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Bankruptcy Organization Research Paper Starter. This essay investigates the topic of bankruptcy as it relates to corporate organization. Bankruptcy is a proceeding that is governed by federal law; and offers protection to debtors from format biology creditors under certain guidelines and for a certain period of time. Dreams Essay. The most common options that corporations have for gaining protection from format biology creditors are to online biology courses file Chapter 7 (liquidation) or Chapter 11 (reorganization). This article focuses on issues and lab report, topics related to Chapter 11. The term bankruptcy is often used to refer to financial failure in general.
However, in the U.S., bankruptcy has a specific legal meaning; in example of a for a research paper, fact, bankruptcy is federal law. Congress has the format power to enact uniform laws on write an essay on my first school, the subject of bankruptcy and restricts the biology ability of states to provide a discharge or collect assets that are not in essay, the state. In addition to being federal law, modern bankruptcy law has several other defining characteristics. Bankruptcy is lab report biology a collective proceeding and all of a debtor's creditors are involved. It provides a pro rata distribution of an insolvent debtor's assets among like creditors, and it provides a discharge to qualified debtors (Hansen Eschelbach Hansen, n.d.). Prior to the 20th Century, bankruptcy laws generally favored the creditor rather than the debtor; debtors were often considered criminals and essay addiction, might be punished with imprisonment or death as a result of the inability to re-pay their debt. U.S. Bankruptcy laws were originally modeled after English law, but were enacted as Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4 of the United States Constitution. Article 1, section 8 became known as Uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. Throughout the 1800s, legislation and amendments dealing with bankruptcy came about; generally in response to biology bad economic conditions. There were many reforms and amendments regarding bankruptcy during the 1800s, but it was the Bankruptcy Act of 1898 that ushered in laws that most resemble our modern legislation regarding bankruptcy.
The emergence of a credit economy and addiction, the Industrial Age changed the focus to the discharge of debt or liquidation of assets rather than punishment of the debtor (A brief history of bankruptcy in format biology, the US, 2007). Today's modern bankruptcy law has its roots in the 1898 Bankruptcy Act. This revised law focused on liquidation of a debtor's property or assets, but it also contained several chapters that dealt with the re-organization of distressed businesses. In 1938, the health Chandler Act created further amendments to format bankruptcy law with the creation of chapters X and XI. These chapters allowed public and essay, private companies to reorganize instead of lab report automatic liquidation of assets. The Chandler Act also introduced the role of the bankruptcy referee who had quasi-judicial powers (A brief history of bankruptcy law, 2002) and essay on facebook, served as an appointed representative to act as an lab report format, intermediary in the proceedings. Essay. Bankruptcy law had been part of federal legislation from the beginning of the 19th Century but it was not until the Bankruptcy Reform Act of lab report 1978 and the introduction of essay Chapter 11, that the practice of bankruptcy was legitimized as a viable option for businesses in distress to re-organize. Prior to biology the revision of Chapter 11, bankruptcy had been avoided by businesses as a ghetto and not a viable business tool for re-organization and restructuring. Essay Environmental Health Safety. The 1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act introduced a reorganization tool for corporate debtors (A brief history of bankruptcy in US, 2007). The Bankruptcy Code has been amended several times since 1978, most recently in extensive amendments in 2005 through the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 or BAPCPA. The U.S.
Bankruptcy Court handles all bankruptcy cases through the U.S. district court system. Thus, while Federal law procedurally governs bankruptcy cases, individual state laws are applied when determining property rights. State law therefore plays a major role in most bankruptcy cases. When a public company is unable to maintain operation because of crippling debt, the lab report organization may seek protection under federal bankruptcy laws. Bankruptcy laws provide guidance about the of india essay course of action that a business may take-whether it is to go out of business or to re-organize. When a public company (corporation) files for bankruptcy protection it is generally under one of the following two chapters of the Bankruptcy Code: Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code to reorganize its business and try to become profitable again. Management continues to run the day-to-day business operations but all significant business decisions must be approved by a bankruptcy court. Chapter 7, the company stops all operations and goes completely out of business. A trustee is appointed to liquidate (sell) the company's assets and the money is used to pay off the debt, which may include debts to creditors and investors (Corporate Bankruptcy, 2005). When a business fails there are a number of stakeholders who are likely to have a vested interest in what happens to the organization. If a public company files for protection under federal bankruptcy laws, investors in the company will be interested in recouping value of stocks and securities.
Of course, a corporation's creditors or debt-holders will also be seeking reparations if a company needs to liquidate or re-organize. The following list outlines stakeholders in lab report format, the order that they would typically be able to example of a outline for a recover debt or investments during bankruptcy. Investors with the lab report format least risk are paid first (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). Secured Creditors: Typically a bank is paid first. Debt is secured by assets or collateral. Unsecured Creditors: Banks, suppliers and bondholders fall into the category and have the next claim. Stockholder: Owners of the company (stocks) may not receive anything. Secured and Unsecured creditors have first claim and must be fully repaid before stockholders get anything. Securities Trading for Companies under Bankruptcy Protection. Most companies that are under bankruptcy protection do not meet minimum trading standards to on facebook trade on major market indexes. There is biology no federal law that prohibits the trading of securities of companies in bankruptcy (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005).
There are several alternatives for the trading of many words essay securities, and even an index that trades shares from companies in financial trouble. The reorganization plan will spell out your rights as an investor, and what you can expect to receive, if anything, from the company. Lab Report. The bankruptcy court may determine that stockholders don't get anything because the write first day in school debtor is insolvent. (A debtor's solvency is determined by the difference between the lab report biology value of its assets and its liabilities.) If the company's liabilities are greater than its assets, stock may be worthless (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act. The implementation of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act (also known as the Act) in 2 pg, October of 2005, signaled the largest change in bankruptcy code in 20 years (Cecil, 2005). The Act, welcomed by proponents and vilified by its detractors, has shifted the focus of the code to biology the rights of the creditor and away from debtors. Of A Topic Research. The Act's creditor-friendly provisions, in format, contrast to the old law's debtor-friendly provisions, make it much more important for prospective chapter 11 filers to think and plan ahead and significantly easier for creditors to collect on essay, certain types of debt (Chapter 11 then and now, 2006).
The Act came about as a result of lab report much lobbying by creditor banks, credit card companies and other's who wanted to essay health curb alleged abuse of the bankruptcy system. There's no doubt that changes to the code will make it more difficult for lab report format biology companies to restructure and many predict that there will be more filings for Chapter 7 (liquidation) as a result of the code changes. In one article alone, the author makes the following statements regarding the burden of the Act's new provisions on debtors(Cecil, 2006): There are some businesses that will find it almost impossible to re-organize after October 17th (date of the Acts implementation). New laws make re-organization more difficult. New rules make it more difficult to dreams essay restructure and keep companies safe from creditors. Prior to October of 2005, the U.S. Bankruptcy code was much more friendly and forgiving to debtors (companies in financial trouble).
Financially strapped companies took advantage of leniency in the code and lab report biology, more flexible timelines and schedules to an essay on my first day in investigate re-organization options. According the Securities and Exchange Comission, the following statement applies in many cases (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005): Most publicly-held companies will file under Chapter 11 rather than Chapter 7 because they can still run their business and control the bankruptcy process. Chapter 11 provides a. (The entire section is 4117 words.) Get Free Access to this Bankruptcy Organization Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the lab report chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through.
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oracle resume tutor Processing Personnel Requisitions. This procedure covers all of the actions required to fill a personnel requisition for a regular employee, including. developing a recruiting strategy identifying, qualifying, and contracting with external recruiting agencies evaluating candidates hiring new or transferring current employees. This procedure does not cover. The company provides equal employment opportunity for all applicants and employees, hiring the best qualified candidates for all positions, regardless of race, color, age, religion, sex, national origin, handicap, or disability. The Company maintains a job posting system designed to lab report format aid employee advancement within the corporation.
The use of the job posting system does not preclude the recruitment of candidates from outside the essay health Company. Every internal transfer is format, evaluated in many 2 pg, terms of lab report format, its effect on the Company's ability to service its customers. All direct recruitment costs (advertising, search/research agencies) are charged to the hiring department. Use of external recruiting agencies is generally discouraged and should be considered only under extenuating circumstances. All recruiting agencies used by the Company have a written agreement on file. All personnel requisitions for director-level positions and below must be internally posted for a minimum of seven calendar days. Candidates for employment are notified of pre-employment drug testing requirements as part of the application process.
Candidates for essay on facebook employment must consent to and pass a pre-employment urinalysis substance screening . The same drug testing procedure is used for all candidates. Former employees who were furloughed or laid off may be entitled to preferential consideration when positions become available depending on contracts with bargaining units. The Department Manager is responsible for. interviewing candidates selecting the most qualified candidate completing all required forms obtaining all required approvals. The Human Resources Representative is responsible for lab report ensuring.
the recruiting procedure is followed an appropriate recruiting strategy is developed interview teams are identified suitable candidates are available candidates are evaluated a competitive offer is made. The Human Resources Specialist is many words essay, responsible for. reviewing personnel requisitions for completeness and accuracy conducting pre-employment checks conducting reference checks updating various human resources databases. The Interview Team is responsible for. Human Resources Representative * Human Resources Specialist * The Human Resources Manager e-mail is responsible for biology ensuring that this document is necessary and that it reflects actual practice.
This activity is example topic for a paper, performed whenever the lab report format human resources department receives a personnel requisition for online a regular, full-time (or part-time) employee. Some recruiting may not be initiated by receipt of a requisition. For example, recruiting may occur in advance of the impending retirement of an format biology executive, or recruiting may occur to biology develop a pool of candidates in anticipation of format biology, routine turnover, business expansion, or seasonal demands. Whenever possible, employees will be provided the opportunity to advance within the an essay day in Company, allowing them to achieve their full potential for growth and self-actualization, consistent with the needs of the Company. The internal job posting system aids employee advancement by lab report biology, allowing employees to dreams essay apply for positions for which they believe they are qualified.
If an internal transfer will seriously hamper the Company's ability to service its customers, a reasonable transition plan should be jointly developed and lab report format implemented by the affected managers and the Corporate Director of Human Resources. The membership of the interview teams will vary depending on example paper the position being filled. Human Resources Specialist. 1. Distribute the personnel requisition to the Human Resources Representative who will recruit for this position. Department Manager and Human Resources Representative. 2. Develop a recruiting strategy for this position. Clarify job description and format biology requirements, as needed. Of A Topic Paper! Determine whether the recruitment should include former employees who were laid off. Estimate the duration of the lab report recruitment process, given the history of this position and essay the available information. If the recruitment process is likely to be lengthy and the need is format biology, immediate, the Department Manager may want to hire a temporary employee until the position is filled.
Review external recruiting sources and agree upon health safety, initial strategy. External sources may include: the company's internet home page internet job posting services newspapers, magazines and journals job fairs the Employment Development Department, vocational rehab organizations, government agencies career counseling centers colleges and universities training institutions external recruiting agencies. 3. Format! Forward recruiting strategy to Human Resources for recording in system. Human Resources Specialist. 4. Many Words Essay! Record recruitment activity. N Recruitment Recruitment Activity. Information may include: vacancy being recruited for lab report format internal and external contacts recruitment method (external agency, advertisements, internal postings) budget information actual cost general notes, e.g., how long to biology courses run ads. This information can be used to calculate the cost effectiveness of various recruitment activities and to determine which activities are most successful in attracting qualified applicants. Department Manager and Human Resources Representative.
5. Format! Identify the interview team. The team should include the courses hiring manager, peers, organizational counterparts, and a human resources representative. Decide on one team member to serve as host/hostess for the day. Assign interviewing roles to each team member. You might assign each interviewer a different area to lab report format probe, such as: 6. Forward a copy of the personnel requisition to the Human Resources Specialist who is responsible for the employee referral program. All approved requisitions will be forwarded. Positions eligible for the employee referral program should be noted on the posting. 7. Determine whether the position should be posted. Internal posting is the primary means of communicating open positions to essay addiction internal candidates.
Postings may be found on: the company's intranet home page office bulletin boards centralized reception areas widely distributed e-mail notices. Posting externally (via hard copy postal mail and the Internet) is the primary means of communicating open positions to lab report biology external sources selected as part of the recruiting strategy. External postings are sent to the state's employment department and other vocational outreach programs on a regular basis to assist in the company's affirmative recruitment efforts. High-level positions, such as president and vice-president, are not generally posted internally. If posting is required, goto task #8. Otherwise, goto task #9. 8. Forward a copy of the requisition to Human Resources Specialist responsible for the job posting system. Human Resources Specialist. 9. Add position to essay environmental health safety current external posting materials.
10. Distribute to external recruiting sources. External sources may include: the company's internet home page internet job posting services newspapers, magazines and journals job fairs the Employment Development Department, vocational rehab organizations, government agencies career counseling centers colleges and universities training institutions external recruiting agencies. Department Manager and Human Resources Representative. 11. Determine whether known candidates, or applicants, already exist. N Processes and Reports Submit Process and Report. N View Lists People By Special Information.
List People By Special Information. Potential candidates include: former employees in good standing (that is, satisfactory performance rating and no documented performance issues) who were laid off or who are on furlough internal applicants who have already been interviewed, are pre-qualified, and lab report biology have transfer requests on dreams file internal applicants who have not yet been interviewed and lab report format whose qualifications have yet to many 2 pg be determined external applicants who are employee referrals who have been pre-qualified external applicants who are employee referrals who have not been pre-qualified external applicants who have simply submitted an application or resume and are pre-qualified other external applicants. If qualified candidates are found, goto task #17. Lab Report Biology! Otherwise, goto task #12. 12. Determine whether the position requires use of an external recruiting agency. If an external recruiting agency is needed, goto task #13. Otherwise goto task #16. Human Resources Representative.
13. Select external recruiting agency. If the preferred vendor does not have an agency agreement on file, the of india standard form should be sent to them for lab report completion. Review cost structure. Environmental Health! Call vendors to discuss needs and review potential candidates they may have available.
Qualify and select external recruiting agency. The selection of the agency as well as the agency contract may need to be approved by human resources management and/or the lab report manager who will be charged for the agency fees. An approved Placement Agency Service Agreement form must be on file before any candidates from the agency are considered. 14. Obtain authorization for agency fee. 15. Contact agency to initiate process. Fully explain job requirements and interviewing process. The agency should submit qualified candidates to the Human Resources Representative, rather than to the Department Manager.
The agency should understand they are responsible for placing ads, contacting sources, and essay environmental screening resumes. If the agency is handling all of the format biology recruiting, goto task #17. Otherwise, goto task #16. 16. Recruit candidates. 17. Evaluate the pool of on facebook, candidates. At this point, external applicants have already been entered into the human resources database.
Refer to lab report biology External Applicant Processing . Be sure to essay safety review all current applications on lab report format biology file, those that may have been unsolicited as well as any collected during previous recruiting efforts. Preliminary interview required. Schedule preliminary interviews with qualified applicants. N People Enter and Maintain. M Query a Person. B Others Application. Department Manager and Human Resources Representative. 18. Dreams Of India! Identify candidates who are qualified for further interviews. Candidates may include: employees responding to internal job postings applicants referred by biology, employees applicants provided by external recruiting agencies and staff recruiters unsolicited applicants former employees who were furloughed or laid off.
Depending upon company policy and/or contracts with bargaining units, former employees who were furloughed or laid off may be entitled to preferential consideration when positions become available. If qualified candidates are identified, goto task #19. Otherwise, goto task #11. Human Resources Representative. 19. Train interview team members with information regarding proper interviewing techniques. Training should cover: legal guidance on appropriate and illegal questions how to ask open-ended questions how to cover specific issues or concerns how to solicit concrete examples of actual experiences. 20.
Schedule interviews. N People Enter and Maintain. M Query a Person. B Others Application. 21. Distribute interview packets to interview team. Packets will include: 22. Review applicant information. N People Enter and Maintain. M Query a Person.
B Others Application. 23. Safety! Conduct interviews. This task assumes that all scheduled interviews are conducted before any further action is lab report format, taken. 24. Forward results to the Department Manager. 25.
Review and many summarize interview results from the team. You will want to keep all of the paperwork together. Department Manager and Human Resources Representative. 26. Discuss results of biology, interviews. The Department Manager needs to bring all of the interview applications and essay environmental safety paperwork to this meeting. Review each application and corresponding interview notes. Set aside applications for biology those candidates who have been rejected. 27. Forward applications of rejected candidates to the Human Resources Specialist who is responsible for the applicant database.
28. Example Of A Outline For A Paper! Decide whether additional interviews are required for format biology remaining candidates. If additional interviews are required, goto task #29. Otherwise, goto task #31. 29. Determine interview team for this round of interviews. This team may include senior management and/or other individuals inside or outside the department with whom the candidate will have regular interaction. Human Resources Specialist. 30. Update applicant database. At this point, you are updating the database only for those candidates who have been rejected.
N People Enter and Maintain. M Query a Person. B Others End Application. Department Manager and Human Resources Representative. 31. Dreams! Determine the next step in the hiring process. Identify the leading candidate.
Determine whether the format biology company is ready to make an online biology offer. Determine whether additional interviews of the biology current candidates are required. Courses! Determine whether new candidates should be added to format biology the pool. If ready to example of a topic for a research make an format offer, goto task #32. If additional interviews are required, goto task #29. If additional applicants are desired, goto task #11.
Human Resources Representative. 32. Determine whether the internal posting time limit has expired. For a position that is posted internally, an offer cannot be made until the posting time has expired. If the time limit has not expired, you will have to wait and see whether any new applications are submitted before you make the offer.
If internal posting time limit has expired, goto task #33. Otherwise, goto task #32. Human Resources Specialist. 33. Complete background and reference checks.
If candidate is topic paper, currently employed by the company, goto task #34. Otherwise, goto task #35. 34. Complete internal background and reference checks for internal candidate. Review employee file. Ask the current manager to complete a reference. A Department Manager may also want to contact peers, other managers, human resources staff and format others to determine if internal candidate is qualified for online biology courses the position. 35. Biology! Complete required background and reference checks for external candidate. Ask candidate for references if references were not previously provided. Write An Essay On My First School! Ask candidate for a copy of most recent pay stub to verify salary.
Contact at format biology least three references. Obtain and review credit record, as appropriate. A candidate must specifically authorize the dreams of india investigation of this information. The release on the application form is not sufficient. Obtain and review conviction record, as appropriate.
Obtain and format review driving record, as appropriate. Verify prior employment, as appropriate. Do not contact the candidate's current employer without prior authorization. Conduct drug screening, as appropriate. Dreams! Verify education, as appropriate. Attach all of the paperwork to the application. If employment standards are met, goto task #37. Otherwise, goto task #36. Human Resources Specialist. 36.
Notify Department Manager and lab report biology Human Resources Representative if applicant has met the employment standards. If standards are met, goto task #37. Otherwise, goto task #30. 37. Inform the Department Manager and the Human Resources Representative that the candidate has met employment standards. If the candidate is an existing employee, goto task #38. Otherwise, goto task #39. Department Manager and Human Resources Representative. Meet with the employee's current manager.
Obtain all necessary approvals. Determine required start date. Determine starting salary and offer details. Consider the following when determining starting salary: the candidate's current salary the salary range for dreams of india essay the position other comparable internal salaries the lab report format biology salary desired by the candidate. You should also determine when the essay safety candidate will be eligible for format a salary adjustment, per company policy, and whether stock and other incentives should be included as part of the package.
Determine relocation details, as appropriate. Determine required start date. Determine how long the candidate will have to accept offer. 40. Forward the form to the approving authority.
If the new hire is approved, goto task #42. Otherwise, goto task #44. 42. Make verbal offer. No offer, verbal or written, can be made until the hire has been approved. The information communicated in an offer is restricted to on my first school that which is contained in the Offer/New Hire form. Completion of all required pre-employment checks must be verified before a verbal offer can be extended.
The verbal offer should highlight the offer details: Department Manager and Human Resources Representative. 43. Review candidate's decision and determine course of biology, action. If verbal offer needs to essay on facebook addiction be amended, goto task #44. If the candidate rejects the offer, goto task #45. If the candidate accepts the biology verbal offer, goto task #46.
44. Amend offer as required. Update the appropriate information on the form. Obtain whatever approvals are required. 45. Forward the applicant paperwork to the Human Resources Specialist who is responsible for updating the applicant database. Human Resources Representative. 46. Prepare or amend formal offer. Finalize starting salary and offer details.
Be sure to specify the environmental safety start date. Include an I-9 form and specify that it must be completed on or before the lab report format biology start date. Determine how long candidate will have to environmental health safety make a decision. Human Resources Specialist. 47. Send written offer letter. Include information on when the employee will receive his or her first focal point review and (if applicable) salary adjustment.
N Recruitment Request Recruitment Letter. If formal offer is lab report biology, rejected, goto task #45. If formal offer needs to be amended, goto task #46. If formal offer is accepted, goto task #48. 48. Instruct the candidate to sign and return the example outline for a research offer letter. If the lab report format biology offer letter is not signed and on facebook addiction returned within the agreed upon period of time, the biology candidate should be contacted to determine whether a problem exists. 49. Notify Department Manager of candidate's decision. 50. Return package of resumes to Human Resources.
Human Resources Specialist. 51. Example Paper! Update human resources database. N People Enter and Maintain. M Query a Person. B Others Application. N People Enter and Maintain. M Query a Person.
For the format biology new hire, the status of person type should be changed to employee. 52. Notify all interviewed candidates who were not selected. N Recruitment Request Recruitment Letter. 53. Online Courses! Record recruitment activity results. N Recruitment Recruitment Activity. End of activity. Copyright copy 2001 Your Company. All rights reserved. Oracle® Tutor Copyright 1997, 2002 Oracle Corporation.
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Sample Lab Report - Hamilton College
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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. Lab Report Format? All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is essay, a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men.
While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the lab report biology, foundation on write first day in which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the lab report format, great religions of the world.
Religion is concerned with the an essay on my school, shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the lab report format biology, human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. Addiction? The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”.
The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to lab report biology, all religions is the concept of faith. Essay Addiction? Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. Biology? It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into addiction, a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to biology, man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”.
As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the write school, root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by lab report biology knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and essay health safety, Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in lab report format a social group concurring the of a topic research, supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and biology, symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to write on my first day in, their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to format biology, agree upon write an essay on my first day in, a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers.
Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to lab report format, define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is topic for a research, well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs.
While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to format, all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the essay, great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in biology supernatural powers, (2) belief in example of a topic outline research the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to format, influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by words essay any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in lab report the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred.
But a thing is essay, holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of format thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to example topic for a paper, the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the format biology, things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. Health? When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of lab report format biology animal the cow is, but because of a host of health super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”.
It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the lab report biology, disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion.
Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of health safety life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in format biology man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. An Essay On My First? The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and format, entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in online biology courses Christ who gave his life for format biology man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions.
Prior to essay on facebook, the advent of what may be called as “the age of lab report reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the environmental health, individual a sense of biology security in this rapidly changing world.
This sense of essay safety security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the biology, suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and essay addiction, reinforcing common values and norms.
It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is lab report format, enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and on facebook addiction, this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control.
It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to lab report, knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and dreams of india essay, through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from format biology, religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and biology courses, virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the lab report format biology, religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control:
It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of 2 pg essay social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against lab report format biology society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to essay on facebook, the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and lab report format, poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of essay religion by way of giving alms and lab report format biology, assistance to write day in, the helpless and needy persons.
In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the lab report biology, foundations of medicine. Example Outline Paper? Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. Lab Report Format Biology? It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment.
In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for example of a topic outline for a research which he strives are in some measure always denied to lab report, him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of 2 pg essay condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and lab report, sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth. 8. Essay On Facebook? Religion Enhances Self-importance:
It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the lab report, infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is write first day in school, made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and biology, his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Of India? Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the biology, great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the courses, kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on format biology many occasions in relation to write on my first day in, vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and biology, so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and biology courses, kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in format the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to many words essay, humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the format, accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class.
For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to courses, support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the format biology, society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative.
Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Online Biology Courses? Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from lab report format biology, religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by example of a topic outline for a paper religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the lab report format, Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of dreams essay birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility:
Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and lab report, leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure.
Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the environmental health safety, status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and biology, ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of on facebook addiction human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines.
It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in format the name of religion. Sumner and Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. In the name of many essay God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to lab report format, the reality. Dreams Of India Essay? They have faith without reasoning which is blind.
On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the lab report format biology, scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the an essay on my first day in school, doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic.
They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to lab report format, fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Biology? Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of lab report biology society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere.
For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the on my first, impression that religion may be dislodged simply by lab report biology new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of day in men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. Lab Report Format? But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world.
Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence.
The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. Essay? “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the lab report, criticism of right and the criticism of example research paper politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into format, the criticism of many words 2 pg essay earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an lab report, atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation.
This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in environmental which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. Format Biology? A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and of india, minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of lab report format censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in write first school that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and lab report biology, ceremonies.
Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes.
In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of essay health life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by format rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Biology Courses? In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and lab report format biology, more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge.
As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is courses, worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an lab report format biology, ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and write, Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of lab report format religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to essay, secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in lab report West as well as in our society.
First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and safety, communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about lab report format secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of words religion on man and format biology, his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. Biology? As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by format natural methods, that is, by biology a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions.
As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and format biology, other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an environmental, ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and lab report, the rise of essay on facebook addiction rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in lab report a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of 2 pg its explanation in lab report format biology practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways.
Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of online biology meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and lab report format biology, modernizing India and even in the whole of write an essay on my this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the format, State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is many, not admitted. One can have religion in lab report format one’s private life.
One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at many words 2 pg one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the lab report biology, non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the example of a topic for a research paper, Indian context the lab report format biology, word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in essay addiction Europe and American political discourse?
As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the lab report format, word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by essay environmental health the word secularism in India. The original concept is lab report format biology, named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term.
The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over words essay, another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of lab report biology any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of write on my first day in neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on lab report the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references.
Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to outline for a, the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline.
Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. Lab Report? There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of of a outline for a paper religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the lab report, process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. Essay On Facebook Addiction? There is the need to secularise the format, religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of write an essay on my school change in the context of changing society.
In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of biology ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is biology, not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the lab report biology, benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’.
That is the an essay on my day in, pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on format biology testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and 2 pg, objectively measured. Religion is based on lab report faith.
Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the of a topic, basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of format biology secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.
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