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bihari ias essay Online edition of introduction essay on racism India's National Newspaper. Sunday, Mar 03, 2002. 'He is the same like God' THE other day I received by e-mail one of those Internet jokes that constantly do the rounds, particularly among expatriate Indians, whose appetite for desi humour, usually self-deprecating, knows no bounds. It purported to be an artwork essay, essay written by a Bihari candidate at the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examinations for the Indian Administrative Service. The sender quoted what was allegedly the candidate's essay on the subject of the Indian cow, which, for essay, the benefit of those fortunate enough not to be assailed daily by the Internet, I reproduce below almost in full: He is the research papers reviews, cow. The cow is a successful animal.
Also he is four footed. And because he is female, he give milks, but will do so when he is got child. He is same like-God, sacred to Hindus and useful to man. But he has got four legs together. Two are forward and two are afterwards. His whole body can be utilised for use. More so the introduction essay on racism, milk.
Milk comes from 4 taps attached to his basement. Horses do not have any such attachment. Organic Food Paper! What can it do? Various ghee, butter, cream, curd, why and the condensed milk and so forth. Also he is useful to cobbler, watermans and essay on racism mankind generally. His motion is artwork essay slow only because he is of lazy species. Also his other motion (gobar) is much useful to trees, plants as well as for making flat cakes like Pizza, in hand, and drying in the sun.
Cow is the only animal that extricates his feeding after eating. His only attacking and defending organ is the horns, specially so when he is got child. Introduction! This is done by knowing his head whereby he causes the weapons to be paralleled to the ground of the earth and instantly proceed with great velocity forwards. He has got tails also, situated in the backyard, but not like similar animals. It has hairs on the other end of the other side. Business Plans Models! This is done to frighten away the flies which alight on his body whereupon he gives hit with it. '' It goes on for a few sentences more in introduction essay on racism, similar vein, and then the e-mailer added the following footnote: We are reliably informed that the candidate passed the exam and is now an IAS officer somewhere in Bihar.'' Now let's put aside the obvious implausibilities of this story #151; the help my cover, unlikelihood of an IAS exam paper being posted on introduction essay the Web, the even greater unlikelihood that the IAS would ask its examinees to write an essay on help writing my cover the cow #151; and consider the sneering that lies behind it. The anonymous candidate is, of course, supposed to be from essay Bihar, which over the last couple of decades has become a sort of national symbol for corruption, venality and incompetence in help writing letter, Indian governance, at least amongst the urban Anglophone classes. Introduction Essay! (This phenomenon has, of artwork essay course, accelerated since the ascent of introduction essay on racism unprincipled rusticity to high office in that State, as embodied in the person of Shri Laloo Prasad Yadav.) Worse still, the e-mail claims the howler-laden essay actually got its author into the IAS. This is buying papers reviews startling, because it suggests that the stock of that institution, once considered the home of the best and the brightest in essay, our society, has fallen lower than any of us could have imagined, at least in the eyes of our nouveau-riche computer-owning yuppies and their NRI friends.
In the old days, the IAS officer was the paragon of authority and power, the prospective bridegroom who commanded the highest price on the marriage market. Today, as multinationals and dot-coms (and better still, multinational dot-coms) reward their executives with riches and perks a mere sarkari babu can only dream of, the once-august IAS man can even be portrayed as a semi-illiterate dehati who can't write a sensible English paragraph but still gets sent off to rule over the masses, at least in Bihar. Of course I may be making far too much of a silly Internet joke, but I wonder what its wide circulation (I have received it from at least three different people) does reveal about the way our society is changing. I once wrote elsewhere about the insidious divisions being promoted between India and Bharat #151; between a slice of our country that is dissertation seen as cosmopolitan, liberal, Anglophone, technologically-savvy and secular, and the undifferentiated rest that is introduction essay thought of spatial planning as traditional, casteist, superstition-ridden, backward and vernacular. It worries me that, in on racism, this era of business greater communication, complete interdependence and the levelling influence of mass television, the gulf of essay empathy between the Indians and the Bharatvasis seems to spatial, be widening rather than shrinking. There is probably room here for essay on racism, more serious sociological enquiry than I am capable of. Buying Reviews! I hope it is undertaken by someone in Bihar. But I don't want to leave the subject of classroom howlers before making the introduction on racism, defensively feeble observation that Biharis, or for that matter Indians, are not their only perpetrators. Prof. Anders Henriksson, an papers, American professor of history (at the not particularly well-known Shepherd College in West Virginia) has compiled a volume he has titled Non Campus Mentis , a collection of egregious errors taken word for word from essay term papers and exams conducted at American and Canadian colleges. His chronicle runs from such prehistorical periods as the Stoned Age to models, the more contemporary dramas of the Berlin Mall.
In his account, Julius Caesar is assassinated on the Yikes of March and bursts out while dying, Me too, Brutus! In the on racism, student essays the good professor has trawled, there are knowing references to Judyism as a monolithic religion (whose adherents, in a contemporary computer-age error, worship the god Yahoo). Columbus' benefactors, Ferdinand and Isbaella, conquer not Grenada but Granola #151; the name of an American breakfast cereal. Martin Luther King Jr. (the student even left out the surname King, confusing the Black American Nobel winner with the 15th Century German Protestant reformer) makes a historic If I Had a Hammer speech (the title of a pop song #151; King had, in reality, famously declared, I Have a Dream). Hitler is depicted as terrorising his enemies with his feared Gespacho, a conflation of the Spanish soup, or gazpacho, with the dreaded Gestapo. Kennedy resolves the Canadian Missile Crisis, not the organic food research outline, Cuban. And so on. Ignorance, in introduction on racism, other words, knows no boundaries. Not even national ones. I don't know how much they might know about the cow, but I have no doubt that none of the American children in Prof. Hendriksson's book would have got into the IAS.
Shashi Tharoor is the author of the new novel Riot. Report Dissertation! Visit him at www.shashitharoor.com. Send this article to Friends by E-Mail. Comments to : firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright ? 2002, The Hindu. Republication or redissemination of the on racism, contents of this screen are expressly prohibited without the written consent of The Hindu.
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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. We’ve decided to introduction essay, provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to the point? Then you’ve come to the right place. Below, we feature our Classic resume template. Writing! Feel free to essay, download it into a Microsoft Word document for personalized editing. We have two reasons for calling it Classic. First, it’s our oldest resume template. Second — and artwork essay more importantly it’s the most versatile one out of our entire library.
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If you lack experience and have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and business models paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and allowing for more job descriptions to be written. Resume looks highly organized and rigidly designed, appealing to those who prefer straight lines and boxes. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 1.27? Right – 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt.
Click here to on racism, download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more “modern” than others. These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only come into existence within the last 20-30 years. Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc. For this new breed of professional comes a new breed of resume template: the Modern.
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As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for business the Modern template. Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to download. The Modern template pack. Milano is essay how Italians refer to their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan. Milano is famed for artwork essay it’s rich cultural heritage, cuisine and of course, it’s fashion industry. The Milano resume template encapsulates all of introduction on racism, these characteristics to one degree or another. This template was not built from scratch, but instead has been built upon an older, more long-standing classic resume format.
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Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to download. The Milano template pack. Do you want a resume that is introduction refined, sophisticated but not pretentious? If that’s the case, then the Park template below is the perfect option for you. Download this subtle and planning classy resume template and edit it to suit your own circumstance. Image you are walking down Park Avenue on the Upper East Side. It’s fall, the smell of leaves lingers on the breeze as you walk back from essay, you favorite coffee shop. You pass a well-dressed businessman in slacks, brown oxfords and a grey cardigan. Sitting next to him on the bench is a leather folio with a resume on top, held in place by report the weight of introduction essay, a black Mont Blanc pen.
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The Park is my cover letter not just a resume template; it is an accompaniment to your refined, metropolitan lifestyle. The park makes a statement with clever use of space right away in the header of the resume, with a large margin between the top of the page and the applicant’s name. There are no unnecessary frills or decorations on The Park; it makes a statement with only essay practical applications of sensible color palettes, logical spacing and formatting and measured use of breaks and lines. No unnecessary frills or decorations One horizontal line Center aligned contact information. Left aligned text. Download The Park today to spatial planning essay, secure your job tomorrow. Click here to introduction essay, download. The Park template pack. resume tools and dissertation coach support and introduction essay on racism great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for help writing my cover the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks.
Any of the above are suitable for on racism your industry, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago’ or the ‘Modern.’ Good luck on the job hunt! Great thanks for your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to artwork essay, decide what to introduction essay on racism, use as a professional massage therapist. Thanks. Check out our ‘Elegant’ templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck!
Thanks! I appreciate it. What if I already started using one of the advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and a half ago and I am looking to break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for a television producer?
Or someone in the media industry? Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to help my cover letter, go. Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for introduction on racism executive. Which template is good for fresher seeking job in report dissertation IT industry. I’m BCA graduate. Try the ‘Chicago’ on for size. Introduction Essay On Racism! Good luck on the job hunt! which template suitable for internship?
which template is suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for organic food research paper a job at a bank? which Template is better for a job of medical field? You might want to check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt! What resume is on racism most suitable for artwork essay a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to introduction, an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is suitable for a management consultant? or an auditor? The ‘Milano’ would suit either of paper, those professions. Good luck! The decision is really a matter of preference. We suggest you try a few and introduction see which one you like best.
Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!! Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for a recent master graduate wanting to get into food research the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either…
The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples. Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and introduction essay on racism Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the help my cover ‘Park’ template.
It offers plenty of space for you to include all of your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to use for a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice. Good luck on essay, the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out help my cover our tips on how to address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the ‘Park’ template. Introduction On Racism! Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to check out our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for business plans a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of experience.
What kind of resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from a lower tier job to a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the introduction essay career change. which template wouldb good for construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the ‘Modern’ template. Best of luck finding an spatial essay, HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in customer service for a department store and then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at a resturaunt.
Go with the essay ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from planning essay, a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to introduction essay, CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example.
You can download the example and spatial essay fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for a engineer with 4 years of experience?. which resume would you recommend for college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of essay on racism, resume will you recommend for a college student, applying for a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to research outline, work? Good luck on the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for this! I’ll use the on racism Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan,
The key to writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is to: 2. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from college that pertain to the position to which you’re applying. Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the Classic B W template for your resume. Food Research! It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the introduction job done. Good luck!
With all of that experience, you have some flexibility! When in doubt, the reverse-chronological is a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the fresh start, and best of luck with the job application! Which resume would your recommend for applying for a position in a company that you currently work in artwork essay that is merging? All staff must re-apply. All of introduction essay, these resume templates are perfect for planning essay someone in your situation – it just depends on your preference. Since your goal is to prove the on racism value you bring to help writing letter, the table to your new employers, you want your resume to stand out for its content even more than its format. Introduction On Racism! Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for some ideas to make the content of your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template.
Check out this link and see if one jumps out at you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career! I’d first recommend checking out report this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Essay On Racism! What you want to do is highlight your education over professional experience since most likely that’s a stronger area for you, then proceed from there. Good luck landing your internship! Share Resume Genius’ Original Templates – Expert’s Choice
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Xcode 4 ios: Displaying Notification Messages. Use the essay on racism, powerful Xcode 4 suite of tools to build applications for the iPhone and iPad from scratch. (For more resources on iOS, see here.) The iPhone provides developers with many ways in which they can add informative messages to their applications to alert the user. We will be looking at the various types of notification methods, ranging from alerts, activity indicators, audio sounds, and vibrations. Exploring the notification methods. The applications on the iPhone are user-centric, meaning that they don't operate without a user interface and writing letter don't perform any background operations. These types of applications enable users to work with data, play games, or communicate with other users. Despite these, at some point an application will need to communicate with the user. This can be as simple as a warning message, or providing feedback or even asking the user to introduction essay provide some information. The iPhone and Cocoa-Touch use three special methods to gain your attention and are explained below:
This class creates a simple modal alert window that presents the business, user with a message and a few options. Modal elements require the user to interact with them before they can proceed. Introduction Essay? These types of artwork essay elements are displayed (layered) on top of other windows and block the underlying objects until the user responds to one of the actions presented. These types of introduction essay on racism classes are similar to food research paper outline the UIAlertView class, except that they can be associated with a given view, tab bar, or toolbar and become animated when it appears on the screen. Action Sheets do not have an associated message property; they contain a single title property. System Sound Services. This enables playback and essay vibration and artwork essay supports various file formats ( CAF , AIF , and WAV Files) and makes use of the AudioToolBox framework.
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Expand the my cover, Link Library with Libraries disclosure triangle. Introduction On Racism? Then finally, use the + button to add the library that you want to add; if you want to remove a framework, highlight it from the group and click on the - button. You can also search for the framework if you can't find it in food research, the list shown. If you are still confused on how to go about adding these frameworks, refer to the following image, which highlights what parts you need to introduction select ( highlighted by a red rectangle ): (Move the mouse over the image to enlarge.) In the above section, we looked at how we are able to add frameworks to our application.
We looked at the differences between the MediaPlayer and AudioToolbox frameworks, and the limitations of the two. Adding frameworks to your application allows you to extend your application and utilise those features in your application to avoid reinventing the wheel. When you add frameworks to your application, the system loads them into memory as needed and shares the one copy of the resource among all applications whenever possible. Now that we have added the AudioToolbox.framework to our project, our next step is to organic research paper start creating our user interface. In the next section, we will be taking a look at how we start to build our user interface and create events. User interfaces provide a great way to communicate with the user in introduction essay on racism, order to either obtain information or to display notifications.
A good interface is one that provides a good consistent flow throughout your application as you navigate from screen to screen. This involves considering the screen size of your view. Spatial Essay? In the next section, we look at how to essay add some controls to our view to build our interface. To obtain further information about what constitutes a good user interface, Apple provides these iOS Human Interface Guidelines which can be obtained at the following location: http://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/userexperience/conceptual/mobilehig/MobileHIG.pdf. Time for buying research reviews action adding controls to our View. We will be adding five button ( UIButton ) controls which will be handling our actions to introduction essay on racism display alerts and Action Sheets, playing sounds, and vibrating the iPhone. From the Object Library, select and drag a (UIButton) Round Rect Button control onto our view.
Modify the research papers reviews, Object Attributes of the Round Rect Button control and set its title to read Show Activity Indicator. From the Object Library, select and drag a (UIButton) Round Rect Button control onto our view. Modify the Object Attributes of the introduction, Round Rect Button control and set its title to read Display Alert Dialog. From the Object Library, select and drag a (UIButton) Round Rect Button control onto letter, our view. Modify the Object Attributes of the Round Rect Button control and introduction set its title to read Display Action Sheet.
From the Object Library, select and drag a (UIButton) Round Rect Button control onto our view. Modify the Object Attributes of the spatial essay, Round Rect Button control and set its title to read Play Alert Sound. From the Object Library, select and drag a (UIButton) Round Rect Button control onto our view. Modify the Object Attributes of the Round Rect Button control and set its title to read Vibrate iPhone. If you have followed everything correctly, your view should look something like the following screenshot. If it doesn't look quite the same, feel free to adjust yours: In the above section, we looked at how we are able to use the Object Library to add controls to our view and customize their properties in order to build our user interface. In the next section, we will take a look at how to create events to respond to introduction essay button events. Now that we have created our user interface, we need to create the organic paper, events that will respond when we click on each of the introduction on racism, buttons.
We first need to create an instance of our UIAlertView class, called baseAlert , which will be used by our Show Activity indicator event and will be used to dismiss the activity after a period of time has lapsed. Open the GetUsersAttentionViewController.h interface file and add the following highlighted code as shown in the code snippet below: We could have declared this within our GetUsersAttentionViewController.m implementation file, but I prefer to declare it in this class as it can be referenced throughout your application. You will notice from the code snippet above that we have made reference to two delegate protocols within our GetUsersAttentionViewController.h interface file; this enables us to capture and respond to the button event presses used by our Action Sheet and Alert Views. This will become apparent when we start adding the code events for our Alert Views and report Action Sheets. (For more resources on iOS, see here.) Time for action implementing the Show Activity Indicator method. When you are performing tasks which are taking a period of time, you will want to introduction essay on racism provide the user with some form of artwork essay notification. For tasks for on racism which we are not sure how long it will take, we can use the UIActivityIndicatorView class, which provides us with and is represented as an animated spinner graphic. The default size of the Activity indicator is a 21-pixel square, but can be changed to 36-pixels by using the UIActivityIndicatorViewStyleWhiteLarge style. In this section, we will look at models how to go about on racism implementing this class, combined with the organic paper outline, UIAlertView control:
Open the GetUsersAttentionViewController.m implementation file. Introduction On Racism? In the action event which you created for the Show Activity Indicator button, add the plans, following code: Next, we need to create an essay on racism event to buying research papers reviews dismiss the progress indicator. Introduction Essay On Racism? Create the following showProgressDismiss event and add the following code: In the above section, we looked at how we can use the writing, UIAlertView alert class and the UIActivityIndicatorView classes to provide the ability to perform animation within our view. We also took a look at essay using the startAnimating method to start animating our activity indicator. Next, we declared and instantiated an instance of our UIAlertView dialog and then declared and instantiated an instance of the UIActivityIndicator class and positioned this to be centred within our alert dialog.
We then made a call to the startAnimating method, which will display the buying research reviews, activity indicator and cause the activity indicator graphic to start animating within our alert window. After we have added this to our alert window view, we then need to introduction release our activityindicator object once it has been added to the alert view, and then set up a delay to dismiss our activity view after a period of three seconds has lapsed, by calling the showProgressDismiss method. You can call the stopAnimating method to stop the activity view from animating, but you will need to remember to set the hideWhenStopped property if you want to permanently hide the artwork essay, activity view. Finally we created our showProgressDismiss method to dismiss the introduction essay, activity indicator after a number of specified seconds lapsed by our showProgress event when the artwork essay, number of specified seconds has lapsed within the afterDelay property. When using alert dialogs that don't contain any buttons, these don't properly call back to the delegate and therefore don't auto-dismiss correctly, as we have seen in our example, so we need to manually call the dismissWithClickedButtonIndex:animated: method which will close our alert dialog and stop our activity view from animating. Have a go hero adding a second activity indicator. Now that you have a good working knowledge of how to essay go about creating activity indicators and using these within your application, the task will be to add a secondary activity indicator.
This will need to display a message after the downloading updates message stating that the updates are being finalized: You will need to create another instance of the food paper outline, activity indicator. Next, you will need to add the activity indicator to the base class view. Finally, set up a delay and create a new method to dismiss the activity indicator after a delay of five seconds has passed. Once you have that working, you will have mastered how to create an application that contains more than one form of notification to grab the user's attention. This lets the user know that updates are being finalized. Time for action implementing the Display Alert Dialog method. Our next step is to introduction on racism implement our displayAlertDialog method. This method will be responsible for research papers reviews displaying an alert message to essay on racism the user when the Display Alert Dialog is pressed.
The user will be able to respond to the buttons displayed, which will dismiss the dialog: Open the GetUsersAttentionViewController.m implementation file. In the action event which you created for the Display Alert Dialog button, add the following code: In the above section, we looked at how we can use the help writing my cover, UIAlertView alert class to essay display a series of buttons and display a message based on the button pressed. We started by buying research papers declaring and essay on racism instantiating an instance of the UIAlertView class with a variable dialog . We then initialise our alert view to display the required buttons which we would like to have displayed and then display the dialog and release the artwork essay, memory used. You will notice when we declared our UIAlertView class, it comprised of a number of parameters that are associated with this control.
These are explained below: Initializes the view and sets the title that will be displayed at the top of the alert dialog box. This property sets the string that will appear within the content area of the alert dialog box. Contains the object that will serve as the delegate to the alert. If this is set to nil , then no actions will be performed when the user dismisses the introduction essay, alert. This sets the string shown in the default button for the alert. Adds additional buttons to the sheet that are delimited by commas as shown:
otherButtonTitles:@Out to Lunch,@Back in 5 Minutes,@Gone Fishing . Responding to Alert Dialog Button presses. In order for us to be able to writing my cover capture the button that the user has pressed, we use the clickedButtonIndex method of the alertView property. This provides the button index of the pressed button and introduction on racism starts from 0. In the following code snippet, we look at how we are able to capture and respond to the actions when the user presses each of the buttons. To get started, open the GetUsersAttentionViewController.m implementation file and create the following delegate function underneath the displayAlertDialog method: In the above code snippet, we declared a delegate method which handles the artwork essay, button presses and retrieves the index of the button which was pressed. We declare an introduction on racism NSString variable buttonText , which will be used to store the title text to be displayed by organic outline our UIAlertView . In order to determine the index of the button which was pressed, we perform a switch statement and then set up the buttonText variable with the associated text. Finally, we declare and instantiate a UIAlertView object, which will be used to display the greeting for the button which was pressed. We then display the introduction on racism, dialog and then finally release the memory used. If we wanted to retrieve the selected button using its text property, we would do so as shown in the following code snippet: Finally, we looked at another way in which we can derive what button has been pressed. We declare an models object NSString buttonTitle , which retrieves the text label for the button pressed on the action sheet.
We then use the isEqualToString method to perform the comparison. Have a go hero adding additional buttons and creating the events. I will let you put into practice what you have just learnt. Our application needs some additional buttons to be added to on racism our Alert Dialog, and artwork essay also needs to have the necessary code created to display the essay, associated messages based on the button pressed. One way to do this would be as follows: Locate the displayAlertDialog method Add the necessary buttons to create within the otherButtonTitles property, separated by commas Locate the alertView:(UIAlertView *) method Add the necessary buttonText messages within the business, switch statement based on the buttonIndex of the button. Once you have that working, you will have extended your application to handle multiple buttons. (For more resources on iOS, see here.) Using Action Sheets to associate with a view. Action sheets are very similar to alerts in how they are initialized, and how the user responds to decisions.
However, action sheets can be associated within a given view, tab bar, or toolbar and essay on racism are animated when they become associated with the view onscreen. Action sheets also provide a separate button which is displayed as bright-red to alert the user to models potential deletion of introduction on racism information. Time for action implementing the Display Action Sheet method. Action sheets provide the user with a variety of organic research paper options to choose from. For instance, if a user was sending an SMS and there was a problem with it being sent, an action sheet will pop up asking the user if they want to introduction essay on racism Try again or Dismiss: Open the GetUsersAttentionViewController.m implementation file. In the action event which you created for food paper the Display Action Sheet button, add the following code: In this section, we added some code that will be called when the button Display Action Sheet is essay pressed. What this code is doing is declaring and instantiating an object actionSheet based on planning the UIActionSheet class. We then initialise our action sheet to display the required buttons which we would like to have displayed and then apply the action sheet style, then display the action sheet into the current view controllers view by using the showInView:self.view method.
You will notice when we declare our action sheet, that it comprises of a number of introduction essay parameters associated with this control, which are explained below: Initializes the plans, sheet with the specified title string. Contains the essay, object that will serve as the delegate to the sheet. If this is spatial planning set to nil , the essay on racism, sheet will be displayed, but pressing a button will have no effect except dismissing the buying reviews, sheet. This sets the string shown in essay, the default button for the alert. The title of the option that will result in information being lost. This button is represented in bright red. However, if this is report set to introduction essay nil , then no destructive button will be displayed. Adds additional buttons to the sheet that are delimited by commas as shown: otherButtonTitles:@Item 1,@Item 2,@Item 3 . As of iPhone OS 3.0, action sheets can include up to seven buttons while maintaining the standard layout. If you happen to exceed this, the display will automatically change into a scrolling table view control, with the ability to add as many options as you need. Responding to Action Sheet Button presses.
In order for spatial us to be able to capture the button that the user has pressed we use the clickedButtonIndex method of the essay on racism, actionSheet property. This provides the plans, button index of the pressed button and starts from 0. In the introduction essay, following code snippet, we look at how we are able to capture and respond to the actions when the spatial essay, user presses each of the buttons. Create the following delegate function located under the displayActionSheet method: In the above code snippet, we declare a delegate method which handles the introduction, button presses and retrieves the index of the button which was pressed based on the order in which they were added. We declare an NSString variable buttonText which will be used to store the title text to display by our UIAlertView . Artwork Essay? In order to determine the index of the button which was pressed, we perform a switch statement and then set up the buttonText variable with the associated text. Finally, we declare and instantiate a UIAlertView object which will be used to display the greeting for the button which was pressed. We then display the dialog and then finally release the on racism, memory used. Just in the same way as we did for alerts, if you want to retrieve the selected button using its text property, we would do so as shown in the following code snippet: In the above code snippet, we looked at artwork essay an alternative way by which we can derive what button has been pressed. We declared an introduction object NSString buttonTitle , which retrieves the text label for the button pressed on the action sheet.
We then used the isEqualToString method to perform the comparison. Action sheets can take on numerous different user interface (UI) styles which are derived from the UIBarStyle class and can be applied to the actionSheetStyle property as demonstrated below: This code renders the action sheet in a translucent black style. Help? If you wanted to essay inherit the style of the views toolbar provided to which you have applied a style, you could use the plans models, UIActionSheetStyleAutomatic or if you preferred to on racism go for planning a more solid-black classy finish, you could use and apply the UIActionSheetStyleBlackOpaque style: Time for action handling alerts via sounds and vibrations. Before we can play any sound or perform vibrations on our iPhone, we must first import the AudioToolBox library so that we can make use of introduction essay its properties and dissertation methods:
Open the GetUsersAttentionViewController.m implementation file and add the following highlighted code as shown in the code snippet below: Our next step is to implement our playAlertSound method. This method will be responsible for introduction on racism playing a short 30 second sound when the Play Alert Sound button is pressed. In the action event which you created for the Play Alert Sound button, add the following code: Our next step is to spatial essay implement our vibratePhone method. This method will be responsible for introduction essay making our phone vibrate when the Vibrate iPhone button is pressed. Enabling the ability to provide feedback via vibration is a very simple and writing painless technique and all that is introduction on racism required is to pass a System Sound ID value to the AudioServicesPlaySystemSound method as we will see in a minute.
In the action event which you created for report dissertation the Vibrate iPhone button, add the following highlighted code: Now that we have finally created the necessary methods within our application to enable us to play sounds and vibrations, our next step is to build our application, as shown below. Essay On Racism? We are now ready to build and dissertation compile our GetUsersAttention application. The screenshot below shows the output from each of the buttons when they are pressed: So there you have it. We have explored five different ways in which we can communicate effectively with the user. Introduction On Racism? By implementing these methods into your own applications, you will not only make your application more user-friendly, but it will also look more professional. In the above section, we looked at how to planning implement sounds and vibrations in our application to grab the introduction essay on racism, user's attention. In order for help writing letter that to happen, we declared a variable called SoundID which will be used to refer to the sound file. Next, we declared an NSString soundFile variable which will contain the path to the sound file location by using the NSBundle class method mainBundle which corresponds to introduction on racism the directory location where the sound file Teleport.wav is located and use the ofType method to identify the type of sound file we want to play. Once we have defined our path, we use the AudioServicesCreateSystemSoundID function to spatial essay create a SystemSoundID that will be used to actually play the file. This function takes the introduction on racism, following two parameters: CFURLRef and business models fileURLWithPath . The CFURLRef parameter points to the location where the file is kept.
The second parameter is introduction a pointer to the SystemSoundID class that will be used to store the memory address of the file. Spatial Essay? The fileURLWithPath method returns an NSURL object which is what our CFURLRef is expecting. Once we have set up our SoundID properly, all that is required is to play the sound which is achieved by passing the SoundID variable to essay the AudioServicesPlaySystemSound method. We finally passed the kSystemSoundID_Vibrate constant variable to our AudioServicesPlaySystemSound method to allow our device to handle ibrations which have been defined within the AudioToolBox.h header file. In this article, we learned about the different types of notification methods and modal dialogs which we can use to communicate effectively with the user. We also learned how to go about artwork essay using alerts and Action sheets and how to set the UI appearance of the Action Sheet using its various styles. We finally looked at the two non-visual means by which we can communicate with the user by essay using sounds and vibrations using the AudioToolBox framework. Simply by using this framework, you make your applications more exciting and easily add short playing sounds and vibrate the iPhone. You've been reading an excerpt of: Xcode 4 iOS Development Beginner's Guide. Get in touch here if you have any queries or issues.
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1036 Words Essay on essay on racism, Indian Economy: Adopting New Approach. After independence, India chartered a path of models economic development based on mixed economy, building a new industrial structure around the public sector and a closely monitored, regulated and controlled system where government played the introduction role of licenser in the process of building industry. There were few hiccups in between. In the late 70s Mrs. Indira Gandhi brought in small doses of liberalization. In the mid 80#8217;s Rajiv Gandhi did likewise but the real change came in help writing, 1991 when economic crises were looming large on the horizon.
India#8217;s economy could be termed as a developing economy which is characterized by introduction on racism the co-existence, in greater or lesser degree, of utilized or unutilized manpower on the one hand and of unexploited and exploited natural resources on the other. A developing economy bears the common features of technological backwardness at writing low per capita income coupled by widespread poverty, heavy population pressure, low grade productivity, high unemployment, low level utilization of introduction on racism country#8217;s natural resources, rigid social structure, pre-dominance of old beliefs, lack of opportunity for dissertation capital formation, pre-dominance of agriculture and scanty participation in international trade etc. Image Source: transformasi.org. But all this is amidst a possibility of economic development, small pockets of high rates of economic growth and affluence. It is gain saying truth what the world economy has experienced that colonization directly lead to the exploitation of the colonized country by the colonial rulers. Colonization is also a factor for the underdevelopment of a country#8217;s economy. India was a victim of the colonial feature of on racism economic exploitation for more than hundred years. The British colonial exploitation in India can be broadly divided in three periods. Organic Food Paper! They are (i) the essay on racism period of merchandised capital, (ii) the dissertation period of industrial capital which leads to the drain of Indian wealth for on racism the interest of British industry and (iii) the period of financial capital. During British period foreign capital flowed into India. However in real terms those capitals were not according to the proper needs of Indians and directly helped the capital growth of Britishers.
The overall impact of buying research papers reviews British rule in Indian economy can be summed up as stagnation of per capita income ever a long period of time, high priority to the traditional method of introduction on racism agricultural activities, repeated famines and acute poverty of handicrafts and traditional village industries defective land holding and erroneous implementation of zamindari practices etc. The basic aim of British administration in India was to transform Indian subcontinent as a consumer market for British furnished goods, Technological up gradation and development of infrastructure as well as social infrastructure were negligible. During the independence Indian economy had almost all the features of an underdeveloped economy. In the last fifty years of self-rule, a lot of policy initiative has been taken up by the government of India to upgrade the economic base of the country. Still Indian economy is gripped by poverty, population explosion, backwardness both in agriculture and industry, low grade technological development, high unemployment and wide difference between the high and low income levels. Now in India incidence of poverty is coexisting with sophisticated nuclear technology. The policy measures taken within the last five decades metamorphosed Indian economy to report dissertation break the stagnant per capita income to achieve self sufficiency in introduction, food grain production. Indian economy is a unique blend of public and private sector otherwise known as a mixed economy. It is research paper, also a dualistic economy both modern industry and traditional agricultural activities exist side by side.
The mandatory economic rights which the Constitution promises are (i) equality of opportunity unemployment or appointment to any office irrespective of race, caste and sex, (ii) all the introduction essay on racism citizens of India shall have property or carry on any occupation, trade or business, (iii) right to acquire private property by the state with compensation paid under the procedure established by law, iv) ban on begging, child labour and trafficking of food human beings. The federal economic structure of essay India includes the central government and business plans the state government within a unitary system. Demarcations of responsibilities are divided between the central and state governments. However, the residuary power is vested with the central government. Besides finance commission, other economic commissions are set up by the central government time to time to look after the parity of resources distribution among the states. Introduction Essay On Racism! Annual budgets (both general and railway) and five year plans aye the backbone of India#8217;s economic policy initiatives. Indian Economy since Independence-After India#8217;s independence long spell of stagnation was broken with the introduction of economic planning.
Since 1950s net national product at factor cost had arisen from Rs. 40,454 crore to 11,224 crores in 1999-2000. The growth of national income was 3.8 percent. India#8217;s per capita income has been running since 1950-51. Buying Research Papers Reviews! India#8217;s per capita income at current price was Rs. 160, 47. Apart from the growth in quantitative terms, there have been significant changes in India#8217;s economic structure since independence. Introduction! During the second plan priority was acceded to capital intensive manufacturing units. These industries now account for more than fifty percent of the industrial production. The transport system in India over the past four decades has grown both in terms of capacity and modernization. Then road network is one of the largest in the world as a result of spectacular development of roads under various lanes.
The total road length comprising national high ways state high ways and plans other road accounted for 24.66 lakhs km in introduction, 1996-97 progress of spatial essay shipping, railways and civil aviation has equally been impressive. Though the country is presently facing an energy crisis but this sector has also gained much in terms of production. Similarly irrigation facilities in the country have increased raising irrigated area. Since independence significant reformation has taken place in the banking and financial sector of introduction India. The process of nationalization was initiated after independence. First the dissertation Reserve Bank was nationalized in 1949, thereafter in 1995 the Imperial Bank of India, a leading commercial bank of that time, was nationalized and introduction renamed the State Bank of India.
In 1969 fourteen big commercial banks were nationalized. This act of government undermined the writing letter control of big capitalists on the finance capital. From the on racism above argument we can conclude that the Indian economy is no longer caught in low level equilibrium trap. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and artwork essay everything about Essay.
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contextual essay art Literary Terms and introduction essay Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter.
Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the spatial planning, faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Essay On Racism. Cadence is a major component of business individual writers' styles. A cadence group is on racism, a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of spatial parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of introduction poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of buying research papers a poetic line. Others insert extra space in introduction, this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of organic food a longer foreign expression and essay on racism then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and report descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to introduction essay, produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Buying Reviews. (1) An approved or traditional collection of introduction essay works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).
Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to artwork essay, refer to those works in anthologies that have come to introduction essay on racism, be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Organic Food Paper. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).
The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to introduction essay, dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the buying papers reviews, canon has always been determined in essay, part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the research papers reviews, existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an introduction essay, epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Artwork Essay. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. Essay. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Organic Research. (1) It refers generally to essay on racism, the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Organic Food Research Paper Outline. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the introduction, praise of beauty is help writing letter, a canzone. (3) Poems in essay, English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in business models, each of the essay, following stanzas.
CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and research papers reviews Restauration of Mrs. Introduction Essay On Racism. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the artwork essay, Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for essay, their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. Artwork Essay. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Introduction Essay. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf.
Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the essay, Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Essay. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to artwork essay, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at introduction essay on racism the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of planning essay Love) may have invoked the introduction essay, wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the artwork essay, phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the introduction essay on racism, most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Artwork Essay. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the essay, carpe diem tradition.
Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the food research paper outline, Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the on racism, word relates to report, the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the on racism, objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Report. Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Essay. Patterns of particular endings added to research, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the on racism, speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an artwork essay, implied metaphor that results from on racism combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and dissertation metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results.
It is far easier to give examples. On Racism. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of dissertation that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for on racism, you.
A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Planning. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on introduction essay, the death of his seven-year old son. Report Dissertation. The voice of your eyes is introduction essay on racism, deeper than all roses --e.e. Report Dissertation. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for introduction, a long time. Yeah, the buying papers reviews, sleight of my hand is introduction on racism, now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?
Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the food paper outline, imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Introduction On Racism. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by writing my cover, asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into essay, a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Planning Essay. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is on racism, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. Spatial Essay. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is introduction, said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. Plans Models. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the on racism, proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.
However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an artwork essay, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. Introduction Essay. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of report dissertation totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and introduction essay glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in spatial, the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for essay, the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.
On the other hand, in plans models, trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in introduction essay, each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in my cover, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. Introduction Essay On Racism. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of plans a line, that line is said to essay, be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to dissertation, be lined up in battle and slaughtered.
The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of introduction on racism y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in help, American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar,
The spinning-girl retreats and essay advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on help, a First-day loaf and introduction on racism looks at the oats and dissertation rye, The lunatic is carried at essay on racism last to the asylum a confirmed case. Writing My Cover Letter. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of introduction on racism cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the help writing my cover letter, protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of introduction on racism King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in writing, a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. Introduction. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the my cover letter, normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to essay on racism, be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and buying papers space out the wording of the poem.
For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the essay, fourth line. When the artwork essay, song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Introduction Essay. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of planning Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Introduction On Racism. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the help writing letter, order by introduction, flipping quickly from one page to the next and artwork essay making sure the introduction essay on racism, catchword matched appropriately.
This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. Help My Cover. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . Introduction. through pity [ eleos ] and models fear [ phobos ] effecting the on racism, proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of dissertation England (ruled c. Essay On Racism. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is planning essay, used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the introduction on racism, arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.
Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and business its artistic, scientific, and introduction essay cultural achievements. Report. To see where Charles' reign fits in essay on racism, English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the organic research, reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of introduction English drama comprising court plays that the writing my cover, Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. Introduction Essay. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the buying research, sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Introduction Essay. A. Help. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.
CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for introduction, a gathering of Tolkien and artwork essay fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of essay on racism Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Business Plans. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to essay on racism, become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and report dissertation several of introduction on racism their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the spatial planning essay, purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in introduction, place and unable to artwork essay, view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of essay actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Help Writing Letter. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the on racism, cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the report dissertation, larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.
CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to essay on racism, scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Organic Outline. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in introduction, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.
It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and buying research Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on introduction on racism, Celtic literature at artwork essay Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. Essay. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and spatial W. B. Essay On Racism. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the spatial essay, Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in introduction, the Roman government.
After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the buying reviews, census for tax estimations, but in introduction essay, latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of spatial planning essay 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in essay on racism, his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of business plans models 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). Introduction Essay On Racism. This mythic creature has gone through a number of research papers allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and essay on racism literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes.
Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and buying papers reviews handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and introduction deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in artwork essay, Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of essay on racism gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Spatial Planning Essay. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of introduction essay time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.
After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the report, centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the introduction, lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in writing, their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to introduction essay on racism, depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of artwork essay George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Introduction Essay. Among the spatial, Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Introduction On Racism. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and artwork essay nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the introduction on racism, centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and buying papers reviews the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of essay on racism Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of dissertation Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at introduction essay on racism the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and help writing letter mud at the bottom.
Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in introduction essay on racism, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to food research outline, each other. Essay. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the artwork essay, Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end.
They were usually dedicated or devoted to introduction on racism, a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the plans, most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Introduction Essay. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Organic Food Research Paper Outline. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and essay on racism motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative).
The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the my cover letter, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the introduction on racism, narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . Dissertation. These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and introduction on racism Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride).
On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for dissertation, lion). Essay. These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. Papers Reviews. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of essay on racism four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in planning essay, the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Essay On Racism. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Artwork Essay. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in essay on racism, its place (Baugh 209).
It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in spatial essay, which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the introduction essay, chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by buying papers, night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Essay On Racism. I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in buying research papers, the Greek can be found in essay on racism, Philippians 1:15-17 and spatial essay Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is introduction essay on racism, often lost in English translation. Business Plans Models. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in introduction essay on racism, English with short sections or phrases in spatial essay, Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on introduction essay on racism, Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the artwork essay, grammatical conventions for on racism, gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in spatial, reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by introduction on racism, giving the help writing my cover letter, knight silver spurs.
The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for essay on racism, services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and papers helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and introduction essay on racism bravery in deeds; loyalty to spatial planning, one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and on racism heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of help great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and on racism paintings dealing with medieval matters.
Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Spatial Planning Essay. In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds,
Until they won her. For the introduction essay on racism, best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in spatial, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in essay, classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon artwork essay, or explaining this action to introduction, the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the models, principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by introduction essay on racism, singing commenting on the deeds of the research, characters and interpreting the significance of the introduction essay on racism, events within the play.
This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by dissertation, replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on introduction essay on racism, this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the business plans, term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.
Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and introduction essay the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from planning his palms and lying on the floor in introduction on racism, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to papers, be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in on racism, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and help writing my cover letter place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in essay, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . Organic Food Paper. and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of essay this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is organic research paper outline, one example of introduction a chronicle. Report Dissertation. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.
Chronicles were popular in England after the introduction on racism, British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the artwork essay, public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . On Racism. See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of planning essay . . Introduction Essay On Racism. . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on dissertation, that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and on racism that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Buying Research Reviews. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative.
CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the essay, earth. Plans Models. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and introduction essay death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the report, departed; (c) dark and essay bloody spirits of planning essay vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and essay (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the artwork essay, dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to introduction on racism, speak of the Olympian in report, contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to introduction essay, the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. Organic Food Research Paper Outline. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem.
Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of introduction essay on racism artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to dissertation, subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at introduction essay on racism the beginning of the business, narrative, play, or poem. Essay. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Buying Research Reviews. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.
Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in introduction essay on racism, its concluding repetition of the buying, opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and introduction on racism concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to artwork essay, the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in introduction essay on racism, Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the plans, idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in essay on racism, Western culture is plans models, usually used in reference to introduction essay on racism, the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE.
Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Essay. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is essay on racism, any word-construction containing a nominative and planning essay a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the introduction essay on racism, term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and artwork essay it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.
Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is introduction on racism, known as an independent clause . If the report dissertation, clause cannot stand by essay on racism, itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from help writing my cover letter Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of introduction essay on racism scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.
Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Artwork Essay. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Introduction. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. My Cover. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Introduction Essay On Racism. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Report Dissertation. Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in introduction on racism, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the planning, next installment to find out what happens.
The term comes from the on racism, common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on help letter, the edge of introduction essay a cliff until the planning essay, story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the introduction, outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in organic research paper, a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at essay on racism which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and reviews is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from essay on racism a reader or spectator and artwork essay usually the turning point in essay, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Buying Research Papers. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and essay on racism crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of business a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite essay, of climax is help writing my cover, bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is introduction on racism, a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament.
Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and spatial planning essay critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and essay number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and planning traditional subject-matter. Introduction Essay On Racism. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of essay closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the essay, plot, the research, death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the on racism, protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Buying Reviews. An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in introduction, the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an artwork essay, act which apparently causes magic to essay on racism, fade. Artwork Essay. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in introduction, which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at essay the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to introduction, gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the business, term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. Introduction On Racism. For extended discussion of food research paper outline closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.
Examples of this type of introduction on racism clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and food research paper who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at introduction essay court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and planning Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.
By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in introduction on racism, the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Organic Outline. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and introduction on racism thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of organic research RP and introduction essay Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to plans models, be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the introduction, actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End.
The resulting sentence is artwork essay, baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the on racism, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the business, first place, the commander who runs his troops and essay his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the report dissertation, term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in essay, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and business plans models uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Introduction Essay On Racism. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.
The amateur philologist should be cautious of spatial essay false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and introduction on racism meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of reviews their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and introduction on racism the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to help my cover letter, a collective group of individuals or individual items. Introduction. What makes them tricky in models, grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the introduction essay, headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to research reviews, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to introduction essay on racism, each generation to help letter, the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.
The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the on racism, term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the business models, American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in introduction on racism, more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of writing my cover letter several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Introduction Essay On Racism. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to artwork essay, the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of on racism native peoples.
On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of spatial a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of on racism cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of writing my cover letter Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of introduction essay ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests.
Later, in artwork essay, medieval and Renaissance use, the introduction, word comedy came to models, mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an introduction essay on racism, impending disaster and have a happy ending. Essay. The comedy did not necessarily have to essay, be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in business plans, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of essay Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of artwork essay comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of essay people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. Plans. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of essay Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of artwork essay flat character in introduction essay, whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. My Cover Letter. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is essay on racism, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to organic outline, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the on racism, blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the models, ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on introduction, trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. Plans. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.
Exodus 19:12-13 and on racism Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the help my cover letter, relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on essay on racism, as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by research papers, a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to introduction essay on racism, safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place.
In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to organic research paper outline, a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of introduction a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and plans morality. The dialogue is introduction essay, usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the food research paper, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. Introduction Essay On Racism. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)
COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Artwork Essay. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of introduction essay on racism a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in planning essay, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in introduction, which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at organic research paper outline which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and introduction finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . Food Paper. . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in essay, which an research, adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of essay experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of planning essay childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.
Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and essay on racism Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and business plans other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in essay, exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in buying papers, battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by on racism, the classical historian Tacitus when he described the papers, Germanic tribes north of introduction on racism Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of writing letter Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Essay. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in organic food paper, the work.
Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of introduction on racism closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in research paper, which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Introduction Essay. This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to help my cover, as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance:
Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to on racism, a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the artwork essay, syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of on racism common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the spatial planning, fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from introduction Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.
The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and planning essay herculean comes from the on racism, muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the artwork essay, hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of introduction a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. Research Papers. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of essay on racism Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in papers, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to essay, satisfy the artwork essay, audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals.
For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of essay a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and research outline human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and introduction on racism the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of spatial classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Introduction On Racism. Many theories propose to report dissertation, explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Essay. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in spatial, which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and introduction on racism misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on models, his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads.
Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to on racism, create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the planning essay, word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff.
However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to introduction on racism, creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of planning their own. Introduction On Racism. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the artwork essay, procedure could be reversed, and essay on racism the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.
CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the writing letter, beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and introduction essay on racism oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to artwork essay, century.
Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Introduction Essay On Racism. A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and business plans models T. E. Hulme attempted to introduction essay, create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the food research paper, objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in introduction essay, some direct way connects to the meaning of the help writing my cover letter, words. Introduction Essay On Racism. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).
The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on report dissertation, the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of essay on racism concrete art at plans models Sào Paulo in introduction essay on racism, 1956. In Germany, this school of business plans poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Introduction Essay On Racism. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is spatial planning, a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the introduction essay, text from report more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Introduction. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.
Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by artwork essay, conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to essay on racism, save himself from freezing to death in spatial, Alaska) and introduction Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in organic, which King Arthur faces off against on racism his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in research outline, which the hero struggles with the introduction, loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.
For instance, in models, Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. Introduction. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of writing Rites ( Li Chi ), and introduction on racism the Spring and artwork essay Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and on racism cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in papers reviews, a dictionary.
For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and introduction essay rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to business, scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the essay, same way, the words house and food research paper home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and introduction essay personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of plans models alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is introduction essay on racism, marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and dissertation languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is introduction, not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.
CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is help my cover, characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the introduction, writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of writing my cover a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of introduction essay a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an help writing my cover letter, author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of introduction essay Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.
Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the planning essay, B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Essay On Racism. These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the help my cover letter, same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of introduction on racism a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the artwork essay, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from on racism place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is organic research, a convention in medieval romances.
It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. Essay On Racism. The use of dissertation a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and essay the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in food paper, previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of essay Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the report, crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).
See also cycle and on racism mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and research papers reviews Renaissance model of the essay on racism, universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and writing letter had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the on racism, oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.
This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in help writing, the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and essay on racism beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to reviews, develop headaches or fevers, and introduction stars to fall from the artwork essay, sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on introduction essay, the chain of being, and each would coincide with the my cover, others. For more information about introduction essay correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to research papers, a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for essay, the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Letter. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and introduction on racism Middle English texts. Help Letter. Click here for details.
COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and essay the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for organic food research paper outline, details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the essay, East , and The Letter of Alexander to spatial, Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Introduction On Racism. Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of dissertation writing by counting the essay, numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the my cover, first--of the introduction essay, same metrical length that end in a rhyme to writing letter, form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the introduction essay, volta in papers reviews, an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.
At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by introduction essay, the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to help, a court of love for his libelous depiction of essay Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to planning essay, try a rapist-knight for his crimes. On Racism. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Business Plans Models. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of introduction essay Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of buying research courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to introduction, protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the business plans, dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody.
Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to introduction essay, the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in business plans, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and on racism wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the artwork essay, so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the essay on racism, so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by artwork essay, exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the on racism, bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in buying research, a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Introduction Essay On Racism. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. Buying Research Reviews. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an introduction, advanced and spatial planning essay fully developed pidgin.
In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the introduction on racism, plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. Report. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for introduction essay on racism, rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in organic food outline, a plot. Introduction. At the moment of organic food research outline crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in introduction essay, his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.
See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the artwork essay, validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to introduction on racism, reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of artwork essay literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the on racism, bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.
For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in help writing my cover letter, thirteen of the on racism, surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in organic paper outline, manuscripts W and introduction essay r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and help my cover letter so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by introduction on racism, gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Business. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of essay on racism all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in artwork essay, the Morgan Library in introduction essay on racism, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and organic research outline select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by introduction essay, leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and organic paper outline indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by on racism, Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).
This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of food research outline Poe's poem a century later. On Racism. This modern editor chooses to emend the organic, line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. On Racism. The criticus apparatus at artwork essay the bottom of the page might consist of introduction on racism a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the report, best text for a modern reader--or at introduction least the letter, version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of on racism The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and report dissertation Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the introduction, world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of artwork essay seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the essay on racism, seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.
All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the spatial planning, structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the introduction, so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of research papers reviews 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the introduction on racism, creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. Artwork Essay. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and essay alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by research papers reviews, pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works.
Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the essay, white crane as a symbol of essay longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Introduction Essay. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is paper outline, likely the reader would understand this action represents the on racism, way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Artwork Essay. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and on racism features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the artwork essay, individual; the introduction essay on racism, negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in research reviews, late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in essay on racism, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to business plans models, the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of introduction essay closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for organic paper outline, instance.
These refer collectively to introduction on racism, many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. Organic Food Paper. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Introduction Essay On Racism. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the food research paper, Corpus Christi festival in introduction, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the buying papers reviews, York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and introduction on racism Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is buying, AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.
See octave and essay on racism rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to business models, such devices as chimes , and introduction on racism he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of food paper outline cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for introduction, an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the spatial planning, couplet rhymes with the first six lines. Introduction. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and food research Bulgarian.
The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Introduction On Racism. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of buying research papers this script, though it is more likely he invented the introduction essay, Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an my cover, abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. Introduction On Racism. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the buying papers, Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Essay On Racism. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables.
Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of artwork essay content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the introduction, syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the organic food paper outline, middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and essay sixth lines rhyme with each other.
Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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