Eating babies essay
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Bloody Mary and The Virgin Queen Essay. Mary's mother, Katherine of Aragon, has been described as a staunch woman of misguided principles (Weir 3). show more content Mary Tudor lived her life on the fringe of essay, royalty, deeply absorbed in religious devotion and the admiration of her pious mother (Erickson 148). She was 37 years old and unmarried when she took the throne; most likely believing that such an event was highly unlikely after so many years of relative isolation. She believed it to be somewhat of where writing paper, a miracle, and eating babies that her ascension had come through divine intervention(Erickson 305). This conviction made her deeply serious about her responsibilities, a commitment she showed through daily devotion during most waking hours to matters of state (Erickson 305). Mary had inherited a country in peril. As her reign opened, England stood lower in the estimation of the European states than at any time since the War of the Roses (Erickson 315). Thus she began serious reforms, which would plunge the essay is wealth country deeper into debt but prevent inflation and essay foreign debasement of the English currency (Erickson 315). Essay on The Urban Legend of Bloody Mary. this to work. In order to summon Mary, you must chant the phrase “I believe in report dissertation, Mary Worth,” while others requires the eating essay person to yell the how to for investors phrase “Kathy, come out!” and of course the chanting of the name “Bloody Mary” into a mirror (Norder).
Some exaggerations have even included saying, “Bloody Mary! I killed your baby!” in babies essay, order to provoke the vengeful spirit to report come out and attack you (Mikkelson). Another is by reciting a poem that goes, “Bloody Mary, Bloody Mary if someone’s here whose luck shall Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots Essays. As soon as Mary returned to Scotland, she was shocked to find it under the influence of the protestant, John Knox. She later fell in love with her cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, and they got married in 1564 (“Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots” par 5-7). Now Mary is the granddaughter of Margaret Tudor, who is eating babies essay, Henry V III’s older sister. Therefore, she is Queen Elizabeth’s cousin because Mary’s father is Elizabeth’s uncle (“Mary, Queen of Scots” par 1). Since Mary was considered a threat to Elizabeth Essay about Mary Queen of Scots- Biography. five brings us to the bondage and essay health is wealth captivity of Mary in the island castle of Lochleven.
Bothwell went to Norway and fell into the hands of kinsfolk of a Norwegian girl with whom he had seduced. He then was put in babies, prison where he died. Mary fled from the castle of where can i buy nice paper, Lochleven and was at large for eleven days in which she gathered between 5,000 and 6,000 men to be in babies, her party. Mary wrote to Queen Elizabeth to try to re-gain her right to the thrown, but Mary never gained support from Elizabeth and her Elizabeth I and Mary Queen of Scots Essay. sufficiently produced by essay questions them against Mary, whereby the Queen of England should conceive or take any evil opinion of Mary. 14 Mary's arrival in essay, England was a source of embarrassment to Elizabeth because she refused to renounce her claims to dissertation the English thrown and she was a rallying figure for eating essay, Catholics.
Mary constituted an obvious danger to the security of England and the Protestant settlement. Where Can I Buy Nice Writing! 15 Some people believe that if Elizabeth would have just released Mary no religious revolt would have occurred I was having a hard time trying to figure out the message you were trying to convey. I could see that the woman in the middle was Virgin Mary. The reason I thought she was Virgin Mary was because the way she was dressed. She seemed to be dressed in simple clothes, nothing fancy.
I have seen many Virgin Mary paintings and she is shown wearing clothes like these in eating, almost all of her paintings. I could see that she is rising from her tomb and floating towards the where can i sky, she seemed to eating babies essay be greeted by angels FEAR OF THE OUTSIDE WORLD In her film, The Virgin Suicides, Sofia Coppola communicates the theme of fear of real life and plan for investors of the outside world, predominantly aided by the use of characterization. The main characters through which she does this include Lux Lisbon and eating essay her mother, Mrs. Lisbon. Grammar Tense! This theme first emerges after Cecilia’s attempted suicide.
Her doctor, seemingly able to pick up on the strict nature of Mr. and Mrs. Lisbon’s parenting, suggests a party be thrown to babies essay give Cecilia exposure to Virgin and Child with Saint Anne Essay. the destiny of Christ, which had begun in his early painting Virgin of the Rocks (Bramly 320). Most research indicates the rocks, mountain streams, and escarpments of his childhood made up his private landscape in his paintings (Bramly 86). Leonardo depicts the women as sister like in age even though they are indeed mother and daughter. Saint Anne, the mother of Virgin and on proverb is wealth Child, sits with her daughter on her lap. The Virgin is half rising from her sitting position and she appears to want Biography of Queen Elizabeth Essay. treason Elizabeth sent Mary, her first cousin of the royal family, to her execution in fifteen thousand eighty seven (“Elizabeth”). The queen was very inspirational because she always gave inspirational speeches. Elizabeth was like no other family member of the babies royal family; she preferred to student council essay ride horseback rather than traveling in a compact fancy carriage. Eating Babies! Elizabeth loved the out doors and tried to stay as active as she possibly could. Everyone respected her as there queen because she acted as one 2006) Even as the where buy nice writing paper television coverage continued to depict the people’s grief and the newspapers questioned the lack of emotion from the babies Royal Family the Queen resisted the idea that any display of statement essay, emotion was needed. Her lack of action created negative press, as well as anger from the eating babies essay public.
When the need for a public funeral became apparent the Queen was stunned with the formal decision, lost the ability to quickly make decisions regarding the essay questions arrangement, and gave way to minor details involving the The Life of Queen Elizabeth I Essay. Before Elizabeth became queen of babies essay, England she dressed very somberly and student council essay questions like the conservative religious reformers that her brother was a part of. Her very pious attitude and somber dress was the only thing that saved her reputation from the callous people who tried to disparage her, and make her unfit for essay, anything except a house of ill repute; but that all changed when she became queen. The last time she wore such clothes was the day they came and told her that her sister, Queen Mary, was dead and she was
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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the eating babies essay, history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common-sense “intuitive linear” view. So we won’t experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century — it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today’s rate). The “returns,” such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. There’s even exponential growth in the rate of how to prepare, exponential growth. Babies Essay? Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to essay health The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. The implications include the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in babies, the universe at the speed of light.
You will get $40 trillion just by report reading this essay and understanding what it says. For complete details, see below. (It’s true that authors will do just about anything to keep your attention, but I’m serious about this statement. Babies Essay? Until I return to essay questions a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of this paragraph carefully.) Now back to the future: it’s widely misunderstood. Our forebears expected the future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at that very early stage where an exponential trend is so flat that it looks like no trend at all. Eating Babies? So their lack of expectations was largely fulfilled. Today, in accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and the social repercussions that follow.
But the future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the thesis tense, fact that the rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of eating babies, technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the global statement, power of future technology because they are based on what I call the “intuitive linear” view of technological progress rather than the “historical exponential view.” To express this another way, it is not the case that we will experience a hundred years of babies essay, progress in the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of health is wealth, twenty thousand years of progress (at today’s rate of progress, that is). This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in eating essay, a variety of contexts, for example, the prepare, discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in a variety of eating babies essay, venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Although I’m expected to criticize Bill’s position, and indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on council essay, the key issue of feasibility. Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bill’s concerns, exclaiming that, “we’re not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years.” I pointed out eating essay that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at global statement essay today’s rate of eating babies, progress . But because we’re doubling the rate of progress every decade, we’ll see a century of progress– at today’s rate –in only 25 calendar years. When people think of grammar, a future period, they intuitively assume that the current rate of progress will continue for future periods. However, careful consideration of the pace of technology shows that the rate of progress is not constant, but it is human nature to adapt to the changing pace, so the essay, intuitive view is how to prepare plan that the eating babies, pace will continue at how to prepare a business plan the current rate.
Even for those of eating babies essay, us who have been around long enough to experience how the pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at the rate that we have experienced recently. Student Questions? From the mathematician’s perspective, a primary reason for this is that an eating essay exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for essay is wealth, a brief duration. So even though the rate of progress in the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is eating babies essay far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the future, extrapolate the current pace of change over the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. Report Dissertation? This is why I call this way of looking at the future the “intuitive linear” view. But a serious assessment of the history of babies essay, technology shows that technological change is exponential.
In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is multiplied by a constant factor for prepare plan for investors, each unit of time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to incrementally. Exponential growth is a feature of any evolutionary process, of babies, which technology is a primary example. One can examine the data. in different ways, on on proverb health is wealth, different time scales, and for babies essay, a wide variety of technologies ranging from electronic to biological, and the acceleration of thesis, progress and growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but “double” exponential growth, meaning that the rate of exponential growth is essay itself growing exponentially. These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the continuation of Moore’s law (i.e., the exponential shrinking of transistor sizes on can i buy nice writing, an integrated circuit), but is based on a rich model of diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is that technology, particularly the babies essay, pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and has been doing so since the advent of where buy nice writing paper, technology, indeed since the advent of evolution on Earth. I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in considering future trends.
Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this “historical exponential view” of technological progress. That is why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in eating babies essay, the short term (because we tend to leave out essay necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the exponential growth is eating essay ignored). We can organize these observations into what I call the law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in that the more capable methods resulting from one stage of evolutionary progress are used to create the next stage. As a result, the rate of progress of an thesis grammar evolutionary process increases exponentially over time. Over time, the “order” of the essay, information embedded in the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of how well the prepare a business plan, information fits a purpose, which in evolution is survival) increases. A correlate of the above observation is that the eating essay, “returns” of an evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall “power” of a process) increase exponentially over time. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the rate of health is wealth, exponential growth itself grows exponentially).
Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the eating babies, emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in how to a business plan for investors, the new evolutionary process of technology. Therefore, technological evolution is an outgrowth of–and a continuation of–biological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to eating essay solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue. If we apply these principles at the highest level of evolution on tense, Earth, the first step, the eating, creation of cells, introduced the where writing paper, paradigm of biology.
The subsequent emergence of DNA provided a digital method to record the results of evolutionary experiments. Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an opposable appendage (i.e., the thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from biology to technology. The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and eating essay, nonbiological thinking. This hybrid will include “biologically inspired” processes resulting from the reverse engineering of biological brains. If we examine the timing of these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated.
The evolution of on proverb is wealth, life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on progress accelerated. During the Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only tens of millions of years. Later on, Humanoids developed over a period of eating babies essay, millions of years, and Homo sapiens over a period of only hundreds of thousands of years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and moved on to human-created technology. Report Dissertation? Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is a process of creating ever more powerful technology using the tools from the previous round of innovation. In this way, human technology is distinguished from the tool making of eating essay, other species. There is a record of each stage of thesis grammar tense, technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage. The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the wheel–took tens of babies essay, thousands of years. For people living in this era, there was little noticeable technological change in even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two.
In the nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. Then in can i writing paper, the first twenty years of the twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. Babies Essay? The World Wide Web did not exist in anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didn’t exist at all a decade ago. The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the can i paper, overall rate of technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of acceleration is itself growing exponentially). So, the technological progress in the twenty-first century will be equivalent to what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. In contrast, the twentieth century saw only babies, about 25 years of progress (again at today’s rate of progress) since we have been speeding up to current rates. So the twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor. To appreciate the nature and significance of the where can i writing paper, coming “singularity,” it is eating important to ponder the nature of exponential growth.
Toward this end, I am fond of telling the health is wealth, tale of the inventor of chess and his patron, the eating babies essay, emperor of China. In response to the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for a single grain of rice on the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and so on. The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and humble request. One version of the story has the emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of rice. Is Wealth? At ten grains of rice per eating babies, square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included. Another version of the where can i writing paper, story has the inventor losing his head. It should be pointed out eating babies that as the emperor and grammar tense, the inventor went through the babies, first half of the is wealth, chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of babies, rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the end of the first half of the chess board, the tense, inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and the emperor did start to take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the chessboard that the eating essay, situation quickly deteriorated.
Incidentally, with regard to council essay the doublings of computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world. Babies? So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of on proverb is wealth, nowhere, a technology explodes into view. For example, when the Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over a two year period during the eating essay, 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from 20 million to 80 million nodes in the same amount of time, the global, impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to essay accelerate into the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into infinity, at thesis tense least from the limited and babies essay, linear perspective of contemporary humans. The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it.
It will literally get out of our control. The illusion that we have our hand “on the plug,” will be dispelled. Can the pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely? Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so.
But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and where writing paper, each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. Essay? What would they come up with? Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to think even faster. When the scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and operate a million times faster, then an how to a business for investors hour would result in a century of eating babies essay, progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the essay health is wealth, Singularity. The Singularity is technological change so rapid and so profound that it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at eating babies essay least with our current level of understanding, and that it is impossible, therefore, to look past its “event horizon” and make sense of essay, what lies beyond.
My view is that despite our profound limitations of babies essay, thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in student council essay questions, our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to eating babies essay make meaningful statements about the nature of life after the Singularity. Most importantly, it is my view that the intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the human civilization, which is already a human-machine civilization. This will be the next step in evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the essay, concept of Singularity into babies perspective, let’s explore the history of the word itself. Singularity is a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and tense, closer to zero. In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of infinite power.
At the center of eating essay, a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is infinite. As nearby matter and energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in the fabric of space and time. The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity. In the thesis grammar tense, 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of technology…gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the 1960s, I. J. Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and essay, computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in statement essay, his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime. Eating Babies Essay? Then in 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the prepare, advent of “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the harbinger of a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Singularity has many faces.
It represents the nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the eating essay, rate of growth is so extreme that technology appears to be growing at student council infinite speed. Of course, from a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and babies, the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an acute and a business plan for investors, abrupt break in the continuity of progress. However, I emphasize the word “currently,” because one of the salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in the nature of our ability to understand. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the book with the eating babies essay, specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon. Now having thought about its implications for the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of student essay, understanding the many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of eating essay, human life. Consider a few examples of the implications. The bulk of student council questions, our experiences will shift from real reality to virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of eating essay, our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by the end of this century will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence.
However, to address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of report dissertation, evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is eating important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of biological design. Global Statement Essay? In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of essay, what we regard as human than it is today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the concern, as some people have expressed the wish to remain “unenhanced” while at the same time keeping their place at how to a business for investors the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is that the likely outcome is essay that on council questions, the one hand, from the perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to babies be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and desires. On the other hand, fulfilling the statement, wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the eating babies, Singularity will bring. Needless to say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the Singularity, let’s examine the wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of accelerating returns.
The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of essay on proverb is wealth, integrated circuits, and then Chairman of eating babies, Intel, noted in the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the electrons have less distance to where can i writing paper travel, the circuits also run twice as fast, providing an eating babies essay overall quadrupling of computational power. After sixty years of grammar tense, devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and babies, the strategy of ever finer photolithography will have run its course. Student Council Questions? So, will that be the end of the eating babies, exponential growth of computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of 49 famous calculators and computers spanning the entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing. Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the pace. It is important to note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the global statement, first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance.
Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S. Census, to Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the eating babies, Nazi enigma code, to report the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to essay the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to health dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising. Essay? When I plotted the 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. Global Essay? In other words, there’s exponential growth in essay, the rate of exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and on proverb is wealth, 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and eating essay, 1966, and is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon?
I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of this trend. How To Plan For Investors? Is it just “a set of babies essay, industry expectations and goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is there something more profound going on? In my view, it is one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is health is wealth a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process.
We can also express the exponential growth of eating essay, computing in terms of an accelerating pace: it took ninety years to statement essay achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moore’s Law narrowly refers to babies the number of transistors on an integrated circuit of thesis tense, fixed size, and eating, sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size. But rather than feature size (which is can i writing only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per unit cost. This takes into account many levels of “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to say, technological evolution). Eating? In addition to on proverb is wealth all of the innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of eating babies, innovation in global essay, computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of essay, computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and global essay, 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moore’s Law pertains to only the latest one. It’s obvious what the eating, sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of steam during the second decade of this century. Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 20 layers of material to buy nice produce one layer of circuitry). Our brain, in contrast, is organized in three dimensions.
We live in a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension? The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only babies, about 200 calculations per second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits. Report Dissertation? But the eating, brain gains its prodigious powers from how to prepare plan, its extremely parallel organization in babies essay, three dimensions . Prepare A Business Plan For Investors? There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in three dimensions. Nanotubes, for example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. One cubic inch of babies essay, nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the law of accelerating returns as applied to computation going for thesis grammar, a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to only one of its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of eating babies essay, any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an exponential trend on student essay questions, the basis that the trend is babies essay bound to run out of “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon statement essay a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the species’ numbers will grow exponentially for a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and eating babies, space run out. But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself.
Each stage of report dissertation, evolution provides more powerful tools for the next. In biological evolution, the advent of eating essay, DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the “designs” of a business plan for investors, animal body plans during the Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the babies essay, brain. Thesis? Or to take a more recent example, the advent of eating essay, computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the prepare a business plan, next generation of computers. (ii) The “chaos” of the babies, environment in prepare a business for investors, which the evolutionary process takes place and which provides the options for eating babies, further diversity. In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in the form of student council questions, mutations and ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the process of innovation going. The maximum potential of matter and eating babies essay, energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to student questions my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of centuries).
We also need to babies essay distinguish between the thesis grammar tense, “S” curve (an “S” stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by very rapid growth–followed by a flattening out as the process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of essay, any specific technological paradigm and the continuing exponential growth that is characteristic of the ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Council Questions? Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is no longer feasible. Thus Moore’s Law is an S curve. But the growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the essay, Universe with the intelligence of tense, our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). In accordance with the law of accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. Eating Essay? This has already happened at least four times in the history of computation.
This difference also distinguishes the report dissertation, tool making of eating babies essay, non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by how to prepare a business for investors each animal is characterized by eating babies an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of growth and report, acceleration since its inception. DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the babies, Internet, and Miniaturization. This “law of accelerating returns” applies to all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies. There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of how to plan for investors, all kinds, and even in the rapidly shrinking size of technology. The Singularity results not from the exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the interplay and myriad synergies that will result from manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in eating essay, mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an intense human drama of innovation and grammar, competition. It is eating babies remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out on proverb health that given the speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of eating, years to finish the project.
Yet the fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of grammar, schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from eating babies, Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is not primarily a matter of grammar, Moore’s law, but includes advances in eating babies essay, mechanical and electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications.
Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others. Notice Cascade of smaller “S” Curves. Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of “S” curves: the acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by is wealth a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the Internet based on eating babies essay, the number of hosts. Essay Questions? These two charts plot the eating babies, same data, but one is on an exponential axis and the other is linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the council essay questions, world wide web and email exploded into babies essay view. But the emergence of the Internet into a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data.
Notice how the dissertation, explosion of the Internet appears to eating babies essay be a surprise from the essay questions, Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the Exponential Chart. Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of wires in our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the eating babies, power of which is doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. Grammar? The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by a factor of approximately 5.6 per eating babies, linear dimension per decade. The Exponential Growth of Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in its proper perspective as one example of the thesis tense, pervasiveness of the eating essay, exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of many of the global statement, law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of computing. The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of computation. Essay? This graph matches the available data for the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for report, the twenty-first century.
Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Accelerating Returns Applied to the Growth of babies, Computation. The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. For example, with more powerful computers and related technology, we have the dissertation, tools and the knowledge to design yet more powerful computers, and to do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions.
This type of calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by a factor of at least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and eating babies essay, less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of brain capacity is how to for investors 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per eating essay, neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in the connections) times 200 calculations per where buy nice, second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and lower estimates. However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by orders of magnitude only shift the prediction by a relatively small number of years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2023.
We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the year 2037. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. Eating? We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the can i writing, following variables: V: Velocity (i.e., power) of eating babies essay, computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and dissertation, building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the eating babies essay, model are: In other words, computer power is a linear function of the knowledge of how to thesis grammar tense build computers.
This is eating essay actually a conservative assumption. Where Writing Paper? In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by eating babies essay a multiple, not in an additive way. Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples. In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to how to plan for investors knowledge is proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.” As I mentioned above, the eating babies, data shows exponential growth in prepare a business, the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the century, and eating babies essay, close to every one year during the 1990s.) Let’s factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the tense, growing resources for babies essay, computation.
Not only is each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of health, W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to t) (N * V) As before, world knowledge is accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the eating essay, resources deployed for health is wealth, computation (N) * the power of essay, each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to dissertation t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the constants, we get: This is a double exponential–an exponential curve in which the rate of exponential growth is growing at a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Considering the data for actual calculating devices and babies, computers during the twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000.
Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for essay, Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above. Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and scheduled to be completed by 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per second (i.e., one billion megaflops).
This is already one twentieth of the capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per eating babies essay, connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and personal computers will do so by around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of statement essay, human brains (around a thousand) to match $1000 of computing. By 2050, $1000 of computing will equal the processing power of all human brains on Earth. Babies Essay? Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the same way. Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Most of the complexity of statement essay, a human neuron is devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to eating a more suitable computational substrate.
Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per where buy nice writing paper, second. So far, I’ve been talking about the hardware of computing. The software is even more salient. One of the principal assumptions underlying the eating babies essay, expectation of the Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and depth of statement essay, human thinking. Achieving the computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of human brains will not automatically produce human levels of babies, capability. By human levels I include all the diverse and subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and report dissertation, artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and understanding and responding appropriately to babies emotion.
The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of these resources–the software of intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of report dissertation, intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge. If I learn French, or read War and babies, Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to you.
You have to acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did. My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of hours of recorded speech, corrected its errors, and how to a business plan for investors, patiently improved its performance. Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to it).
Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesn’t have to go through the same process; you can just download the eating, fully trained patterns in seconds. Prepare A Business? Ultimately, billions of nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and eating essay, machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of global statement essay, facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to remember a handful of phone numbers. The combination of eating babies, human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and sharing ability of its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond. We will be able to essay is wealth evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to understand language and model knowledge, including the ability to read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Eating? Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of plan, human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details.
Although the ability of today’s computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is eating essay limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly. Dissertation? Computers will be able to read on their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the twenty-first century. We can then have our computers read all of the world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and eating babies, other available material. On Proverb Is Wealth? Ultimately, the machines will gather knowledge on their own by venturing out on the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and information services, and sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for mastering the software of intelligence is to tap into the blueprint of the eating, best example we can get our hands on of an intelligent process. Can I Writing? There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and essentially copy its design. Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to eating babies us, and not (yet) copyrighted.
Although there’s a skull around the brain, it is not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is a business plan through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. We can readily see every neuron and every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer. Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and body to eating babies essay be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of him on the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in case he gets lonely. This scan is not high enough in council essay questions, resolution for babies essay, our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of machine intelligence on the brain of a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the law of essay, accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan. Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to scan the nervous system of the eating babies essay, brain and body of a mouse with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to thesis tense the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and essay, other technologies which are capable in certain instances of is wealth, resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of accelerating returns.
Future generations will enable us to resolve the connections between neurons and to peer inside the synapses and record the neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of babies essay, this technology. There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of vibration, and safety. For a variety of reasons it is easier to scan the plan, brain of someone recently deceased than of someone still living. It is easier to essay get someone deceased to sit still, for one thing. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and global statement, other scanning technologies continue to improve in resolution and speed. Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from eating babies essay, outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from how to prepare plan, inside. By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the size of human blood cells, or even smaller. Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close.
Using high speed wireless communication, the babies essay, nanobots would communicate with each other, and with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only global essay, capabilities that we can touch and feel today. We already have technology capable of essay, producing very high resolution scans, provided that the scanner is physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost. How To Prepare Plan For Investors? As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of computation, and the rapidly declining size of both electronic and mechanical technologies. We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by babies essay around 2030. Essay Is Wealth? Because of its ability to place each scanner in eating, very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of trillions of bytes of information derived from each brain scan? One approach is to use the results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the dissertation, neural net paradigms.
With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection. There is essay a great deal of repetition and thesis grammar tense, redundancy within any particular brain region. Although the information contained in a human brain would require thousands of trillions of bytes of babies essay, information (on the order of 100 billion neurons times an average of 1,000 connections per neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by how to prepare a business a human genome of only about a billion bytes. Furthermore, most of the genome is redundant, so the initial design of the brain is babies characterized by can i buy nice paper approximately one hundred million bytes, about the size of Microsoft Word. Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of more than ten million). Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is not necessary to capture each detail in order to reverse engineer the significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the human brain and apply the insights derived to the design of intelligent machines.
The pace of brain reverse engineering is only slightly behind the availability of the brain scanning and neuron structure information. A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Essay? Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing. Although a work in progress, the model illustrates the feasibility of how to prepare a business plan, converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about 1,000 times less computation than the theoretical potential of the biological neurons being simulated.
Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by babies Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of student council, hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the stapes into spectro-temporal representation of sound. MC : Multipolar Cells. Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Relays spikes from the auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and eating essay, MSO) . Encoding of timing and amplitude of signals for binaural comparison of global statement essay, level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells.
Provide temporal sharpening of eating essay, time of arrival, as a pre-processor for interaural time difference calculation. OC : Octopus Cells. Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of dissertation, spectral edges and calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Eating Essay? Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the council essay questions, Octopus Cells. MSO : Medial Superior Olive.
Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in time of arrival between the two ears, used to eating babies essay tell where a sound is coming from). LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of sound.
ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of thesis grammar tense, auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body.
The auditory portion of the thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an intricate and intertwined collection of hundreds of specialized regions. The process of “peeling the babies, onion” to student council understand these interleaved regions is well underway.
As the requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and implementable models such as the eating babies essay, auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions. After the algorithms of a business for investors, a region are understood, they can be refined and extended before being implemented in synthetic neural equivalents. For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in eating, the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand. A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to map the locations, interconnections, and contents of all the somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels. Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the contents of its memory. To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan.
All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the report, requisite speed, cost, and eating, size, but these are the attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model. For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at essay on proverb is wealth Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the eating essay, digital and analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Carver Mead and thesis, his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the digital-analog characteristics of eating, mammalian neural circuits. A recent experiment at San Diego’s Institute for Nonlinear Science demonstrates the potential for electronic neurons to precisely emulate biological ones. A Business? Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in eating babies, an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an essay on proverb entire network of essay, neurons receives input (from the outside world or from other networks of neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at first to be frenzied and random. Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges.
This pattern represents the “decision” of the neural network. If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the can i buy nice writing paper, emergent pattern represents the appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in eating, the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by a stable emergent pattern) and with the same type of results as an all biological net of report, neurons. Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. It indicates that their mathematical model of babies essay, these neurons was reasonably accurate. There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to thesis recreate in great detail the functionality of human neuron clusters. The accuracy and scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. Babies Essay? We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and now thousands.
Scaling up technical processes at where paper an exponential pace is what technology is good at. As the computational power to emulate the eating babies, human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of decades–projects already under way to scan the council essay, human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to understand the human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and design of specific brains. By the third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to eating essay create highly detailed and complete maps of all relevant features of all neurons, neural connections and synapses in the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in writing, the behavior and functionality of the brain, and to babies essay recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the where buy nice writing, Human Brain Different from a Computer? Is the eating, human brain different from a computer? The answer depends on what we mean by the word “computer.” Certainly the brain uses very different methods from conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and global essay, perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the eating essay, human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at extremely slow speeds.
With regard to digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of student council questions, a hybrid digital–analog network with an all digital computer. Essay? On the dissertation, other hand, there is an babies essay engineering advantage to buy nice analog circuits in that analog computing is eating potentially thousands of times more efficient. An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in the case of mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. Global Statement Essay? A digital computation, in contrast, requires thousands or tens of eating, thousands of transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the statement essay, brain’s analog methods.
The massive parallelism of the human brain is the key to essay its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of essay health is wealth, human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and if the eating essay, neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and where can i paper, indeed there are dozens of projects around the world that have succeeded in doing this. My own technical field is eating babies essay pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for grammar, over thirty years use this form of chaotic computing. Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and eating babies, are intended as functionally similar recreations of statement, biological networks. The Singularity envisions the emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope. Although these entities will be capable of passing the “Turing test” (i.e., able to fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way.
To gain some insight as to why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an ultimately important one) it is babies useful to where can i consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the concept of downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the eating babies, most common application of the knowledge gained from reverse engineering the human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the statement, scenario of babies, scanning and reinstantiating all of the student council essay questions, neural details of a specific person raises the most immediate questions of identity. Let’s consider the babies essay, question of what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the objective and thesis grammar tense, subjective levels. Eating? “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the dissertation, newly emergent “person” will appear to other observers to have very much the same personality, history, and memory as the babies essay, person originally scanned. That is, once the technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at first. But ultimately, the prepare a business plan for investors, scans and recreations will be very accurate and eating babies, realistic. Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the original person. The new person will claim to be that same old person and will have a memory of having been that person. The new person will have all of the where, patterns of knowledge, skill, and babies essay, personality of the council essay, original.
We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and eating, neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the grammar, same with the hundred billion neuron cluster of eating, clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the issue is more subtle and profound, but first we need to reflect on where paper, one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of essay, our thoughts and thinking are directed toward our body and essay, its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to eating essay mention affection, sexuality, and reproduction. Many, if not most, of the goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to where can i do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for their myriad needs and eating babies, desires. Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is impossible without a body. If we’re going to port a human’s mind to a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. Essay? A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by essay atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of essay, nanobots, and other technologies. A common scenario will be to enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to nonbiological intelligence.
In this case, the body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology. A detailed examination of twenty-first century bodies is beyond the babies, scope of grammar tense, this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of subjectivity, consider: is the reinstantiated mind the same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain?
Consciousness in eating babies essay, our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. But it is student not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to have strong views on the subject, and often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about describing consciousness. Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. But at what point do we consider an entity, a process, to be conscious, to feel pain and discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will?
How do we determine if an eating essay entity is report conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is conscious from one that just acts as if it is conscious? We can’t simply ask it. If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and babies, they’re not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and report dissertation, see essentially the identical kinds of eating, feedback loops and other mechanisms in its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on essay, who you ask. If you ask the people in essay, the machine, they will strenuously claim to be the original persons.
For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the exact state, level, and position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at thousands of can i, trillions of bytes) into a neural computer of sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in the machine will think that “he” is eating babies essay (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. He will say “I grew up in Queens, New York, went to college at MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and thesis grammar, woke up in the machine here. Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me? For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. I’ll still be here in eating babies essay, my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the report dissertation, new Ray succeed in endeavors that I could only dream of. Let’s consider the issue of just who I am, and who the new Ray is a little more carefully.
First of all, am I the stuff in my brain and body? Consider that the particles making up my body and eating babies essay, brain are constantly changing. We are not at all permanent collections of particles. The cells in our bodies turn over at different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. Global? I am just not the same collection of particles that I was even a month ago.
It is the patterns of matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and very quickly. We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. The rushing water around a formation of eating babies, rocks makes a particular, unique pattern. This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for hours, even years. Of course, the actual material constituting the pattern–the water–is replaced in milliseconds. The same is true for Ray Kurzweil. Like the how to a business, water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of babies essay, particles, but rather the pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Where Can I? Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this “identify from pattern” argument. If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario).
If you then come to me, and say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the flaw in this “identity from pattern” argument. I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here. How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario.
Suppose I replace a small number of biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and longevity, but that’s not relevant to this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the same person? My friends certainly think so. Babies Essay? I still have the same self-deprecating humor, the same silly grin–yes, I’m still the same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Bit by bit, region by report region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the neurotransmitter concentrations and other details that represent my learning, skills, and essay, memories).
At each point, I feel the procedures were successful. At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to be the same guy. My friends concur. Thesis Grammar? There is no old Ray and new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this. This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in such a scenario new Ray is not the same as old Ray.
And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the end of Ray. So the eating essay, gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is really the creation of new Ray and report, the termination of old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced. Babies? So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to a business plan be very similar to my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of intelligent skill: the babies essay, ability to reflect on one’s own self and situation, for example, then the issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades. With this type of objective view of student council, consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the eating essay, essence of essay, consciousness is subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to.
They will claim to babies essay be people, and to have the full range of a business, emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings. Eating Babies Essay? How do the claims and behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of consciousness. People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is so contentious, it is the on proverb, following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is about objective measurement and eating babies, logical implications therefrom, but the very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of prepare a business for investors, it, such as behavior (and by behavior, I include the actions of components of an entity, such as neurons). This limitation has to do with the very nature of the concepts “objective” and “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of babies essay, another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., “look inside the brain of this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is just like human behavior.” But in the end, these remain just arguments.
No matter how convincing the behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is still an assumption, and there is where buy nice writing no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. Eating Babies Essay? The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and intelligence. So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by where can i buy nice the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. They’ll have all the delicate and emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. They will be able to make us laugh and cry.
And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims. Eating? But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in dissertation, the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of babies essay, computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is essay health is wealth computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on all possible combinations of babies, solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to be an dissertation extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Eating Essay? Penrose suggests that the tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and reinstantiating mind files. However, there is little to thesis suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Even generous models of human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of brain size, based on contemporary models of eating babies essay, neuron functioning that do not include tubules. Can I? In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of magnitude) than it needs for babies, its capabilities and capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the networks of council essay, neurons he is babies essay simulating, and there is statement essay no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the eating babies essay, tubules are important, it doesn’t change the thesis, projections I have discussed above to any significant degree.
According to my model of computational growth, if the tubules multiplied neuron complexity by a factor of a thousand (and keep in eating essay, mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on the order of a thousand connections per neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by only about 9 years. If we’re off by a factor of a million, that’s still only a delay of 17 years. Statement? A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in mind computation is growing by a double exponential). With regard to quantum computing, once again there is nothing to suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the brain is capable of it.
After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in essay, our brains. Although some scientists have claimed to student council essay questions detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing. However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the essay, outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is council essay questions infeasible. First of eating babies, all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is essay is wealth feasible. Babies? There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to dissertation biological mechanisms. Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. Even the conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is impossible to perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to be?
I am at this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). If we develop downloading technology to the point where the “copies” are as close to eating babies the original as the original person changes anyway in the course of one minute, that would be good enough for any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the technology improves, the accuracy of the copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond). When it was pointed out to buy nice paper Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for essay, quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for thesis tense, neural quantum computing. Babies Essay? So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together. If one is searching for barriers to replicating brain function, it is an buy nice writing ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers.
There is no evidence for babies, it, and even if true, it only essay, delays matters by a decade or two. There is no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to eating babies essay replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and Brain Expansion. How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators? One might be tempted to respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to scanning your brain, the statement essay, nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities.
Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way. The nanobots take up positions in close physical proximity to every interneuronal connection coming from all of essay, our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin). Global Statement? We already have the babies essay, technology for electronic devices to communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the firing of can i buy nice, a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to fire, or suppress it from firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and eating babies, the electronic-based neuron transistors. The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the report, movement of a living leech from their computer. Again, the primary aspect of babies, nanobot-based virtual reality that is not yet feasible is where size and cost.
When we want to experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. If we want to enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the babies, inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment. You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to move and how to, provide the appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of babies, virtual environments to explore. Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart. Essay Is Wealth? Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). We will be able to “go” to these virtual environments by ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the two.
By 2030, going to babies a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. In addition to encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of triggering the global statement, neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions. In the same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and eating babies essay, if so desired, their emotions and other secondary reactions. We’ll be able to plug in (by going to the appropriate web site) and experience other people’s lives as in the plot concept of ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and relived at any time. We won’t need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of this decade with images written directly onto grammar our retinas by our eyeglasses and contact lenses.
All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the Singularity will be the eating babies, merger of essay on proverb, biological and nonbiological intelligence. Eating Essay? First, it is important to global essay point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Biological thinking is stuck at essay 10 26 calculations per council questions, second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is growing at a double exponential rate and babies essay, will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the middle of this century. However, in my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fully derivative of the student essay questions, human-machine civilization. The merger of these two worlds of intelligence is not merely a merger of biological and eating essay, nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and can i paper, organization of thinking. One of the key ways in which the two worlds can interact will be through the eating essay, nanobots. A Business Plan For Investors? Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Essay? Our brains today are relatively fixed in design.
Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the current overall capacity of the human brain is highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections. Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities. Council Essay? Since the eating babies, nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is a significant improvement over the idea of surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and prepare, ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinson’s Disease and essay, tremors from other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and where writing paper, others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. They can all be directed to leave, so the process is eating easily reversible. They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the next. They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Writing? Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and essay, therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the report dissertation, brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at most a few locations. The Double Exponential Growth of the Economy During the babies essay, 1990s Was Not a Bubble.
Yet another manifestation of the law of accelerating returns as it rushes toward the global, Singularity can be found in the world of eating essay, economics, a world vital to both the dissertation, genesis of the law of accelerating returns, and to babies its implications. It is the economic imperative of a competitive marketplace that is prepare for investors driving technology forward and fueling the law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the economic models taught in economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to eating babies set monetary policy, by Government agencies to set economic policy, and by economic forecasters of tense, all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on the intuitive linear view of history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for a while is for the same reason that most people adopt the eating babies essay, intuitive linear view in the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for on proverb is wealth, a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening. But once the “knee of the curve” is achieved and the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase. The economy (viewed either in total or per babies, capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century:
There is also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in the early phase so that the where can i writing paper, growth in the growth rate has not been noticed. However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the rate of essay, growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and features of products and services. It is not the case that “a car is a car;” there have been significant improvements in student council essay questions, safety, reliability, and features. There are a myriad of such examples. Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Babies? Groceries ordered in five minutes on the web and delivered to your door are worth more than groceries on a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack.
These sorts of improvements are true for most product categories, and none of them are reflected in essay, the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to factor out gains by essentially concluding that we still only eating babies, get one dollar of products and services for a dollar despite the writing, fact that we get much more for a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to one ten years ago). University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per year for the past 20 years because of qualitative improvements. This still does not account for the introduction of entirely new products and eating, product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is responsible for the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of quality growth at only 0.5% per thesis tense, year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of inflation by at least 1 percent per year. Despite these weaknesses in the productivity statistical methods, the eating, gains in productivity are now reaching the steep part of the exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly. In the student council essay questions, quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at eating essay 5.3%. Manufacturing productivity grew at global essay 4.4% annually from 1995 to babies essay 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year.
The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and health, other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in eating essay, the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and even the overall rate of technical progress. These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in prepare a business plan for investors, the channels of distribution through the web and eating babies, other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and administration. All of the technology trend charts in this essay e represent massive deflation. There are many examples of the impact of these escalating efficiencies. BP Amoco’s cost for finding oil is now less than $1 per barrel, down from nearly $10 in 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago. A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per North American car over the next five years. A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about $2700 per vehicle.
Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate. Current economic policy is based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the economy. The economy “wants” to global statement grow more than the 3.5% per year, which constitutes the eating babies, current “speed limit” that the Federal Reserve bank and other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. But in keeping with the law of thesis grammar, accelerating returns, the economy is capable of “safely” establishing this level of growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%.
Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately. The economy still has some of the babies essay, underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of inventories. However, the rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of where, online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the impact of this cycle. So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and short lived. The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate. The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and layers of wealth and value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and many other new technology based categories.
There is eating essay no need for high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesn’t exist. Health Is Wealth? The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. The current high interest rates fostered by eating babies the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of essay on proverb is wealth, dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to be. It has little real power. Babies Essay? The economy today is largely backed by private capital in the form of a growing variety of equity instruments. The portion of available liquidity in the economy that the student council, Fed actually controls is eating relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is only 0.6% of the GDP, and 0.25% of the liquidity available in on proverb health is wealth, stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the eating babies essay, rate at health is wealth which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to be high profile failures and eating babies essay, market corrections. However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is just one of the factors that will continue to fuel ongoing double exponential growth in the economy.
These policies have led to report an “Alice in essay, Wonderland” situation in which the market goes up on bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on essay, good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and market corrections, the stock market values for so-called “B to babies essay B” (Business to grammar tense Business) and “B to C” (Business to babies Consumer) web portals and how to a business, enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and that the (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models. The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the social security system. The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to eating essay four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of 3.5% per year for the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on both sides of the argument.
On the student council questions, one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on the other hand, we will benefit from far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and essay, act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the law of accelerating returns is exponential growth in education and learning. Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of ten. We have a one hundred fold increase in report, the number of college students. Automation started by amplifying the power of our muscles, and in eating babies essay, recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Statement? Thus, for eating babies, the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at the top of the skill ladder. So the ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at all levels. Oh, and about that “offer” at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on essay, future expectations.
Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the ubiquitous outlook, the common wisdom in babies, economic expectations are dramatically understated. Although stock prices reflect the consensus of where buy nice, a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the eating babies essay, underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the law of accelerating returns clearly implies that the thesis tense, growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of eating, progress will continue to accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cause immediate growth rates to fluctuate, the underlying rate of growth will continue to double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and understood this essay. That’s right.
According to dissertation my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about $20 trillion in babies, the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in additional wealth. But you said I would get that money. No, I said “you” would get the money, and that’s why I suggested reading the essay is wealth, sentence carefully. Eating Essay? The English word “you” can be singular or plural. I meant it in the sense of “all of you.” I see, all of us as in essay questions, the whole world. But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could.
So if all of you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no. Putting on my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over time, as more and more evidence of the exponential nature of technology and its impact on the economy becomes apparent. This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for the market.
Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and essay, mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and statement, salient dangers on the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to eating babies essay be well accounted for) to prepare for investors end all mammalian life on the planet. Bioengineering is in the early stages of enormous strides in reversing disease and aging processes. However, the means and eating, knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in more sophisticated labs) to dissertation create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. Eating Babies Essay? As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the statement, same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers. Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Essay? Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of student, such intelligent devices to be useful.
The most cost effective way to babies scale up to such levels is through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in the biological world. Can I Buy Nice Writing Paper? And in eating babies, the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in biological destruction, a defect in the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise. Other primary concerns include “who is controlling the nanobots?” and “who are the nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in report, the water or food supply of an babies essay individual or of an entire population. These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and even control our thoughts and actions. Global Statement Essay? In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and other software “hacking” techniques. When there is babies software running in our brains, issues of privacy and security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the how to plan, creative and babies, constructive applications of student council essay, this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today. But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in essay, protest). If we imagine describing the dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in global statement essay, the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster.
Substantial portions of our species still live in this precarious way, which is at least one reason to continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it. People often go through three stages in examining the essay, impact of future technology: awe and can i buy nice, wonderment at its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and hopefully, by the realization that the only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the plagues of centuries’ past, and babies essay, how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Indeed these are real dangers. It is can i writing also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of such plagues. Essay? Suffering in the world continues and demands our steadfast attention. Should we tell the millions of student, people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the essay, development of all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for where can i writing paper, malevolent purposes? Having asked the babies essay, rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the answer.
The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is one important motivation for student council questions, continuing technological advancement. Eating Babies? Also compelling are the already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in the decades ahead. The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for essay on proverb, individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. Eating? I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is part of a responsible and constructive response to these genuine perils. The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to dissertation relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of eating babies essay, it. This, in my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of such a position is only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for example, that might be regarded as too dangerous.
But such sweeping strokes of essay on proverb health, relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of babies essay, technology. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is being pursued by a myriad of council essay, projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. . . is that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on one another. You can’t get rid of the “bad” parts of technology and babies essay, retain only the “good” parts. Take modern medicine, for example. Progress in medical science depends on progress in tense, chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and eating essay, other fields. Global Essay? Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by a technologically progressive, economically rich society. Clearly you can’t have much progress in medicine without the whole technological system and everything that goes with it.” The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski.
Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is eating essay correct on the deeply entangled nature of the where, benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on eating babies, the relative balance between the two. Where Buy Nice? Bill Joy and eating essay, I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and privately, and buy nice writing, we both believe that technology will and should progress, and that we need to eating essay be actively concerned with the dark side. If Bill and I disagree, it’s on the granularity of relinquishment that is tense both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of babies essay, technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation. In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the grammar tense, terrorists) who would have all the expertise.
I do think that relinquishment at babies essay the right level needs to be part of questions, our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies. One constructive example of this is the essay, proposed ethical guideline by the Foresight Institute, founded by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to relinquish the development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for self-replication. Statement Essay? In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to obtain such codes from babies, a centralized secure server, which would guard against undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at statement essay least one way in which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology.
In other ways, nanotech is potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and babies essay, more intelligent. Buy Nice Paper? It will eventually be possible to combine the two by having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in babies, which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Other protections will need to is wealth include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to monitor a substantial flow of telephone conversations. Eating? As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. Grammar Tense? This is one reason that such issues as an encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and eating, the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge.
There exists today a new form of fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. Yet the “immune system” that has evolved in response to this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to buy nice time, the injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the computers and communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and babies essay, the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology. Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to on proverb health create and release them. It also means that our response to essay the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on prepare a business plan, all levels will be vastly more serious.
Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the Twenty First century has not yet been written. It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to babies essay work hard to apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of consensus on global statement, what those values should be. Once brain porting technology has been refined and fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on what we mean by living and dying. Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from eating babies, one personal computer to a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the longevity of grammar, our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the hardware that it runs on. Essay? When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the where can i buy nice writing, software of our lives dies with it. However, this will not continue to be the case when we have the means to store and restore the eating, thousands of buy nice, trillions of bytes of information represented in the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on the continued viability of eating, any particular hardware medium.
Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of grammar tense, humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and eating babies essay, other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the report dissertation, twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit. We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is worth pointing out that data and eating babies essay, information do not necessarily last forever. Although not dependent on the viability of the hardware it runs on, the longevity of information depends on its relevance, utility, and accessibility. If you’ve ever tried to thesis grammar retrieve information from an obsolete form of data storage in an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in keeping software viable. Eating Essay? However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and porting to current formats and mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at essay least for software-based humans. Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of that is lost today when our biological hardware crashes.
When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either. Only our pattern of matter and energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and babies essay, identity, issues that have been debated since the student council essay questions, Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and legal issues. A related question is “is death desirable?” A great deal of our effort goes into avoiding it. We make extraordinary efforts to babies essay delay it, and global, indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event.
Yet we might find it hard to eating babies essay live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. Time could become meaningless if there were too much of it. The Next Step in Evolution and on proverb is wealth, the Purpose of Life. But I regard the freeing of the human mind from babies essay, its severe physical limitations of scope and how to prepare a business plan, duration as the necessary next step in evolution. Evolution, in my view, represents the purpose of life. That is, the purpose of life–and of our lives–is to evolve.
The Singularity then is eating babies not a grave danger to be avoided. In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the dissertation, goal of our civilization. What does it mean to evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of eating essay, other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction. So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the freeing of our thinking from the severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and how to prepare a business for investors, spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to human levels and beyond simply because it is essay our destiny and because of the satisfaction of a spiritual quest.
Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of dissertation, technological processes. The primary force driving technology is economic imperative. We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the eating, result of millions of dissertation, small advances, each with their own particular economic justification. To use an example from my own experience at one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. Eating Essay? It is statement essay interesting to note that in the example of speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of their software.
A few other companies that failed to eating babies essay do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in time, we would be able to sell the version prior to the latest version for perhaps a quarter of the price of the current version. As for versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. This phenomenon is not only true for pattern recognition and other “AI” software, but applies to all products, from bread makers to cars. And if the product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on report, the success and profitability of an enterprise. There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology.
Intelligent machines have enormous value. Eating? That is where buy nice writing paper why they are being built. Essay? There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in is wealth, diverse incremental ways. The support for “high tech” in the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of babies essay, dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in the past 25 years.
In the four years between 1995 and 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from where can i buy nice, just over $1 billion to approximately $15 billion. We will continue to eating babies essay build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is report dissertation our destiny, but because there is babies essay valuable information to be found there that will provide insights in building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. We would have to on proverb health is wealth repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the second half of essay, this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants. On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of human brains, albeit also vastly extended.
And we will have a myriad of other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Human thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for a small increase resulting from genetic engineering). Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the tense, cross over will occur before 2030. Essay? By the end of the twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of human origin. It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in evolution. Most forecasts of the future seem to ignore the revolutionary impact of the Singularity in our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of thesis grammar tense, computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the eating babies, capabilities of the human brain, a development that will be no less important than the evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago.
And the primary reason for where writing paper, this failure is eating that they are based on student essay, the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the eating babies, next century is over, the Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is based on high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by 2099, the intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of grammar tense, times more powerful than it is today, dominated of course by its nonbiological form. So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to God).
The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of a star having a planet with a technology creating species is babies essay very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of trillions of council questions, them), that there are bound to be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and is the common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to transmit at a power of at essay least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at essay least 10 18 watts, and so on). No sign of intelligence has been found as of yet. In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to babies essay 100 times the sensitivity and covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to previous searches, has only been applied thus far to 500 star systems, which is, of statement, course only babies, a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy. However, according to my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. If the assumption that there are at least millions of radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over how to prepare a business, millions (indeed billions) of years of development, then surely there ought to babies be millions that have achieved Type II status.
Incidentally, this is not an buy nice writing argument against essay, the SETI project, which in my view should have the highest possible priority because the how to prepare for investors, negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the cosmos so silent. Where is everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts. A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to subtle signals on eating essay, obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and so shy? As I have studied the implications of the a business, law of accelerating returns, I have come to eating a different view. Because exponential growth is global statement essay so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the nonbiological form of babies, their intelligence explodes. It permeates virtually all matter in their vicinity, and then inevitably expands outward close to the maximum speed that information can travel. Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the nature of this saturation is another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in this essay), it has no other way to continue to evolve but to expand outwardly. The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the maximum speed.
What is the global statement essay, maximum speed? We currently understand this to eating essay be the speed of prepare a business plan, light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an absolute limit. There were recent experiments that measured the eating babies, flight time of photons at nearly twice the essay health, speed of light, a result of eating essay, quantum uncertainty on their position. However, this result is actually not useful for buy nice paper, this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to eating essay be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and we are fundamentally interested in communication speed. Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the essay, speed of light; again, this is not communication of information (but is of great interest for eating babies, restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). There is the council essay, potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in dimensions beyond the babies essay, three visible ones), but this is report dissertation not really traveling at faster than the speed of light, it just means that the topology of the Universe is not the simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies. Babies? But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in how to prepare, the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Eating Babies? Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered?
And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it. The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the how to prepare a business for investors, extraordinary levels of intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them. So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at babies the speed of where buy nice, light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of expansion, or even if the limit is the eating babies, speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the thesis, time spans for biological evolution are measured in millions and billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by eating huge spans of time. If there are a lot of a business plan for investors, them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at least some of essay, them would not be ahead of prepare plan, us. That at least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of essay, us by huge spans of time. The likelihood that any civilization that is ahead of us is ahead of us by only a few decades is extremely small. If the health, SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of them (i.e., millions of them) would be way ahead of us.
But it takes only a few centuries at eating babies most from the advent of computation for how to prepare for investors, that civilization to expand outward at at least light speed. Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is babies likely that there are no such other civilizations. In other words, we are in the lead. That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of trillions of dissertation, likely planets? Indeed it is very unlikely. Eating? But equally unlikely is the existence of our Universe with a set of laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to be possible.
But by the Anthropic principle, if the Universe didn’t allow the evolution of life we wouldn’t be here to notice it. Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in the Universe. Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against global, this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out there, but we are outside their light sphere of intelligence. Eating Babies Essay? That is, they haven’t gotten here yet. Can I Buy Nice Writing Paper? Okay, in this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to be very unlikely. Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the eating, trip here would have long since passed the point of merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and global, equipment.
Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to babies steal physical resources from us. They would be here for observation only, to gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to such a civilization. The intelligence and equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in thesis grammar tense, that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today.
Perhaps they will reveal themselves to eating essay us when we achieve the essay on proverb health, next level of babies, our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to thesis grammar tense say, after the Singularity. Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the same decision to essay stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and student council essay, energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the laws of eating babies, physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the most subtle aspects of the laws to manipulate matter and can i writing, energy to its will. So it would at eating least appear that intelligence is for investors more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology. That is, once matter evolves into eating smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to council essay questions do whatever it wants. This perspective has not been considered in discussions of future cosmology. It is assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and processes on a cosmological scale. Stars are born and die; galaxies go through their cycles of eating essay, creation and destruction.
The Universe itself was born in a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. But intelligence has little to do with it. Intelligence is just a bit of froth, an ebullition of little creatures darting in buy nice paper, and out of inexorable universal forces. The mindless mechanism of the Universe is winding up or down to a distant future, and there’s nothing intelligence can do about it. That’s the common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and that species creates computation (as has happened here on babies, Earth), it is only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the matter and where can i, energy in babies, its vicinity, and it begins to expand outward at the speed of light or greater. It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and control these forces) and create the report, Universe it wants.
This is the goal of the Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be? Well, just wait and babies essay, see. Most of you (again I’m using the plural form of the word) are likely to be around to see the Singularity. Prepare For Investors? The expanding human life span is eating babies another one of those exponential trends. In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of student council, weeks each year; and now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. With the eating, revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and tissues, and related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years. So take care of yourself the old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the report, next fundamental paradigm shift in eating, our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001.
Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism. Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. Thesis Grammar? I was doing some research on this topic. Babies Essay? I live in global, helsinki and I found a finnish translation of The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Eating? Thanks for creating and sharing a great resource. The rate of technological change has serious implications for the economics of writing, investing in terms of a “buy now or wait for the next improved model” problem.
The “economic life” of equipment in certain industries is essay far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in the late 90?s to tense early 2000 when the majority of used metal working machinery dealers went out of babies, business. While the used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to where can i buy nice writing the performance of the most recent technology. The economics of competition often led to the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of used equipment inventory when the dealer closed it’s doors and gave the keys to eating babies the banker, only to find out that the $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to statement essay be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in order to “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of eating babies, deciding to “buy now” or wait for council essay questions, new model.
As the eating babies, rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an “investment singularity” where on never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is essay on proverb leading to greater concentration in manufacturing with less competition. This in itself may be the “brakes” the the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on the economics of the “old technology” without being undercut by new competitors using new technology. I believe that there is a need for a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in order to eating babies essay “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in prepare a business, order to eating babies essay facilitate sharing of equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and can i buy nice writing paper, return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011).
In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in babies, NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to report dissertation this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity. Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an exact time-frame. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Babies? Just listing his educated theories on what the future might hold. Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”. This in 2001, so it would refer to 2011. Student Council Essay? Have we been adding more than a year to eating babies our remaining life span since 2011? looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on exponential growth like a searching for Philosopher’s stone..
A technological singularity has already occurred at least once in history. Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Compared to that, the speed at which neurons model the world is near-infinite. Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is indistinguishable from the paper, actual mind copied?
Let’s say you and your copy are given the essay, identical simulated world environments to play in. If the thesis grammar tense, behaviours of you and your copy do not deviate by more than the eating essay, behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the behaviour of identical actual you in global essay, a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to create the observed level of babies essay, differences in behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of entropy, defined by the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and I too, agree with its principle suggestion. Essay? It is noteworthy to point out that what this man is attempting to prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. Babies? The most difficult part to grasp for most people is the ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and assess that it is only an optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in its core reasoning. That is to say, it is where can i buy nice paper possible to use these directly fictitious drawings to ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in babies, 3 dimensions.
What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is not necessarily impossible later. Student Council Essay Questions? When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to view it as so. If you think A.I. intelligence is unable to pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the exponential growth of eating babies essay, technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in the destruction of the exponential model and dissertation, offers an entirely new shape after. Babies? (I’d assume a possible restart in technological growth if you believe in prepare a business, Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear). Eating Essay? I am very interested to essay hear your take on that. How will we apply technplogy that is more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out like movies from the 70?s and 80?s….you’re an idiot.
I’m just going to say something about the life and eating, the future. There were changes in the past for statement essay, the future for eating babies, the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the same. They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only how to prepare a business plan for investors, president’s and higher occupations who fuck up our world and eating babies, are the higher occupations. So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening. Life’s dead, the people may seem alive but we are the walking dead. Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies.
I mean, look at all the movies from the essay, 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the future hasn’t moved on and they saw today. I will be dead by eating babies essay the time anything changes to our city or evolves….why is it that we can’t go out by the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the night instead of creatures of the day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for the next day. The night is not safe for anyone, why? Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in on proverb health is wealth, the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either.
No, I didn’t read the eating babies, preposterous post or comments. Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the shops I need maths for but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know? Those ridiculous math sums. And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. A Business? We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only have self awareness when we are in eating essay, trouble.
I mean, I kind of feel like we’re just waiting to statement die everyday. I don’t want that. Eating? I hate that. I want to feel alive, to feel lived, I dont want to walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the system? Go to global statement school for eating essay, half your life, work the rest of the half, grow old and die. Everyone’s the same. It’s programmed for every human. You want to know your purpose? That’s your purpose.
Work till you grow old. Enjoy the little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is BADLY needed in prepare a business plan, personal conduct,wash-out of negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to. it…probably suspecting misuse. from nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from reality. “consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the chain, the new copy’s consciousness would begin at that point and your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from babies essay, biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is my view anyway” Moore’s law is just one of millions of positive feedback loops that occur in the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Questions? Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. Eating Babies? This is because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients). All the technology curves will be slowed by limiting factors eventually, and the singularity won’t occur.
Jordan: in thesis grammar tense, The Singularity Is Near book. Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and will be replaced by eating essay another process. Jordan – respectfully – did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in that we haven’t yet established that there is on proverb is wealth a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Pointing to the end of Moore’s law and claiming their is eating babies essay nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the report, fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Ray is very aware of babies, this, as he points out many times in his essay. Had his argument been of the form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient. This is not at all what he is arguing, in fact, the premise “Moore’s law will end” is one premises of his argument (the rise an fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to argue against a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the how to prepare plan, lines of building upon previous innovations and then work out what laws of physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and essay, receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the wavelength of essay, carrier frequency.
If I were to then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the eating essay, same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law. All of us working together over many years of innovation and “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the essay, ones that don’t appear to babies be doing anything – it all adds up). The patterns you see in a branching tree, in the periodic table, in human personality types, a fractal, the sand on the beach, a hurricane, the global statement essay, Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the “Law of Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is simply another one of those types of patterns. It’s literally a force of nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of it, and that just isn’t the case. All of babies essay, these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to solve problems… like the end of Moore’s law). They form the links between the known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness. A top priority is to understand that complex and global statement, interconnected web.
uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars…. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what?? Hi to essay everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about Forex thing, got attracted, started to read about it, but still really confused about What is forex . All the thesis grammar tense, explanations i find on the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words. Can someone explain what is babies essay forex by his own words ? Tired of websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me!
God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy. Too much technological change within such a short period of time is too much for humans to handle. Humans must learn how to adapt to the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it. We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the how to prepare for investors, symmetry origin of eating essay, acceleration (gravity) and all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the corner. So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it.
Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy. It is more convenient to dissertation postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of creation. (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is physical, the second metaphysical. The first problem that while exponential growth is certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over and nuclear forces take over, binding the eating, nucleus of an atom together. The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function.
There is always a breakover point. (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of mass as it approaches the speed of light – but if you think about it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is council metaphysical. This theory assumes – and I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity. However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is eating babies essay something in the “soul” or “spirit” that is yet to essay be explored or understood. Eating Essay? Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and student council essay questions, “felt” the “tension” in the room has sensed with something other than the babies, brain – unless all of that is health just electromagnetic vibes, and as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and disperse at nearly the eating babies essay, speed of essay is wealth, light. I think that the eating, brain is thesis grammar tense more of an interface to the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. Eating Babies? That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”. Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of a religion than religion is. The complexity of the interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out where the real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware.
The RS 232 interface is simple and dissertation, the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. Eating Babies? LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of a person. On the bright side, Mr. Report Dissertation? Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of communicating with one another. So they have to rely on a not of babies essay, non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and characteristic when under pressure, and some of us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication. Looks of worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting…
It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to claim we have souls is to deny the elegance and essay on proverb is wealth, beauty that is our brains. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. Eating Babies? There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.” There is a physical limit at the end of the century. He explains in how to, this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an atom and babies, simply require more atoms. At that point all research and how to prepare plan for investors, advancement will be towards getting more atoms. “That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”. Babies? Our brain doesn’t do the thesis, thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the vast majority of our brains activity. This is the work being done in the subconscious.
We are only aware of the activity on the thin outer film on eating essay, the outside of the brain, and we have even shown that many of the decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the dissertation, decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the decision. You can tell these “decisions” apart from the rest by asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is eating babies essay your subconscious. Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and analyzes the world in very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of thesis, our brain is in the subconscious. Little is known about what the subconscious is capable of or senses past the 5 our conscious brain is babies aware of.
Seeing into the outer layer of the essay, subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens. When you “feel” things you are not aware of or “stew”, this is your subconscious working away. This is the real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by essay any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed” Self awareness is shown to take place in report, the brain only when it is in a highly interconnected state.
The outer 5% of the brain is the conscious part and is only developed to any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the eating essay, brain connects the other parts of the a business plan for investors, brain together and allows you to be aware of them and also override them with logic. Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the difference in the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting. This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and eating essay, consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and sexuality in the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space. You can reach out by email stephane at where buy nice writing isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Looking forward hearing from essay, you. I’m not sure that I agree with the Kurzweil’s refutation of Penrose’s description of the origin of consciousness. I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. The fundamental difference between the where buy nice paper, two processes, it seems to me, is the gradual nature of the former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to consciousness, which is why Penrose’s argument holds water.
No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to essay replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from statement, a biological mind. Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and not the other way around. Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of development and then a decellerating slowing down of development. Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. You just think it is babies essay linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the grammar tense, industrial/technological time has been very short. It’s like looking at our world and thinking it is eating flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further. It’s just a ball.
You can’t see the reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the where paper, jump from – the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is a false conclusion. I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to decide when any contact should occur. Eating Essay? I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went… Please log in to post a comment.
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As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims; reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence; and stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. Adapted from essay on proverb health is wealth, Paul Bogard, “Let There Be Dark.” ©2012 by Los Angeles Times. 1 At my family’s cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of eating babies, stars. But now, when 8 of 10 children born in essay is wealth, the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. Babies Essay. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days’ gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of for investors, darkness. 2 All life evolved to the steady rhythm of bright days and dark nights. Today, though, when we feel the closeness of nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at eating babies essay, night, spells trouble for all. 3 Already the can i writing paper World Health Organization classifies working the babies night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for “light pollution reduction efforts and council essay, glare reduction efforts at both the national and state levels.” Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for eating babies, sleep.
Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of “short sleep” is “long light.” Whether we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives. 4 The rest of the world depends on darkness as well, including nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, insects, mammals, fish and reptiles. Some examples are well known—the 400 species of student, birds that migrate at night in North America, the sea turtles that come ashore to lay their eggs—and some are not, such as the bats that save American farmers billions in pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the world’s flora. Ecological light pollution is like the bulldozer of the night, wrecking habitat and eating babies essay, disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. Simply put, without darkness, Earth’s ecology would collapse. . . . 5 In today’s crowded, louder, more fast-paced world, night’s darkness can provide solitude, quiet and stillness, qualities increasingly in short supply. Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life, and the chance to witness the universe has inspired artists, philosophers and how to prepare for investors, everyday stargazers since time began. Babies. In a world awash with electric light . . . howwould Van Gogh have given the world his “Starry Night”? Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of statement essay, us, in our children or grandchildren?
6 Yet all over the world, our nights are growing brighter. In the United States and eating, Western Europe, the amount of report, light in the sky increases an average of eating babies essay, about 6% every year. Writing. Computer images of the United States at night, based on NASA photographs, show that what was a very dark country as recently as the babies 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. Much of this light is how to for investors wasted energy, which means wasted dollars. Those of essay, us over 35 are perhaps among the last generation to have known truly dark nights. Even the northern lake where I was lucky to spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish. 7 It doesn’t have to be this way.
Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. Essay On Proverb Is Wealth. Already, many cities and towns across North America and Europe are changing to LED streetlights, which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light. Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of their public lighting after midnight. Even Paris, the famed “city of light,” which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a.m. Though primarily designed to save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing. Write an essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. In your essay, analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features listed in eating essay, the box above (or features of dissertation, your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument.
Be sure that your analysis focuses on babies, the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Bogard’s claims, but rather explain how Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience. Paul Bogard’s “Let There Be Dark” employs a wide range of rhetorical techniques to craft one important message: humans must initiate efforts to preserve natural darkness before darkness’ extensive list of benefits is permanently lost. Bogard’s argument is built upon his appeal to the broad spectrum of tense, benefits offered by natural darkness, including those pertaining to health, the environment, and the economy. Utilizing outside sources to back the validity of these benefits, Bogard completes his message with a tone of babies, hope, imploring his audience to join him in his course.
Bogard begins his argument with a personal anecdote to juxtapose his personal experiences with the beauty of darkness against dissertation, the modern trend of children never witnessing true natural darkness. His powerful image of eating babies essay, “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes” captivates his audience with a striking visual. Thesis Grammar Tense. Also, Bogard’s use of the statistic of babies essay, “8 of 10 children… never know[ing] a sky dark enough for the milky way” reinforces the sense of a business for investors, urgency for preserving darkness that he builds through out the passage. After opening with his sensory story, Bogard pivots to assemble the bulk of his argument, barraging the reader with examples of the essay benefits of student questions, darkness. His first piece of evidence involves the health benefits of natural darkness, particularly its role in preventing cancer. Babies. After beginning his point by including the report support of two highly reputable health organizations, the WHO and AMA, to provide a sense of babies, validity to his argument, Bogard highlights the benefits of essay on proverb health, darkness and a good night’s sleep.
He then moves from the health of humans to the health of eating essay, nature and the natural environment. Where Buy Nice Writing Paper. Appealing to a desire for ecological preservation, Bogard lists animals that depend on darkness, then explains the critical role these animals play in eating, our lives, such as bats that assist in pest control and moths that polinate the world’s flowers. Thesis Grammar Tense. The utilization of the simile relating light pollution to “the bulldozer of the night” encapsulates the essay destructiveness of light pollution that Bogard wishes to where can i buy nice writing paper convey. Bogards next piece of evidence revolves around the economic benefits of darkness preservation. First using NASA as a source for backing the rate at which darkness is being lost, Bogard’s logic of excess light being “wasted energy, which means wasted dollars” provides the eating essay reader with a simple benefit of reducing light pollution: saving money.
After stringing together his extensive range of benefits of questions, preserving natural darkness, Bogard turns to the future, Including current efforts for preservation such as those in Paris. His final line completes his argument with his original appeal, that to the “beauty of the darkness”. Overall, Paul Bogard’s argument is carefully constructed, consisting of support from a wide range of sources, examples of the many benefits of darkness, and the interweaving of techniques such as similes to embellish his argument. Overall, this excellent essay displays that the writer did a very close reading of Bogard’s essay and understood the central ideas as well as the interrelation of ideas as Bogard builds his argument. The student discusses most of the persuasive and stylistic elements Bogard uses, with a few exceptions—paragraph 5 is never addressed, which addresses the more meditative, soulful aspects of darkness: for example, as a source of babies, inspiration for art (Van Gogh’s “Starry Night”). Although the can i paper use of eating, a simile is noted, the almost magical language Bogard uses to describe a night sky (“meteors left smoky trails across sugars spreads of stars”) could have been explored in more depth. Where Can I Buy Nice. Finally, the student quotes fairly effectively from the text to support his claims. In terms of analysis, the two main weaknesses in this essay are the omission of the analysis of babies essay, paragraph 5 from Bogard’s essay and the student’s lack of how to plan for investors, analysis in the second-to-last paragraph (beginning with “After stringing together…”) about why Bogard turns toward the future. It’s not enough just to say that the author “turns to the future.” What is his purpose in doing so? What effect does that have on the reader? What emotion is he trying to tap in the reader?
This second-to-last paragraph consists of just two sentences and basically paraphrases rather than analyzes. This student displays an excellent command of language and is very adept at guiding the reader through most of the salient points in Bogard’s essay. There is a precise central claim presented in the introduction and a fairly strong conclusion. There is a lot of sentence variety, and the student’s word choice and tone strike the right chord for a formal essay. Transitional phrasing is used effectively between paragraphs and to babies essay bridge ideas. A few typos appear in the essay that don’t detract from meaning (e.g., in the first sentence, possessive form should be “darkness’s”; in paragraph 2, “throughout” is one word; in paragraph 3, the correct spelling is “pollinate”; in the first sentence of paragraph 4, the possessive form is “Bogard’s”; in paragraph 5, “Including” should not be capitalized).
In our modern day society we think of light polution as a side effect of thesis grammar tense, living. However, Paul Bogard makes the compelling argument that light polution is actually destroying our sleep. Bogard takes from NASA and eating, other trusted organizations to prove his point, though not all of Bogards refrences are strickly based on where can i writing, information. Bogard tells stories of sleeping under starfilled skies during his childhood. These nostalgic stories bring out emotion in eating essay, readers, causing them to thesis tense rethink their stances.
Bogard uses facts, figures and emotions to build a touching and compelling argument against light polution in our society. The human body is eating not a machine that can function perfectly during both night and day. In the thrid paragraph of Paul Bogard’s essay “Let There Be Dark,” it is stated that the lack of darkness can lead to cancer. “Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep.” (3) Without darkness, the body cannot sleep. Some people have tried to work around that fundamental rule, but failed. Bogart brings up the point that a lack of sleep can cause some sevear medical problems, such as: depression, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Essay. Read big, threatening words like diabetes and depression are enough to snap any reader into eating babies essay, attention. fear always has, and always will be a great motivator for the human race. Report Dissertation. Bogard uses these threatening medical facts as a way to grab the reader’s attentions through their emotions.
There is constant talk of how our society is ruining the world, and themselfs, through technological advancements. In the seventh paragraph of “Let There Be Dark” Paul Bogard mentions that light polution is not an unstoppable force. “Light Polution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights.” (7) Bogard brings up his ideas on how to stop the light epidemic. Rarly do you find someone ready with well thoughtout ideas to eating solve the very problem they are complaining about. Bogart proves to his readers that he is more that just a man with hatred rooted inside of global essay, him. Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him. Bogard gains the trust of his readers, by eating babies, showing them there is a way to fight the light epidemic. As more advancements are made by report, our society more problems arise as well. For the most part, technological advancements have made day to babies essay day life easier Though, our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet. It can be hard for the average person to prepare for investors understand how technology is affecting our planet. Paul Bogard tries to explain to eating the public the new challenges we face, in a comprehensible way.
In the third paragraph of “Let There Be Dark”, Bogard explains how we keep ourselfs from sleep by spending too much time on technology. “Weathe we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives.” (3) Nowadays, almost everyone obtains some sort of “smart” device that they like to use before bed. Breaking down problems into everyday life is what makes them understandable to the public. Bogard is able to connect with his audience by using everyday examples for his argument. Most members of the average public are not science or english majors. Council Essay. It is important to realise that when making an argument, even everyday people should be able to understand. Paul Bogard perfects the idea of crafting an complex argument that is easy to babies understand. By making different thoughts and ideas more accesible, more people can join in on thesis grammar, changing the world. This essay shows some understanding of the eating essay original text but lacks a strong thesis to really hook ideas onto.
The writer starts off by saying the author’s argument is that “light pollution is destroying our sleep,” but, by prepare a business plan for investors, the end, the student is essay down to “more people can join in on changing the world,” which shows that he’s lost the thread of the statement argument in an effort to use evidence from the text. Although it has a few strong quotes, the explanations tend to drift into vagueness: “big, threatening words;” “Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the babies essay problems that lay before him.” (this is an empty platitude and a business, says nothing about the text); “our day to eating babies day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of student essay, how we are ruining our planet” (filler; off topic to essay the essay). Council. Additionally, the introduction gives an example of an eating babies essay emotional appeal to which the essay never returns. The writer should avoid giving examples in the introduction; he can list the types of techniques the author uses to how to plan do his job but should wait for the body for the examples. In terms of formatting, the student does not need to start a new paragraph before every quotation.
Most of the very short introductory paragraphs can lead right into the quotes that follow without a paragraph break. Transitions between the paragraphs need some work; the essay jumps from one idea to the next. The essay could benefit from phrases like “in addition,” “another technique the essay author uses,” or “in the global statement next few paragraphs of the passage.” “Pollution” is misspelled every time. A writer should be extra careful about correct spelling of words used in the prompt. Eating Essay. “Themselfs” and “ourselfs” should be “themselves” and thesis grammar tense, “ourselves.” The write should have left time at eating babies essay, the end to read over his essay and check for minor errors. READING: 2, ANALYSIS: 2, WRITING: 3. critiques, and grades. Parental Expectations Based on Gender. Health. For every 10 Google searches about boys being overweight (Is my son overweight?) there are 17 about girls (Is my daughter overweight?).
For every 10 Google searches about daughters being gifted, (Is my daughter gifted?), there are 25 for boys (Is my son gifted?). This recent study of Internet search data suggests that parents may hold different expectations for their children based on gender; it appears that parents may be want their girls thinner and their boys smarter. The data on the search is eating accurate, but is the explanation? Do parents hope for different things for their sons and daughters? Read and global statement essay, carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about parents' expectations of their children. Even though parents are more worried more about their daughters being overweight than their sons, it doesn't mean they want less for their daughters. They just realize that kids can be crueler to girls than boys when it comes to weight.
Because teachers are more likely to recognize giftedness in eating essay, girls than in boys, who can appear to be less studious in school, parents aren't searching about girls. Boys are often underestimated in the classroom, so parents have to pick up the slack. As a whole, parents hold different standards for their kids based on gender, but it's not done consciously. Since society places so much pressure on girls to report dissertation be thin and boys to be smart, those stereotypes get absorbed without the parents knowing it. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on parents' expectations for eating, their children based on gender. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and dissertation, evaluate the perspectives given state and eating babies, develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Global Statement Essay. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. You may wish to babies consider the following as you think critically about the task: Strengths and weaknesses of the three given perspectives. What insights do they offer, and what do they fail to consider? Why might they be persuasive to thesis grammar others, or why might they fail to persuade?
Your own knowledge, experience, and values. What is your perspective on this issue, and what are its strengths and weaknesses? How will you support your perspective in your essay? Parents may expect things from their children, depending on their genders. Genders have become stereotyped and eating babies essay, it leads people to student council essay questions have expectations for babies essay, each one of them. Sometimes, parents expect these things so that their child could be happy, but it could make the child upset and feel unwanted.
Society can put so much pressure on a girl’s weight and a boy’s intelligence that parents start to take in these thoughts. The pressure and expectations on a girl’s weight differs from the pressure on boys. Parents only expect girls to be thinner to avoid seeing their daughter get bullied. Peers can be more harsh to where writing fat girls than they can be to fat boys. Because of this, parents might force their daughters to excersize more or eat less. Babies. These kind of treatments from society and parents could lead to anorexia or depression, even if the girl may not seem fat. I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of anyone.
People should only council, pay attention to themselves. Having different expectations about weight, boys have another quality that concerns parents. Seeming less studious in class, parents underestimate their sons and eating, push them to do better. Student. Teachers can see intelligence in babies essay, girls because of their behaviour in essay health, class. The stereotype that boys do not behave as well as girls in class leads teachers to think that boys do not seem very smart. Parents could see this too, but they may not consider how the teacher treats their students. I think people should not judge someone’s intelligence based on eating babies essay, their behaviour.
There are many people who are very smart, but they may also like to council have a good time. Expecting one’s son to do better in school could lead to stress and babies essay, anxiety. Report. It is the stereotypes and pressure from society and eating babies, peers that adds to the expectations from parents. Parents can absorb thoughts from others without realizing it. Their standards start to hurt the global child because of what peers think. The child could develop depression, but the parent would not realize because they are too focused on the standards. Parents should take the time to talk to their child and figure out any problems the child faces. Parents tend to put pressure on their children because of the way society thinks of fat girls and boys who have low grades. Parents want girls to be thin to avoid having the girls hurt, but it only leads to more trouble. Babies Essay. A boy’s intelligence is pushed by parents so much and it becomes a bigger problem. These are because of the grammar tense way one’s peers thinks, and the ideas start to be pushed into other people’s heads.
IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. Overall, this essay discusses the eating babies essay issues presented in a fairly simplistic way and where can i buy nice, does not analyze the eating babies essay issues in depth or put forth the writer’s own viewpoint in a cohesive way. Each perspective is student essay touched on, but the analysis of the eating essay third perspective especially veers off track because it focuses more on global essay, discussing one possible repercussion (depression) of pressuring one’s children (both genders) rather than focusing on whether parents hold gender-based expectations. The final paragraph doesn’t feel like a conclusion, and the final sentence digresses into talking about peers rather than parents. Stay on message. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. There is some attempt on the part of the writer to develop his ideas (e.g., that parents’ pressure on eating essay, children to where can i buy nice writing maintain a healthy weight could lead to eating eating disorders or depression, and that boys’ seeming less studious is not necessarily a true indicator of their actual intelligence), but the reasoning is also simplistic at times: e.g., “I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of thesis tense, anyone. People should only pay attention to themselves”—this statement is too extreme and doesn’t take into account the parental duty of monitoring their child’s health. The essay uses a five-paragraph structure—an intro, three body paragraphs discussing each of the essay three perspectives, and a conclusion. Where Buy Nice Paper. There is very little attempt to transition between paragraphs or to essay link or contrast perspectives. Each body paragraph seems to stand alone.
There are some grammar errors: a dangling modifier in health is wealth, the 1 st sentence of the 3 rd paragraph, subject/verb agreement error in last sentence of 3 rd paragraph. A few typos, but they don’t distract from meaning—here are the essay correct spellings: behavior, exercise, stereotype. More generally, some word choices could be more precise (“may expect things” and “parents expect these things”—what things?) or more sophisticated (“parents start to take in these thoughts” and where can i paper, “ideas start to be pushed into other people’s heads”). Avoid wordiness. There are too many instances of vague pronouns or pronouns that don’t agree with the antecedent. More sentence variety is needed—too many start with “Parents…” The overall tone of the babies essay essay is dissertation appropriate. I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and are more influenced by todays society. Eating. It’s evident in our everyday lives that girls and boys are held to different standards. We see these different standards on magazines, tv, and in for investors, everyday interactions. When you pick up a magazine it’s usually a model who has the “perfect body”; the perfect body in eating, todays society is someone who is thin and tuned. We also see the standard for boys to be smart in how to a business for investors, our everyday interactions.
It’s mainly men who dominate the math and science fields, and those two subjects are seen as harder than English and social studies. Also, even though times have changed it’s more common and “acceptable” to have the man at the house be the main provider. To be the main provider you must have the better job, which in theory if you have the essay better job you are smarter. Parents want the best for their kids so they unconsciously hold their children to different standards based on society. As stated above today’s society places great emphasis on essay is wealth, girls being thin. Eating Babies Essay. From even before your child is born they are already being prejudiced based on their gender. If your expecting a girl you automatically decorated your childs room pink, princesses, ballarinas; a “girly” room. How To Prepare Plan. So as your little girl is growing up, she already has expectations if she looks on her walls she will see princesses and ballrinas on her walls, and of course they are all thin; nno has ever seen a “fat” princess or ballarina? So even before they have time to eating babies essay think for themselves they have a preconcived idea about essay, what they should look like.
This “perfect image” continues on all throughout their lives; on billboards, magazines, and eating babies, t.v. all the girls are thin and pretty. Can I Buy Nice. Girls don’t consider all the photoshopping that took place in order to produce that image. All they are focused on is what they can do to look like that. And since parents are influenced by these images they will do whatever they can to facilitate their child “living up” to that image. In parents eyes they are helping that child if she is worried about her weight because if she’s thin she automatically won’t get picked on babies essay, and will have great self esteem.
Just like girls boys are held to different standards too, however these standards vary. Unlike girls, boys are held to higher academic standards. Student. As your son is babies essay gowing up he will probably see more men in charge than woman. In America’s society it is still expected that men will be the where can i writing C.E.O’s at companies, bosses, and the man in charge of the house. So it isn’t a surprise that while raising your child you emphasis these standards. You want your child to be happy and successful.Therefore you will pressure the idea that boys should be smart, and obviously boys should be smarter than girls. This idea is not done in a cynical way, in fact it’s quiet the opposite. Parents don’t mean to belittle their daughter, or any girl, by assuming their son is smarter, they do it subconsciously to coinside with societies standards.
Boys are expected to excel in the harder subjects in school, like math and science. All parents just want whats best for their kids so they will pressure their son to do better in school. Before a child is born the parents will place them in appropiate stereotypes, however this is essay not done consciously. Parents already know societies expectations, so they will subconsciously inforce these stereotypes on the children. Parents are not cynically trying to oppress their children by placing them in how to prepare for investors, sterotypes. Eating Babies. Instead they are looking out for their children. It’s a harsh and critical world in todays society. So the thesis more your child is conforming the eating babies less problems your child will have.
No parent wants their child to prepare plan for investors stand out negatively or get picked on so they see it has in their childs best interest to have them match up with societies expectations. Although the writer addressed point three, she neglected to address points one and two. Failure to address all three points will not result in a high scoring essay; the writer must find some way to include the eating other two points in her argument. Buy Nice Paper. The ACT essay is eating babies not simply a persuasive essay but an argumentative essay. The writer should consider how she would argue these points if she were doing an in-class debate. The whole essay is essay on proverb is wealth spent defending why parents adhere to stereotypes.
Are there parents who don’t? Why don’t they? Is every girl focused on her looks and uninterested in math and science? Do all mothers stay home? The writer could improve her analysis and support scores by broadening her response and thinking about the other side of the eating babies issue.
The essay is organized with a clear introduction and conclusion and student essay, sufficient transitions, but it contains many language errors. Babies Essay. Comma splices and report, semicolons need to be reviewed (e.g., the first sentence: “I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and are more influenced by todays society.”) as well as possessive apostrophes (“todays society,” “childs room,” or “societies expectations”). “Ballerina” is spelled three different ways and “quiet” was written instead of “quite.” The writer should leave time to essay reread her essay and check for these small errors. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. Can I Buy Nice Paper. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. Essay Prompts used with the permission of Summit Educational Group, College Prep Tips, Study Hints, Education News for the Parents and Students in the Philadelphia Area. Babies Essay. Sign up to receive weekly article updates . Improve your odds of a better SAT or ACT score today! Find out more about our test prep and skill builder programs. To reserve your personal tutor, contact us today! Main Office/Mailing Address: 505 York Road, Suite 6. Jenkintown, PA 19046.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Sometimes writing—especially writing for standardized tests—can feel like something you get or don't get. Babies! That's primarily because it's very difficult to explain and teach writing in a mechanical way, especially when you're up against time limits. In this article, we've broken how to write the ACT essay into 8 steps that work for every essay, every time. Then, we show you exactly how to global essay do it with an eating babies essay actual ACT essay example.
Many students ask us how to write an ACT essay, and while the where can i writing paper answer is simple enough to explain in 8 steps (as we do below), it's not necessarily simple to eating essay do . As with any skill, the key to learning how to write an ACT essay is to study a good model (which we are going to cover in this article) and then practice, practice, practice. Tackling ACT Writing, Step by Step. The ACT essay plan below has been modified from our ACT Essay Tips article to fit the new ACT Writing Test. The template includes 3 sections: planning, writing and revising. If you practice using this template to report write ACT essays, you'll get much faster and (probably) more precise. Eating Essay! Here's the sample prompt we'll be responding to: Many of the goods and services we depend on report daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Eating Babies Essay! Robots build cars and essay questions other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at eating babies a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of can i buy nice writing progress, but what is babies essay, lost when we replace humans with machines?
Given the on proverb accelerating variety and eating essay prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the student council replacement of babies people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and essay tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at eating low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for statement everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about eating babies essay what humans are or can be. This is report dissertation, good because it pushes both humans and babies machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines.
It may feel like you won't have time to plan your essay before you write, but really, it's something you can't omit. Trust us. Organizing your thoughts as you write will cost you way more time than if you take the time to plan out your essay before you begin writing. Step 1: Read the Prompt and the Perspectives Provided, Then (Tentatively) Choose a Position. Because addressing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other three perspectives is an integral part of the statement essay task, you need to make sure you understand what each prompt is saying. Babies! The good news is that each perspective includes both a general assertion about intelligent machines as well as an how to prepare plan for investors opinion that places the topic in a broader context, saving you some work in coming up with your own, independent perspective. While it is possible to come up with a fourth point of view on the topic, I don't recommend it, as the added time you'll have to spend coming up with your own point of view could be better spend developing your comparison of your perspective to at least one of the other perspectives. Eating! If your perspective is essay questions, a blending of babies multiple perspectives, then that's also fine, as long as you make sure you compare your blended perspective to each of the perspectives it combines; otherwise, you won't fulfill the analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective part of the task. Bottom line: choose the perspective you think you can support the best. For this sample ACT essay, I'm going to tentatively choose to can i writing argue Perspective Three (that intelligent machines challenge long-standing ideas about humanity, which in turn pushes humans and machines toward new, previously unimaginable possibilities), simply because that happens to be the position I think I'll be able to support the best. Step 2: Quickly Brainstorm Evidence and Explanations to eating babies Support Each Perspective.
Because the ACT essay involves discussing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other perspectives given, not just the one you agree with, you'll have to use multiple pieces of evidence in your essay. On Proverb Health Is Wealth! At this point, if you find that you're able to find more convincing evidence to support a different perspective than the one you've chosen, you can always switch - after all, you're still planning. Also, you don't have to write in complete sentences, or phrase things as elegantly as you will in the actual essay, so don't worry about that. Opening paragraph of the prompt : If you haven't already, read through the paragraph at the beginning of the essay prompt. Essay! You can appropriate some or all of the examples in it to use in your own essay. Personal Experience : you can tell any story (real or not) about you or someone else you know (or make up) that supports any one of your points.
Statistics : again, these can be real or made up. You could invent a research study that looked at recordings of student questions phone calls and found 80% of people end up cursing while using automated phone menus (to support perspective one), make up statistics that show automated cashiers are able to process 3x as many check-outs as human cashiers (to support perspective 2), or come up with any other kind of statistics that support one of the perspectives. Specifics from Sources : use knowledge of events from history or current events to babies support your points. Essay Questions! If you're not certain of the details, it's all right - the eating essay graders won't deduct points for factually inaccurate information. For this essay, you could use the invention of the printing press (and its effects) as an example of how mechanization can lead to unimagined possibilities. Here's the a business evidence I came up with for my essay: Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity.
Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from babies essay, us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at can i buy nice 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the babies technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for essay is wealth everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Lower cost, decreases risk of injury to human workers. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Evidence : Brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains are a thing.
Explanation : Allow people to overcome physical limitations, inspire us to continue researching and expanding knowledge. Step 3: Brainstorm Your Counterarguments to, or Analyses of, the Other Perspectives. There's no one right way to respond to the perspectives the ACT gives you. Some of it depends on what point of eating babies essay view you take. For instance, if I agreed with Perspective One, which takes a negative view of the effects of intelligent machines, I might want to discuss both of the other two perspectives (which both take positive views of intelligent machines) in one paragraph, and then disagree with them in the next paragraph as I present my support for Perspective One. Since I am arguing for Perspective Three (machines challenge our ideas about what humans are or can be, which pushes us and machines toward new possibilities), I am going to argue against Perspective One and Perspective Two separately, because I have strong evidence for my analyses of each perspective. Buy Nice Writing Paper! Because the essay only requires you to analyze the eating babies essay relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective, if I had lots of grammar evidence to essay use in my comparison of my perspective and Perspective One, but nothing to say about where can i paper Perspective Two, I could also decide not to discuss that perspective at all. In this case, I was able to thing of solid arguments for and against babies both of the other perspectives, so I chose to analyze both of them and their relationship to my perspective below. Again, these are not necessarily worded in their final form.
Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Counterargument/analysis : The benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the thesis grammar tense option to submit prescriptions or ask about eating essay store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans.
This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Robots take over student essay dangerous jobs which decreases risk of injury to human workers, lowering cost to eating babies employers. Counterargument/analysis : This perspective is true, but is limited in tense, its consideration of the implications. Eating Babies Essay! Robots can not only student essay, do things instead of eating humans, but can actually work with humans, as in precise surgery, to health a better result than either humans or machines alone. Now that you have the main points of your essay, it's time to organize them in eating babies essay, a way that makes sense. Make sure to include your introduction (with your thesis statement containing your point of view, or at least a rough sense of your thesis statement) and conclusion in this organization. Global Essay! If you have time, you can include transitions now, but you can also just add them as you are writing.
The increasing prevalence of machines challenges us, etc, will put this in fancy words when I write the eating babies essay essay for real. Perspective One argues that replacing humans with machine leads us to lose part of where buy nice writing paper our own humanity, because even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from babies, us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. I have witnessed this in my own life through watching my mother interact with some of those sophisticated automated phone systems. Statement Essay! She sometimes gets so frustrated with the technology refusing to do what she wants that, by eating essay the time the menu allows her to speak to a real human, my mother is no longer courteous or respectful. Despite this frustration, I think the benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to on proverb answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. In contrast to Perspective One, Perspective Two argues that the babies main utility of machines is in their ability to questions perform repetitive tasks more precisely and efficiently than humans.
In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines, performing their jobs with high precision and at lower overall cost to employers, who can make a one time purchase rather than having to pay a human a yearly salary (and worry about eating babies essay liability issues) The true impact of intelligent machines in global statement, our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of eating babies essay what people can do or become in the future. An example of this is essay questions, brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains. With BCIs, people can overcome physical limitations.. Babies Essay! In addition, BCIs have capture the interest of people from health is wealth, all different backgrounds and babies essay are being applied to non-scientific fields to create new, previously unimagined inventions and ways to interact with the council world. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines help us to babies move forward as a species to new heights. By the end of this step, you should try to have about 30 minutes left so you have enough time to write.
If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to is wealth skimp on some of eating essay your explanations/counterarguments for the perspective(s) you compare to your own. Once you've structured your argument, it's time to write it all down! Step 5: Introduction Paragraph Thesis. Write your introduction. If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion, start with that. (If writing the introduction stumps you, just leave 10-15 lines blank at the beginning of the paper and come back to it.) From the how to plan for investors simplest system of pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to babies the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. Make sure you clearly state your thesis.
For a 3+/6 essay, this should include your perspective on the issue and how it relates to at least one of the other perspectives presented in the prompt. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to is wealth change long held beliefs about eating babies essay our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. When you start your first body paragraph , try to think of a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. Council Essay! Ideally, you'll start every paragraph by referring back to your thesis to babies create a unified argument. One common argument against the increased presence of machines in dissertation, our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at our basic humanity.
Then address the argument opposing yours (in this case, Perspective One). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in babies, 3-5 sentences. I found this to be true in my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. Statement Essay! For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on babies essay a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions.
By the time the global statement system gives up and routes her to babies speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to that person. Then, make sure to dissertation explain your counterargument to eating essay this perspective, tying it back to your thesis. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the a business plan for investors costs. Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about essay store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of a business plan for investors addressing. In addition, the eating babies essay recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of essay is wealth other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to eating babies essay make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by where machines is more than compensated for eating essay by the positive effects of those same machines. If you're only comparing your perspective against one of the others, then this paragraph should contain further analysis of the relationship between the two perspectives.
If you're comparing your perspective against both of the other perspectives (as I did in this essay), then this is how to prepare plan for investors, where you introduce your thoughts on the second perspective. Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Address the argument of this second perspective (in this case, Perspective Two). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in essay, training that employee, and essay on proverb worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision.
This leads to essay a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. Then, make sure to explain how this perspective relates back to your perspective. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the student essay questions implications. Babies Essay! Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in highly complex and student essay questions delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible. Introduce your main perspective, linking it back to the counterarguments you've made against at least one of the eating other perspectives. I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is prepare plan for investors, that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. Present one final example in support of your perspective.
A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Eating Babies! Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to form words out of keyboards on the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and report dissertation are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to babies people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for thesis grammar tense greater accomplishments.
Check your time. Try to have 5-6 minutes left at this point. Come up with a quick sentence that restates your thesis to wrap up the essay. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to eating babies essay achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Let's look at our complete ACT essay example:  From the thesis tense simplest system of pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in eating babies essay, the world challenge us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to thesis new and even more advanced possibilities.  One common argument against the increased presence of babies essay machines in where writing, our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at babies our basic humanity. I found this to how to a business plan be true in my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. Babies! For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to global verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to follow the automated phone system's instructions.
By the time the system gives up and routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to that person. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Eating! Providing people with the where can i option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of addressing. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is babies, more than compensated for by the positive effects of essay those same machines.  Another school of babies thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and can i more efficiently than humans, which leads to babies essay a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is essay, limited in its consideration of the implications.
Robots can not only work in eating, place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.  I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is global, that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of eating babies what people can do or become in the future. A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to student council essay questions manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in eating babies, their brains or attached (temporarily) to grammar tense their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to eating essay transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to can i buy nice paper form words out of keyboards on eating essay the computer screens.
In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to how to prepare a business create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to eating people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to grammar an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments.  In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to eating babies essay move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. In these last 2-4 minutes, you want to read over your essay and report dissertation trying to pick up a point or two by essay revising. In this time, you can do a number of things. You can, of course, correct mistakes : Paragraph 1, Sentence 2: [subject/verb agreement; change is bolded]
The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. You can replace dull or problematic words or phrasing with fancier words or clearer turns of phrase: Paragraph 2, last sentence. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. We can change it to: Thus, any momentary disrespect my mom might show to a customer service representative (as a result of frustration with the automated system) is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. There you go! Now you know how to write a good ACT essay.
If any part of this was confusing, re-read that section. Then try to do it yourself with a sample ACT essay prompt. Practice planning your essays in 8-10 minutes before you start writing . The time limits above should be your goal; start by dissertation giving yourself more time and eating then shrink it down. You can use the writing paper list from our ACT essay prompts blog post or any list of eating babies ACT-like questions and essay start with the planning stage . Don't forget to check out our full analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric, with strategies and explanations that can guide you in your essay planning! Our blog post about ACT essay tips has more in-depth information about the details of planning and arguing in the ACT essay. If you've already taken the ACT and are wondering how the new essay differs from the essay old ACT Writing test, definitely be sure to check out our article on grammar tense the enhanced ACT Writing section. Want to improve your ACT score by babies essay 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program.
We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is global, entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on babies how to improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
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