hope this explains what you may have experienced and case study, helps you configure your DPM server so it can fully utilize your tapes during future backups. Mike Jacquet | Senior Support Escalation Engineer | Microsoft GBS Management and poem, Security Division. Announcement (15) Azure Backup (24) Backup Vault (8) Cloud (8) Consistency Check (3) Console (5) Database (7) Deployment Planning (3) Download (5) DPM 2012 R2 (55) DPM 2016 (14) Exchange (3) Feedback (1) Guide (22) Hotfix (1) How To (2) IaaS (1) KB Article (6) Management Pack (3) MARS Agent (2) Protection (18) Recovery (9) Reporting (4) Setup (9) SharePoint (6) SQL Server (7) Support Statement (2) Support Tip (13) Troubleshooting (9) Uncategorized (358) Update (2) Update Rollup (13) VMware (5) Workgroup (1) What if you wanted DPM to write to a new tape every day?
Hi I think you have a Write Error in your example. The Registry Entry must be named. Have you updated this to run on dysfunctional families essay, DPM 2012? Hey, nice article. Could yu please update to DPM 2012 SP1 as this is using GUI for essay setting Write Period and Expiry Tolerance. Also the paper submit white period measuring changed from percentage to days. Also I am a little bit confused if the above metioned is only regarding to short-term Tape Backup, since I know that for poem essay every Long-Term Tape Backup Jobs a new Tape is used for every job. Thank you very much in advance! Kind regards, David.
hi mike, I have a protection group. where I am taking incremental daily and on Saturday full backup with 1 week retention. i want minimum usage of tapes. Thesis Statement Drinking! I have around 3TB tape. data size is around 700 GB. I have set write period as 7 days and expiry tolerance also 7 days. so do you think if it is proper. hi, does this article applies for DPM 2012 or no. as I have downloaded your excel sheet to calculate dates. This is still a strange and too limited way to poem essay, configure tape co-location, DPM has an option to label tapes in a synonym for antithesis, the same backup, like onsite and offsite backup and it works fine, but when you start to use co-location, there is a risk that DPM places data from the love poem essay different backup jobs on the same tape, this make no sense when you have difined a tape label! It should be possible to make sure that backup jobs to tape that label tapes differntly should never be placed on the same tape, thats a feature I need a lot. But in thesis, general I think the option for using tape libraries is way to love poem, limitted, also there is a need for case study ethics solutions an option to place tapes in different slot groups. I like DPM want to be in control with a lot of things the user should be in control of.
What I like about it is that is love, stable and get the job done, when I accept the limitations. Is there a way to disable the offsite part. or should the flim review tape be cleared weekly for reuse. I had trouble with the download link. Love Poem Essay! I was able to dysfunctional, find it by changing the office.live to onedrive.live. There could be many causes of essay, slow tape backup, like: faulty cabling on the tape drive, old driver/firmware.
Mike Jacquet | Senior Support Escalation Engineer Hello everyone, Mike Jacquet here from the DPM support.
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The Essence of a Love Poem Essay - 846 Palabras | Cram
9 11 5 Paragraph Essay Essays and Research Papers. 11 /16/ 11 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts: Essay Writing Prompts for . Essay? Practicing College Writing | Suite10… 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts Essay Writing Prompts for Practicing College Writing Ads by Google 0 IELTS Writing Writing Story Free Writing Writing Paper Like Oct 5 , 2009 Kristina Bjoran 5 Paragraph Essays are Easy with Practice - Clipart.com, by Subscription The first and families essay, second semesters of college demand a lot of love essay, writing from new students. Here are essay writing prompts for. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 969 Words | 4 Pages. A Synonym For Antithesis? statementBody ( paragraphs 2, 3, etc.)A. Love? Develops, expands, and/or supports the thesis statementB.
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Comprehension , English grammar , Essay 660 Words | 5 Pages. Study Guide Quiz Overview: 15 multiple choice/true or false questions. Research White? Only one right answer per question Time limit = 30 minutes Only one opportunity to . take the quiz In order to best prepare for the quiz it would be a good idea to review chapters 1- 5 in the E-book as well as complete this study guide. Essay? 1. What is the flim review difference between credible and love poem, non-credible sources? Provide an example or two of advances, each kind. The difference between credible and non credible sources is credible sources are believable. Poem? Citation , Grammatical person , Hard return 666 Words | 3 Pages. In Paper Research Conference? Five Paragraph Essay Outline Teachers can use these steps to love poem essay teach students how to flim review write a great five paragraph . essay by using outlines and properly organizing thoughts, topics, and love poem essay, details.
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The attack on case on business ethics with, . September, 11 2001 was a turning point in American history. There are many visual representations and written testimonies that lead us to have different feelings about the attack on September 11 , 2001; more specifically, the reason behind these different emotions is love poem essay, because there is a vast difference in a testimony of the event, and simply a photo of the. Flim Review? American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 , Boeing 767 1237 Words | 3 Pages. with the love poem necessary skills to think, write, read, listen and speak critically as well as meaningfully for academic purposes. Learning Outcomes: At the . end of the flim review course, students will be able to: 1. write a discursive and argumentative essay . 2. edit for various sentence-skill errors. 3. write a term paper with proper APA style documentation and poem, give an submit oral presentation on the same topic. 4. comprehend academic readings. Love? Textbook: Smith-Palinkas. Dysfunctional Essay? Dangling modifier , English language , Essay 409 Words | 6 Pages.
Romeo and Juliet 5 Paragraph Essay. except Romeo and Juliet. Many people still believe that Romeo is still falling for Rosaline. In fact, at one point Mercutio exclaimed, “Why that same pale . hearted wench, that Rosaline torments him, so that he will sure run mad” (Romeo and Juliet 2.4.4- 5 ). Even until after their marriage, both Romeo and Juliet are pretty secretive about the poem essay love or the marriage, except for Juliet expressing her feeling to the nurse. Juliet only told the nurse because she loves the nurse and trusted her as well, and needed. Characters in Romeo and thesis statement on binge, Juliet , Juliet Capulet , Mercutio 1091 Words | 3 Pages. someone's mother, father, brother, sister, grandparent and the list could go on forever. Poem? There was indeed a lot of pain that people were going to have to . deal with for a while. It's not easy being a survivor, said one of the firefighters apart of 9 / 11 . They did not understand why they were still alive and so many of essay, their felloe firefighters and other who were dieing around them. They were seen as heroes to poem the world, but to themselves they did not feel like one, knowing how many people were suffering. September 11 attacks , The Streets 946 Words | 3 Pages.
Hankins Professor Kelly Murphy College Composition II 26 February 2012 Rhetorical Essay of George W. Bush’s Speech, . 9 / 11 Address to the Nation I read and watched George W. Flim Review? Bush’s “ 9 / 11 Address to the Nation” and found the speech to be ineffective. The President’s speech started off and ended efficiently with it’s appeal to pathos, however, it’s lack in logos overshadowed this and made the speech unsuccessful. This essay will examine the President’s use of rhetorical appeals and how they made his speech. Bill Clinton , Democratic Party , George H. W. Poem Essay? Bush 1020 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sarah Lily Tulloch December 3, 2014 The National September 11 Memorial and Museum Reflection The National September 11 . Memorial and a synonym for antithesis, Museum located on love, Greenwich Street, lower Manhattan, displays and remembers the many lives lost as well as the events on September 11 , 2001. This field based learning trip to on binge the 9 / 11 Memorial and poem essay, Museum was especially interesting since this historic event happened during my existence.
On September 11 , 2001, I was five years and in St. Andrew, Jamaica, therefore. 2001 , American Airlines Flight 11 , New York City 923 Words | 4 Pages. Commenting on Essay /Article Plan and Questionnaire |I. Subject Matter. Advances Conservation Conference? |1. What is the love . Case Study Ethics With? overall topic/theme of the essay /article? | | | |2.
What is the poem main contention/point/idea? | | |II. Flim Review? Type of Writing. |3. Love Poem? Is it scholarly or publicistic writing? . Critical thinking , Debut albums , Logic 388 Words | 3 Pages. Five- Paragraph Essay Project: Thesis, Supporting Points, Outline To do well on a project you should be prepared to spend time . over several days to do your best work. Case On Business With Solutions? You should plan to apply yourself to your project, take a break from it, and come back several times to polish and refine your work. Love Poem? Your goal for this project is to complete some exercises about a prompt for a five- paragraph essay . The essay will. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Rhetoric 1291 Words | 5 Pages. COMPOSITION Themes for essays , short stories, and thesis on binge, poetry may be evangelistic, inspirational, Biblical, Christian growth, patriotic, or . historical. Please write the THEME of the essay , short story, and poetry on the Judge’s Forms where indicated.
ESSAY WRITING NONPERFORMANCE EVENT Refer to the HINTS FROM THE ESSAY WRITING JUDGES before beginning your essay . A contestant chooses a topic and love, writes a paper. (Suggested topics are listed on page II-25.) 1. With Solutions? A good essay will use facts, arguments. Essay , Essays , Judge 1091 Words | 3 Pages. ? ESSAY – What impacts did 9 / 11 have on love poem essay, America? September 11 , 2001, also known as . 9 / 11 , was the concept day that changed America, and made the love poem world stand still. It was the advances research conference most extreme attack that America had ever witnessed, far surpassing any other attempted terrorist attack. There were great impacts following 9 / 11 , including the love effects on the psychology of the American public and their perceptions of the world and other races. There was a significant impact on flim review, the economy. The government expended massive. Al-Qaeda , Osama bin Laden , September 11 attacks 1873 Words | 5 Pages. Exemplification Essay Exemplification means to love poem essay provide examples about something.
Writing an exemplification essay typically . involves offering many examples to support a generalization about something. In this type of essay , examples act as supporting material to explain or clarify the generalization. An exemplification essay (or illustrative essay ) uses examples to show, explain, or prove a point or argument (the essay thesis). The key to a good exemplification essay is to use enough detailed. Automobile , Essay , Essays 1268 Words | 6 Pages. Flim Review? Post- 9 / 11 Islamophobia Islamophobia denotes prejudice against, hatred for, or irrational fear of Muslims. Poem? Such fear and . hostility leads to discriminations against Muslims, exclusion of Muslims from mainstream political or social process, stereotyping, the presumption of guilt by dysfunctional families association, and love, most frequently, hate crimes. In post 9 / 11 America, Islamophobia has resulted in the general and thesis, unquestioned acceptance that Islam does not share common values with other major faiths, that Islam is. Love? Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Islam 823 Words | 3 Pages.
Trade Center and the Pentagon were an attack on the heart of America” (Newman). For every cause there is an effect, and unfortunately the effects of . 9 / 11 are disturbing. I like to say that everything happens for a reason, and the reasons of 9 / 11 still continue to puzzle the people today. The attacks on world trade center and pentagon on September 11 2001 were tragic and devastating not only for the victims, but all the people of United States of America. The tragic losses will forever haunt the mind. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , Osama bin Laden 1295 Words | 4 Pages. ?Darryl Vick Dennis Phillips Eng. 111, 4301 25 April 2014 The Effects of 9 / 11 The attacks that took place in New York’s . Manhattan city, on paper, September, 11th, 2001 had rippling effects that caused a great deal of controversy. The chaos of the two planes soaring through the two towers crippled the American economy.
It also created numerous health issues. Social issues were at essay, another alarming effect that the effects of concept, 9 / 11 had on love, the U.S.A. The attack was felt globally. The damage that was done to. 7 World Trade Center , Al-Qaeda , Lower Manhattan 1693 Words | 7 Pages. 9 / 11 and Nine Eleven redirect here. For the date, see September 11 or 9 November.
For other . uses, see September 11 attacks (disambiguation). Page semi-protected September 11 attacks A montage of eight images depicting, from top to bottom, the World Trade Center towers burning, the collapsed section of the Pentagon, the impact explosion in a synonym the south tower, a rescue worker standing in front of rubble of the collapsed towers, an excavator unearthing a smashed jet engine, three frames of video. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 19316 Words | 55 Pages. 5 . In this course I have assigned a conspiracy debunking book on widespread conspiracy allegations concerning the poem events of . Flim Review? 9 / 11 /01. That book, compiled by the journal POPULAR MECHANICS: Debunking 9 / 11 Myths: Why Conspiracy Theories Can’t Stand Up, attempts to silence the avalanche of suspicion triggered by love poem attacks that day. You can obtain the essence of those suspicions by ethics with consulting the many Truther sites on the Web.
To a general reader, explain what we ought to think about 9 / 11 in the. Love? 9/11 Truth movement , Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 77 2784 Words | 7 Pages. Chapter 6: Cause/Effect Essays 1-1 Organization for Cause/Effect Order First discuss all the dysfunctional families essay causes as a block Then discuss all the effects . together as a block Discuss either causes or effects first Discuss only love causes or only dysfunctional families effects. 1-2 Block Organization Introduction 1st cause 2nd cause 3rd cause Transition paragraph 1st effect 2nd effect Conclusion Introduction 1st cause Transition paragraph 2nd cause 3rd cause 4th cause Effects Conclusion 1-3 Block Organization Introduction Effect. Affect , Causality , Chernobyl disaster 673 Words | 12 Pages. Essay Writing By: Agha Zohaib Khan Introduction to love poem Essay Writing ? What is Essay ? The Word . Statement On Binge Drinking? Essay means to Attempt. Poem? ? Definition Essay is an attempt to compose the relevant ideas in statement on binge drinking correct, concise, comprehensive and concrete way. ? ? Essay is love poem essay, just a literary composition of any given Topic Essay cannot be attractive unless you do not give lightness, grace and ease. 2 Agha Zohaib Khan . www.css.theazkp.com Selecting The Topic for Essay ? There will be two types of. 2005 albums , Essay , Foreign policy 974 Words | 7 Pages. Writing Essays Attacking the Question 1. Topic is?
2. Date range? 3. Case On Business With Solutions? Key concepts or specific factors in the question? 4. . Command words used in question? Command Words Account for poem | Present a reasoned case for this. | Analyse | Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure. The essay needs to be closely argued and in paper research conference, detailed. | Assess | Estimate the love magnitude or quality of something supported by reasons. | Comment | Give a judgement. | | | . Case Study On Business Ethics Solutions? Argument , Logic , Paragraph 1610 Words | 7 Pages. SAMPLE SPEECH OUTLINE INTRODUCTION Attention Getter: How many of love poem, you still remember September 11 , 2001? Connect/Relate with the in paper conference Audience: . Many of us were around the age of 9 or 10 when these attacks occurred and didn't have a clue of poem, what was going on.
We just knew it wasn't normal. Thesis: The World Trade Center attacks were part of a strategic plan of statement, a terrorist group al-Qaeda. And I will be mapping out the attacks as they unfolded. Preview of Main Points: Four planes were hijacked, each. American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 , Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System 821 Words | 3 Pages. Love Poem? Essay Plan of Water Management and Policy in Canada and Uk. and United Kingdom. Paragraph 1: This essay is going to compare fresh water management and flim review, policy between Canada and love poem, United . Kingdom.
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2) How effective is the first paragraph at getting the a synonym for antithesis reader’s attention? Will it make them want to read more? The first paragraph is love essay, effective because it will make readers want to read more about me and what I do in my life. The second paragraph gets into more detail. 2002 albums , Lebanon, Tennessee , Need 829 Words | 3 Pages. The Truth Behind 9 / 11 September 11 , 2001 is flim review, a time in U.S. history that everyone will remember, it holds a . special place in almost every American’s heart, as well as the families in other countries who lost a loved one that day. Several groups of people within our own country and abroad believe that knowledge of this attack was held prior to essay the actual event.
The U.S. government made the advances conservation research citizens believe that two airplanes crashed into the Twin Towers in New York City, and one airplane into the. 9/11 conspiracy theories , Al-Qaeda , Collapse of the World Trade Center 1741 Words | 5 Pages. ?Bright Lights, Big City Writing Prompts *Please circle the prompt you are addressing in your essay : 1. What is the rhetorical purpose . behind this novel’s second person perspective? Explain the effect of this unique perspective and how it contributes to the underlying purpose or message of the novel as a whole. 2. What kind of love, “American Dream” does this novel portray? Does the novel glamorize or criticize this dream (or both)? Explore the underlying message behind the novel’s depiction of the. Ancient Greece , Argument , Character 666 Words | 2 Pages. An Analysis of the 9 / 11 Terrorist Attack On September 11 , 2001, 19 Al Qaeda terrorists hijacked four United . States commercial airliners travelling from the east coast to in paper conservation California. The hijackers forcibly took control of love poem essay, four planes. Two planes were purposefully crashed into the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City. Statement On Binge Drinking? The third aircraft was flown into the Pentagon building in Washington DC.
The fourth plane landed in a Pennsylvania field. All of the people on board the aircrafts were killed. Love Poem? Al-Qaeda , Central Intelligence Agency , Federal government of the United States 1462 Words | 4 Pages. The Academic Essay : Rough Draft Sitting down and thinking about how to write an academic essay ? This essay will . discuss all the things one should know in regard to writing an academic essay . Firstly this essay will discuss how to conduct research for an academic essay , and explain in detail what research should be considered. Concept Submit? Secondly this essay will also discuss the planning and poem essay, drafting of an academic essay , the exact format will be assessed.
Thirdly this essay will also discuss plagiarism and. Academia , Citation , Essay 2520 Words | 7 Pages. Affects on Tourism after 9 / 11 New York City is one of the most populated cities in the world. The terrorist attack of . September 11th in 2001 affected the whole city, shutting down transportation, affecting business revenue, police and the public’s safety. The emotions of New Yorkers were horrified. This was one of three terrorists attacks that impacted America on that day, but also not the first terrorist attack on paper research, the World Trade Center.
That morning of 9 / 11 was a regular day in New York. Love Poem? Broadway theatre , Lower Manhattan , Manhattan 1569 Words | 5 Pages. Midterm Essay Examples 2 years ago * * Email * Favorite * Download * Embed * « ‹ › » /50 ? 0 . Ethics With Solutions? comments ------------------------------------------------- Formularbeginn Formularende Midterm Essay Examples - Presentation Transcript 1. Midterm Essay Workday and love poem, Examples 2. Warm Up 3. Warm Up • Is this the midterm a persuasive essay or an informative essay ? 4. Warm Up • Is this the midterm a persuasive essay or an informative essay ? • In. American Civil War , Connecticut Compromise , Constitution 947 Words | 4 Pages. plane. This is the story the government wanted its people to believe. However, the truths about the attacks on 9 / 11 are much more . frightening. First, at flim review, 8:46 a.m., American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into poem essay the World Trade Center’s North Tower in a synonym New York City, between floors 93 and love, 99 going 466 mph. Flim Review? This attack was followed by United Airlines Flight 175, which hit the South Tower at 9 :03 a.m. between floors 77 and 85 going 590 mph.
Firefighters were dispersed immediately and went inside to poem try and. Al-Qaeda , American Airlines Flight 11 , American Airlines Flight 77 1727 Words | 5 Pages. In Paper Conservation Research? The coverage of 9/11 - Finkelstein and Filkins. Ethics in the Media Paper #1: Reporters report?Analyse, Compare and love poem, Contrast9/ 11 /14 1. What perspective and thesis, context on love poem essay, the event does each . author offer? Give examples.
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Introduction. September 11th, 2001; two planes crash into for antithesis each tower of the World Trade Center, one in to . the essay Pentagon, and one “crashes” in Pennsylvania. The government tells us that the attacks were committed by Al Qaeda, a Muslim extremist terrorist group. That it was a “cowardly surprise attack.” They do not offer any proof, except, a likely fake, video tape, of Bin Laden; translated by statement government translators. A pattern? We took the government’s word for it. How ironic. Al-Qaeda , Attack , Attack! 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Poem? Manual On Paragraph Writing For Students. For Antithesis? ?IV. Love Essay? WRITING A PARAGRAPH Compiled by B.Jolamanova 1. On Business Solutions? DEFINITION/DIFFERENTIATION A paragraph is a basic unit of poem essay, organization . in writing in a synonym which a group of related sentences develops one main idea.
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I woke up every day to do the job I wanted. Ever since I was a little boy, I wanted to be a. Rascal Flatts 1179 Words | 4 Pages. 9 / 11 …A Turning Point There have been many turning points in American history; however none have had the same effects as . Poem Essay? September 11 , 2001, and many people relate the day to the country’s loss of innocence. As a result of concept submit, 9 / 11 many civil liberties were taken away, security was heightened, and there have been numerous effects on love essay, Americans. Although the attack happened on American soil, it can really be characterized as an attack on civilization itself, because people from more than 80 nationalities. Aircraft hijacking , Airport security , Attack 1415 Words | 4 Pages. accident of September 11 , 2001 (How Many People Died in 9 / 11 ). Many people died because of two airplanes that got . hijacked and hit the well known Twin Towers in New York. New York’s horrible accident caused a lot of chaos, disaster and a synonym, broken families, yet many ask these questions “What was 9 / 11 ? What happened in 9 / 11 ? Who was Osama bin Laden? How did it happen? Why did it happen? And what were the love poem consequences or results of this tragedy?” Therefore, the statement drinking tragedy of September 11 , 2001 had many causes.
Al-Qaeda , Ayman al-Zawahiri , Islamic terrorism 2867 Words | 7 Pages. Summary and Review of the Essay Let Them Eat Dog. ?Journal # 9 and love poem, 10 “Inner climate” pg. 693 Paragraph 1- Implies change is a constant and concept paper research, therefore inevitable. Essay? . On Binge Drinking? Paragraph 2- Describes two types of “heat”. Environmental and social-political. Links the emotions of the individual to outward disorder and violence. Love Essay? Paragraph 3- Inner peace would be the most important of all. Accept what can’t be changed. Positive outward change is a synonym, only possible after your inner emotional problems have been tended to.
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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Love Essay. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Flim Review. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure 5. Love Essay. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of thesis on binge, Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. In the words of Salvatore, “Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for love poem essay which there are no close substitutes.” The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low.
This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an industry and the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of his customers. It means that more of the product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. He is concept submit white a price-maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. His price is determined by his demand curve, once he selects his output level.
Or, once he sets the price for his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the poem essay, monopolist is to have maximum profits. Essay # 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of sources and is of flim review, various types: First, grant of essay, a patent right to a firm by the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the entire market at a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to thesis statement operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and love essay government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and families essay protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to poem essay prevent the entry of new firms.
Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of monopoly price in the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the price, output and profits under monopoly is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of a homogeneous product. (2) There are no close substitutes for advances in paper conservation the product. (3) There is pure competition in the factor market so that the poem essay, price of each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in for antithesis, a position to influence the love poem, price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the advances research conference, product is given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. Essay. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product.
(7) The monopoly price is thesis statement uncontrolled. There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and love poem essay profits under monopoly are determined by the forces of demand and supply. The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the price and output simultaneously.
Either he can fix the a synonym, price and leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at that price. Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. Thus, whatever price he fixes and whatever output he decides to produce is determined by love essay, the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Research Submit White. Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the love, manner and extent to which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of demand for paper white his product.
If the demand for his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by love poem, a small reduction in price. If, on the other hand, the demand is dysfunctional families less elastic, the essay, tendency will be to raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the on business ethics, demand for his product, the monopolist can select the most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Essay. Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concave—the monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the concept paper research submit, marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to marginal cost (MC).
He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by love poem, a process of statement, trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the essay, MC curve cuts the MR curve from dysfunctional families essay, below or from the left, and a perpendicular from it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR. In fact, monopoly price = MC –E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC –E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the MC and the elasticity of essay, demand. We discuss below the determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.
(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in flim review, terms of the love, total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. TR is the total revenue curve which goes on rising to begin with, then flattens and later on slopes downward, showing fall in total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and TC is the in paper conference, greatest.
This will be the level at which the slopes of TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and poem T on the TR and thesis on binge TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the monopolist is incurring losses because TC TR. Thus his maximum profits will be PT and he will sell OM output at MP Price.
Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the love poem, monopolist can change the price as well as the quantity of the product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of dysfunctional essay, variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and love poem essay equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for families essay less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of production. Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and SMC are the short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively.
AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding marginal revenue curve is love MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at case study on business solutions point E where the essay, SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the families, short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output.
Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and poem essay MR curve at point E determines OM output which is sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of case on business ethics solutions, output, the monopolist earns normal profits. The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of SMC and MR. But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the short-run average costs of production PA. It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is thus per unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC.
In this figure, P is the shutdown point for this firm. Love. If the market demand conditions lower the price from MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium: In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in business only if he is able to earn super-normal profits.
If he was incurring losses in on business with solutions, the short-run, he has enough time to love essay make changes in his existing plant in the long- run so as to maximise his profits. With entry of new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of statement, his plant depends upon love the position of the demand (AR) curve and its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of statement on binge drinking, output is at the point where the LMC curve intersects the love poem essay, MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point. Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at statement this level of output.
Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an essay efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Since at this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to advances the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the love poem essay, monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the LAC curve. It has some excess capacity. It is not in flim review, a position to take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the love poem, market for his product.
Essay # 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure: In monopoly, the advances conservation research, monopolist is able to love earn monopoly profit by his superior bargaining power. He is in a better position to exploit the market to his advantage. He gains more by putting restraints on a synonym his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to love the restraints imposed over his competitors by paper white, the monopolist through his price-output policies.
There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Love Poem Essay. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is on binge drinking always less than the price, the greater the difference between the two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is also considered as the measure of monopoly power. The greater the love, difference between the two, the dysfunctional essay, larger is the degree of monopoly. However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power.
We discuss a few. But no method is regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by Prof. Abba P. Love. Lerner in terms of the bargaining strength. The difference between price and marginal cost is the statement, measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is P-MC/P. A seller’s monopoly power depends upon poem essay his ability to sell his product at study a price much above his marginal cost. The larger the love poem, gap between price and a synonym marginal cost, the greater is the monopoly power.
A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. Poem Essay. In all cases, the above formula will give zero. A Synonym For Antithesis. But in the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and love poem the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to raise the price of families, his product in order to increase his bargaining price. The attempt to raise profits by poem essay, a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the price. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the elasticity of demand and the formula is:
Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P – MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the dysfunctional essay, inverse of the elasticity of demand, P/P-MR. Lerner’s measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firm’s average and essay marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and on binge drinking marginal revenue curves.
The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at essay MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the price elasticity of demand E. The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the degree of monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for a synonym for antithesis instance, price elasticity of love poem, demand is 2, the degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the on business ethics, other hand, the elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.
First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. It also depends on the restriction of output by poem essay, the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. Case On Business With Solutions. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and equipment while the other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of poem essay, measuring non-price competition. Again the index of monopoly power may be the same in case of two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of thesis statement on binge drinking, its product. Love Essay. Lerner’s formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the problem.
Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of a change in families essay, price on consumer’s demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the essay, substitution effect is zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the flim review, price elasticity of love essay, demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in Lerner’s measure is flim review that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerner’s measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is due to love essay superior technology or the result of obsolete methods of for antithesis, production. Lastly, the love poem essay, Lerner measure is affected by on business, changes over time in the ratio of capital to love essay labour in an industry. Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and Kalecki used this index to measure the degree of monopoly power.
The former used this in the case of selected industries and advances conference the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerner’s measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of price elasticity of demand. Poem. Price cross-elasticity of demand measures the degree of substitution between the products of a synonym for antithesis, two firms when a change in love, the price of one firm’s product affects the demand for the other’s product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and the firm would have absolute monopoly power. According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of demand is zero and in paper conservation the monopolist takes advantage of love poem, absolute monopoly power.
On the other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firm’s monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerner’s measure, the Triffin measure is unsuitable for study ethics with solutions practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Secondly, it is not possible to find out poem a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in the case of any firm. Thirdly, the method of measuring monopoly power in terms of case on business ethics with, cross-elasticity of demand is love not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.
But monopoly power is found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Bain suggests the size of flim review, super-normal profit as the degree of monopoly power. Love Essay. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power. Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the for antithesis, entry of new firms in the industry. So the degree of monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of monopoly power the absolute.
The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Thus the degree of monopoly power is measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is poem illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at study solutions MP Price. Love Poem. The difference between price and case study on business ethics with average cost (AC) is PC at love OM per unit of output. Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is also not free from shortcomings. First, it is difficult to estimate the net income accruing to essay a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the cost of fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the deduction of love poem, interest and wages of advances conference, management from the firm’s net income in order to calculate its profits. Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits.
Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. Essay. They, therefore, need to be deducted from total net profits to arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to advances in paper conference monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and love expert management. Prof. Rothschild measures the degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the slope of a firm’s demand curve to the slope of the industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the demand curve of on binge drinking, a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN. Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity.
Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the poem essay, other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the exact shape of the case, demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is based exclusively on demand factors and neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from different customers or for different units of the same product. In the words of Joan Robinson: “The act of selling the essay, same article, produced under single control at different prices to different buyers is paper submit white known as price discrimination.” Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is love not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to flim review the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the poem, two markets could be kept separate. Thesis On Binge. Since the market demand in each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in that market in poem, which he could get the highest price.
Competition would make the price equal in both the on binge, markets. Thus price discrimination is possible only poem essay, when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the customer. Advances Research Conference. For example, doctors and love essay lawyers charge different fees from different customers on the basis of their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the product. Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for essay the former is bought by the majority of readers, and the latter by libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes.
In the poem essay, case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of hotels at concept research hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season. Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is love essay also related to the age, sex and status of the thesis statement drinking, customers. Barbers charge less for children’s haircuts. Certain cinema halls in love essay, small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on the time of service. Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows. Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the product.
Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Less is charged for the transportation of coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for industrial use than for domestic consumption of electricity. Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is able to divide and keep his market into separate parts only if it is imperfect. Customers do not move readily from one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of a commodity is statement a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for the sale of the product at different prices to different customers.
This is usually possible in the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit. Price discrimination is possible in the case of services because there is love no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by selling at a lower price in the foreign market than in study on business ethics with, the domestic market. This type of discrimination is known as “dumping”. It can only be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is love possible when buyers need the same service in connection with differentiated products.
Railways charge different rates for a synonym for antithesis the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into coal for the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on age, sex, status and income of buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product. Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in a position to know the poem essay, price being charged to others.
(6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by presenting the same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and snobbish buyers and the other for the ordinary. Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the for antithesis, same product. Poem Essay. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand.
Low price is charged where demand is case study ethics with more elastic and high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the love essay, monopolist divides the buyers of his commodity or service into two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. Families. We take the case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the poem essay, monopolist is to maximise his profits. He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in both markets are equal. Given the marginal cost of producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost.
Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to market 2 and shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in statement on binge drinking, the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolist’s demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in the two markets. (v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is love poem that the elasticities of demand in in paper conservation research, the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in each market must be different from the other. The price will be high in the market with the less elastic demand and low in the market with the high elastic demand. Love Poem. In the words of Joan Robinson: “The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of case study on business ethics with solutions, their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.”
Figure 8 illustrates price and output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the poem, corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and MC is the marginal cost curve. The point of intersection between the MR T and MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by equating the marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of on binge drinking, output in each market. Thus, the quantity sold in market 1 is OQ, and in market 2 it is poem essay OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . Concept Paper White. The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is essay Q, P, and in concept submit white, the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the love, monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in the foreign market with elastic demand and concept paper sells less at a higher price in domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and love poem essay prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is possible and profitable. (5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination:
Dumping is international price discrimination in which an exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: “The sale of goods abroad at statement on binge drinking a price which is lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in love essay, the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in transport costs.” The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of producing the commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by flim review, the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is also the MR curve because the foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the downward sloping curve D H and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and love poem PD curves leads to the formation of concept paper white, TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.
In order to determine the essay, quantity of the product to be produced by dysfunctional families essay, the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from below at point E. Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in the domestic market will be established at point R where the poem essay, marginal cost EF equals the a synonym, MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and less in love essay, the home market with the less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Flim Review. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is love essay not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the average cost curve is likely to be below the statement on binge drinking, average revenue curve at poem essay some point.
Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and paper research white services. As emphasised by Mrs. Essay. Robinson: “It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the point of case study on business with solutions, view of society, it is love poem only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to maintain the efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the original investment.” If a doctor charges a uniform fee to essay all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to leave his private practice and join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in the particular area where he is love poem essay practising. If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is likely to case be so high as to induce him to stay in that area.
Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the love essay, discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the flim review, MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the poem, market demand curve d throughout its length. Flim Review. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve.
But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is produced and sold at QP price and poem the discriminator g earns RP profits per unit of output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in dysfunctional families, promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the poem essay, higher income groups are charged higher prices and the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor. Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for statement drinking it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is love also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. Essay. If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at a lower price. It means expansion in output, the use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and income to the community.
Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the industry obeys the law of decreasing costs. It implies the poem, realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and prices to the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in pecuniary and real terms. Some of the country’s resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of receiving income from thesis statement on binge drinking, abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the monopolist started producing for the foreign market.
Hence price discrimination is justified. Essay # 9. Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to love mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the in paper conservation research conference, result that output, employment and love essay income are not maximised. It may lead to flim review the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to poem pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to families essay form of dumping, it. Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by undercutting the foreign producers and forcing them to close their business.
Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10. Poem Essay. Control and Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and on business solutions restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the monopolist from poem essay, charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits. They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to his customers.
If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to the entry of new firms, would prefer to advances in paper conservation research conference charge a reasonable price and poem essay thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation. The same consideration applies to potential government regulation.
The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the monopolist to wield an advances conservation absolute monopoly power. If the love, product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is every likelihood of the state taking over the monopoly organisation in public interest.
This consideration may prevent the monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction. The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to press for anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. People may even boycott the thesis statement on binge drinking, use of monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by love essay, forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only nominal profits.
(6) Fear of Substitutes. Advances In Paper Conservation. Then there is the love poem essay, fear of substitutes. Dysfunctional Families Essay. In fact, the fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from love poem, charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the fear of the emergence of very close substitutes is always uppermost in the mind of the dysfunctional, monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power. (7) Differences in Elasticities of Demand.
The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. Love Essay. In the short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to dysfunctional families essay adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for essay the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in the long-run, the fear of research, public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price.” (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in love, order to avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and retailer to the detriment of other traders. (ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation:
We now take the case where the government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the flim review, government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to competitive price. This is done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and poem essay lowering the price for the consumer. This is illustrated in Figure 11. Before the regulation of monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the competitive level.
The new demand curve facing the monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the on business ethics with, monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. He produces and sells OQ output at poem point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from a synonym for antithesis, below. As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from love poem essay, OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the monopoly profits (PF x OM) at concept paper white the unregulated price MP.
If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the love poem essay, AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to place a greater quantity of output OW in the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the in paper, monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. Love. But the regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at a loss. (iii) Control of flim review, Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to poem essay the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product. A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at MP Price.
The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is independent of output. Advances In Paper Research. It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to APBC. Love Poem Essay. The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself. He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at any stage by raising the price and reducing output. Since the monopolist’s marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only case study ethics with solutions, lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by levying a specific or a per unit tax on the monopolist’s product. A per unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the tax.
Figure 13 illustrates this case. Love Essay. AC and MC are the monopoly firm’s average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the product at research submit white UP price. Suppose a the love poem, government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolist’s new equilibrium point is a synonym for antithesis E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the love poem essay, monopolist is able to shift a part of the concept paper research, tax burden to consumers in the form of higher price and love a smaller output of the product. Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the higher the price for a synonym for antithesis the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by the monopolist. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net!
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